Skip to main content
Log in

Enhancing the tensile properties with minimal mass variation by revealing the effects of parameters in fused filament fabrication process

  • Technical Paper
  • Published:
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The Fused Filament Fabrication is a revolutionary method for the manufacturing industry. However, there are still numerous challenges need to be tackled in order to standardize the procedure of printing process. In this study, the process parameters of line width, shell thickness, infill orientation and infill overlap, have been experimentally investigated over their affect on tensile strength properties and the mass of the produced samples. Design of experiments has been planned, conducted and evaluated using the Taguchi approach. A total of 25 combinations of the four printing parameters with five different settings have been set according to the L25 Orthogonal Array table. The sample parts have been printed via widely used type low-cost and open-source 3D printer. Afterwards, the printed samples are tested for their tensile strength. The best combinations of the parameters with relevant settings have been revealed by S/N Ratio analysis. In order to validate the statistical results, the sample with newly found combination has been manufactured. Then, the ANOVA has been applied in order to reveal the percentage contributions of parameters to the tensile behaviour. It has been concluded that infill overlap and orientation parameters are dominant factors over the ultimate tensile strength of the samples. As a widespread effect, generalized equations have been established and presented in order to calculate the occupied area by an overlap. By implementing the equations, the users will be able to configure their input parameters in behalf of increasing the tensile strength while controlling the material consumption.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Similar content being viewed by others

Availability of data and material

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.


  1. Wendel B, Rietzel D, Kühnlein F, Feulner R, Hülder G, Schmachtenberg E (2008) Additive processing of polymers. Macromol Mater Eng 293:799–809

    Google Scholar 

  2. Huang S, Liu P, Mokasdar A, Hou L (2013) Additive manufacturing and its societal impact: a literature review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67:1191–1203

    Google Scholar 

  3. Rayna T, Striukova L (2016) From rapid prototyping to home fabrication: how 3D printing is changing business model innovation. Technol Forecast Soc 102:214–224

    Google Scholar 

  4. Short D, Daniel B (2015) Use of 3D printing by museums: educational exhibits, artifact education, and artifact restoration. 3D Print Addit Manuf 2:209–215

    Google Scholar 

  5. Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B (2010) Additive manufacturing technologies: rapid prototyping to direct digital manufacturing. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–498

    Google Scholar 

  6. ASTM (2012) Standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gao W, Zhang Y, Ramanujan D, Ramani K, Chen Y, Williams CB, Zavattieri PD (2015) The status, challenges and future of additive manufacturing in engineering. Comput Aided Des 69:65–89

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ivanova O, Williams C, Campbell T (2013) Additive manufacturing (AM) and nanotechnology: promises and challenges. Rapid Prototyp J 19(5):353–364

    Google Scholar 

  9. Sood A, Ohdar R, Mahapatra S (2010) Parametric appraisal of mechanical property of fused deposition modelling processed parts. Mater Des 31(1):287–295

    Google Scholar 

  10. Singh D, Babbar A, Jain V, Gupta D, Saxena S, Dwibedi V (2019) Synthesis, characterization, and bioactivity investigation of biomimetic biodegradable PLA scaffold fabricated by fused filament fabrication process. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 41(3):121

    Google Scholar 

  11. Liu X, Zhang M, Li S, Si L, Peng J, Hu Y (2017) Mechanical property parametric appraisal of fused deposition modeling parts based on the gray Taguchi method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):2387–2397

    Google Scholar 

  12. Lanzotti A, Grasso M, Staiano G, Martorelli M (2015) The impact of process parameters on mechanical properties of parts fabricated in PLA with an open-source 3-D printer. Rapid Prototyp J 21(5):604–617

    Google Scholar 

  13. Rajpurohit S, Dave H (2018) Flexural strength of fused filament fabricated (FFF) PLA parts on an open-source 3D printer. Adv Manuf 6(4):430–441

    Google Scholar 

  14. Uddin M, Sidek MFR, Faizal MA, Ghomashchi R, Pramanik A (2017) Evaluating mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of fused deposition modeling acrylonitrile butadiene styrene parts. ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 139(8):081018

    Google Scholar 

  15. Magalhães LC, Volpato N, Luersen MA (2014) Evaluation of stiffness and strength in fused deposition sandwich specimens. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 36(3):449–459

    Google Scholar 

  16. Wu W, Geng P, Li G, Zhao D, Zhang H, Zhao J (2015) Influence of layer thickness and raster angle on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PEEK and a comparative mechanical Study between PEEK and ABS. Materials 8(9):5834–5846

    Google Scholar 

  17. Frank D, Chandra R, Schmitt R (2015) An investigation of cause-and-effect relationships within a 3D-Printing system and the applicability of optimum printing parameters from experimental models to different printing jobs. 3D Print Addit Manuf 2(3):131–139

    Google Scholar 

  18. Laureto J, Pearce J (2018) Anisotropic mechanical property variance between ASTM D638-14 type I and type IV fused filament fabricated specimens. Polym Test 68:294–301

    Google Scholar 

  19. Tymrak B, Kreiger M, Pearce J (2014) Mechanical properties of components fabricated with open-source 3-D printers under realistic environmental conditions. Mater Des 58:242–246

    Google Scholar 

  20. Pierson HA, Chivukula B (2018) Process-property relationships for fused filament fabrication on preexisting polymer substrates. ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 140(8):084501

    Google Scholar 

  21. Rodriguez JF, Thomas JP, Renard JE (2003) Design of fused-deposition ABS components for stiffness and strength. ASME J Mech Des 125(3):545–551

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hossain MS, Espalin D, Ramos J, Perez M, Wicker R (2014) Improved mechanical properties of fused deposition modeling-manufactured parts through build parameter modifications. ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 136(6):061002

    Google Scholar 

  23. van der Zalm E (2011) Marlin firmware. Accessed 3 Nov 2019

  24. Geng P, Zhao J, Wu W, Ye W, Wang Y, Wang S, Zhang S (2019) Effects of extrusion speed and printing speed on the 3D printing stability of extruded PEEK filament. J Manuf Process 37:266–273

    Google Scholar 

  25. ASTM (2014) Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  26. Roy RK (2010) A primer on the Taguchi method, 2nd edn. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn

    Google Scholar 

  27. Filament properties table. Accessed 3 November 2019

  28. 3D printer filament buyer’s guide. Accessed 1 Dec 2019

  29. 3D Matter (2019) FDM 3D printing materials compared. Accessed 22 Nov 2019

  30. Rocha LCS, Paiva AP, Paiva EJ, Balestrassi PP (2016) Comparing DEA and principal component analysis in the multiobjective optimization of P-GMAW process. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 38(8):2513–2526

    Google Scholar 

Download references


No funding was received for this article.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hakan Yavuz.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Technical Editor: Zilda de Castro Silveira, Ph.D.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Korkut, V., Yavuz, H. Enhancing the tensile properties with minimal mass variation by revealing the effects of parameters in fused filament fabrication process. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 525 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: