Experimental investigations on the incremental sheet forming of commercial steel ASTM A653 CS-A G90 to predict maximum bending effort

  • Pablo D. Valle
  • Fred Lacerda Amorim
  • Dalberto D. Da Costa
  • Paulo V. P. Marcondes
Technical Paper


Single point incremental sheet forming stands out mainly by using traditional CNC machines to produce small batches of parts or customized products. Thus, any excessive force in the process may compromise the integrity of the machining center or even damage the component itself, limiting its formability. Hence, this work presents the design of experiments to investigate the behavior of mechanical forming forces and optimize the process. The main goal was to build a mathematical function by regression analysis that best represents the theoretical model. The equation proposed here allows to locate and estimate the maximum effort Fz_peak based on five input parameters: tool diameter; wall angle; sheet thickness; vertical step size; and tool feed rate. At the same time, determine the set of data that maximize the required formability. The test was carried out using a carbide coated tool K40 and a commercial sheet steel ASTM A653 CS-A G90. The following were found: the feed rate is not significant and can be maximized to reduce production time; the tool diameter and wall angle are significant, and they have a slight influence on the forces and both depends on the design area; the vertical step size is significant and the most important parameter to leveling the process to reach maximum formability. Finally, the sheet thickness is obviously significant; however, it is also specified by the design.


Incremental sheet forming Regression analysis Maximum effort Formability Vertical step size 



The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from the Federal University of Parana (UFPR), CNPq and FECIAL Industry for supplying the tools and the rig so that this research could be carried out.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo D. Valle
    • 1
  • Fred Lacerda Amorim
    • 2
  • Dalberto D. Da Costa
    • 1
  • Paulo V. P. Marcondes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFederal University of ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Polytechnic SchoolPontifícia Universidade Católica do ParanaCuritibaBrazil

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