The Genetics of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: a Common Aetiological Basis with Comorbid Disorders?
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- Karagiannidis, I., Tsetsos, F., Padmanabhuni, S.S. et al. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep (2016) 3: 218. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0088-z
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Purpose of Review
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we summarize and discuss evidence pointing to a shared genetic basis among TS, OCD, ADHD and ASD.
TS has a complex genetic aetiology, with many genes interacting with each other and with environmental factors in order to lead to the onset of symptoms. Only 10–13.5 % of cases can be referred to as pure TS (i.e. tics only); the vast majority of patients present with psychiatric comorbidities (ADHD, OCD, ASD). We review evidence that supports the hypothesis of a shared aetiological background across neurodevelopmental phenotypes.
This review highlights the importance of thinking across diagnostic categories when attempting to understand the neurobiology of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Analysing across a spectrum of intermediate phenotypes rather than on ends of a distribution may hold the promise to unravel the aetiology of TS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.
KeywordsGilles de la Tourette syndrome Genetics Autism spectrum disorders Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Obsessive–compulsive disorder OCD Cross-disorder analysis
|Funder Name||Grant Number||Funding Note|
|Seventh Framework Programme|