Bionic optimum design of straight cone nozzle and the effectiveness evaluation of reducing fluid resistance

  • Jiwei WenEmail author
  • Chen Chen
  • Ziwei Qi
  • Urso Campos
  • Xiangjun Pei
Technical Paper


High-pressure water jet technology is a clean and effective approach to break, cut or clean solid materials. The nozzle’s hydraulic performance determines the efficiency and quality of the high-pressure water jet technology implementation. The fluid resistance reduction technology of bionic non-smooth surface is applied to the structural design of the straight cone nozzle successfully. The circular groove is selected as the bionic unit. The selection results in the investigation and development of a bionic straight cone nozzle with the optimum hydraulic performance. Moreover, the separated nozzle machining method is successfully implemented. A comprehensive approach that implements the orthogonal experiment, high-pressure water jets’ impact forces testing and range analysis results in the optimization of the bionic straight cone nozzle’s structure. The optimal structural parameters of the nozzle as follows: the outlet diameter is 4 mm, length-to-diameter ratio is 2.5, contraction angle is 60°, the circular groove width is 3 mm, the circular groove depth is 2 mm and the circular groove number is 2. In addition, the circular grooves are uniformly arranged on the surface of the straight cone nozzle’s internal chamber resulting in reduction of the fluid resistance effectively. Under the same experimental conditions, the impact forces of high-pressure water jets produced by the bionic straight cone nozzles are greater in comparison with the impact forces of high-pressure water jets produced by the ordinary straight cone nozzles. The average rate of fluid resistance reduction of bionic straight cone nozzles is up to 2.33%. Furthermore, the results of CFD numerical simulation show that the circular grooves at the contraction and the outlet sections can also reduce the high-pressure water flow resistance effectively. In the meantime, the opposite rotating vortexes in the circular grooves are the main reason for the reduction in fluid resistance of the bionic straight cone nozzle.


Straight cone nozzle Fluid resistance reduction Bionic non-smooth surface Bionic optimum design Orthogonal experiment High-pressure water jet technology 



We acknowledge financial supports by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41602371), the Open Research Fund Program of Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring (Grant No. 2017YSJS03), the Key Project of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 17ZA0028), the Open Research Project of Ministry of Land and Resources Key Laboratory of Drilling and Exploitation Technology in Complex Condition (Grant No. DET201615), the Sichuan Science and Technology Programs of Science & Technology Department of Sichuan Province (Grant No. 2019YJ0506 and Grant No. 2018-598).


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environment and Civil Engineering, Center for Postdoctoral Studies of Geological Resources and Geological Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment ProtectionChengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring of Ministry of EducationCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Drilling and Exploitation Technology in Complex Conditions of Ministry of Land and ResourcesJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  4. 4.Trenchless Technology CenterLouisiana Tech UniversityRustonUSA
  5. 5.National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of In-situ ConversionDrilling and Exploitation Technology for Oil ShaleChangchunChina
  6. 6.College of Construction EngineeringJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  7. 7.Shenzhen Research and Design InstituteAcademy of Railway Sciences ChinaShenzhenChina

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