Investigation into keyhole-weld pool dynamic behaviors based on HDR vision sensing of real-time K-TIG welding process through a steel/glass sandwich


To obtain a deep insight into keyhole tungsten inert gas welding, it is necessary to observe the dynamic behavior of the weld pool and keyhole. In this study, based on the steel/glass sandwich and high dynamic range camera, a vision system is developed and the keyhole-weld pool profiles are captured during the real-time welding process. Then, to analyze the dynamic behavior of the weld pool and keyhole, an image processing algorithm is proposed to extract the compression depth of the weld pool and the geometric parameters of the keyhole from the captured images. After considering the variations of these parameters over time, it was found that the front and rear lengths of the keyhole were dynamically adjusted internally and had opposite trends according to the real-time welding status while the length of the keyhole was in a quasi-steady state. The proposed vision-based observation method lays a solid foundation for studying the weld forming process and improving keyhole tungsten inert gas welding.

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The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this work from the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2020B090928003), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2020A1515011050), and the Marine Economic Development Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. GDOE [2019], A13).

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Correspondence to Yong-Hua Shi.

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Cui, YX., Shi, YH., Ning, Q. et al. Investigation into keyhole-weld pool dynamic behaviors based on HDR vision sensing of real-time K-TIG welding process through a steel/glass sandwich. Adv. Manuf. 9, 136–144 (2021).

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  • Keyhole tungsten inert gas (K-TIG) welding
  • Vision-based investigation
  • Dynamic keyhole profile
  • Dynamic weld pool profile