Retrofitting an air-conditioning device to utilize R1234yf and R1234ze(E) refrigerants as alternatives to R22

  • Vedat Oruç
  • Atilla G. Devecioğlu
Technical Paper


The thermodynamic behaviour of R1234yf and R1234ze(E) refrigerants in air conditioners having moderate and high evaporation temperatures applications was experimentally investigated in this study. In this context, the compressor oil of a split-type air conditioner was only changed and the experiments were performed under four different ambient temperatures. The evaporation temperatures of R1234yf were noted as similar to that of R22. It was found that cooling capacities of R1234yf and R1234ze(E) were lower in comparison with R22. On the other hand, the largest power consumption amount was developed for R22 among the tested refrigerants. It was determined compared to R22 that refrigerant charging amounts of R1234ze(E) and R1234yf were lower by about 16 and 12%, respectively. Basically, although the cooling capacity and power consumption of R1234yf amounts were higher than that of R1234ze(E), COP value of the latter was seen to be greater. According to the results, it is suitable that the air-conditioning systems may be alternatively charged with R1234ze(E) as a substitute for R22 as far as COP is considered.


R22 R1234yf R1234ze(E) COP 



Coefficient of performance


Global warming potential


Enthalpy, kJ/kg


Enthalpy in a process for constant entropy, kJ/kg


Mass flow rate of refrigerant, kg/s


Rotational speed for the compressor, rpm


Pressure, kPa


Cooling capacity, W


Temperature, °C


Specific volume, m3/kg


Displacement of the compressor per revolution, m3/rev


Power consumption of compressor, W


Isentropic efficiency


Volumetric efficiency

















Inlet state


Exit state





The authors are indebted to Dicle University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit for the financial support through research Project no. MÜHENDİSLİK 15-004.


  1. 1.
    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A (2018) HFOs and their binary mixtures with HFC134a working as drop-in refrigerant in a household refrigerator: energy analysis and environmental impact assessment. Appl Therm Eng. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aprea C, Maiorino A, Mastrullo R (2014) Exergy analysis of a cooling system: experimental investigation on the consequences of the retrofit of R22 with R422D. Int J Low Carbon Technol 9:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belman-Flores JM, Rangel-Hernandez VH, Uson S, Rubio-Maya C (2017) Energy and energy analysis of R1234yf as drop-in replacement for R134a in a domestic refrigeration system. Energy 132:116–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calm MJ, Domanski AP (2004) R22 replacement status. ASHRAE J 46(8):29–39Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Calm MJ (2008) The next generation of refrigerant. In: 22nd IIR international congress of refrigeration, Beijing, China, pp 1143–1153Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho H, Lee H, Park C (2013) Performance characteristics of an automobile air conditioning system with internal heat exchanger using refrigerant R1234yf. Appl Therm Eng 61:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Devecioğlu AG, Oruç V, Berk U, Ender S (2016) The investigation of the effect on the energy parameters using R442A instead of R22 in air-conditioning systems. Dicle Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Mühendislik Dergisi 7(3):551–558 (in Turkish) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devotta S, Waghmare AV, Sawant NN, Domkundwar BM (2001) Alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners. Appl Therm Eng 21:703–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diani A, Mancin S, Rossetto L (2014) R1234ze(E) flow boiling inside a 3.4 mm ID microfin tube. Int J Refrig 47:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diani A, Mancin S, Rossetto L (2015) Flow boiling heat transfer of R1234yf inside a 3.4 mm ID microfin tube. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 66:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    DuPont (2015) Thermodynamic properties of DuPont™ Freon® 22 (R22) refrigerant. Technical information. Accessed 27 Nov 2015
  12. 12.
    Fukuda S, Kondou C, Takata N, Koyama S (2014) Low GWP refrigerants R1234ze(E) and R1234ze(Z) for high temperature heat pumps. Int J Refrig 40:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Illan-Gomez F, Lopez-Belchi A, Garcia-Cascales JR, Vera-Garcia F (2015) Experimental two-phase heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop inside mini-channels during condensation with R1234yf and R134a. Int J Refrig 51:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jankovic Z, Atienza JS, Suarez JAM (2015) Thermodynamic and heat transfer analyses for R1234yf and R1234ze(E) as drop-in replacements for R134a in a small power refrigerating system. Appl Therm Eng 80:42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lemmon EW, Huber ML, McLinden MO (2013) NIST standard reference database 23: reference fluid thermodynamic and transport properties-REFPROP, version 9.1, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu N, Xiao H, Li J (2016) Experimental investigation of condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of propane, R1234ze(E) and R22 in minichannels. Appl Therm Eng 102:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Llopis R, Torrella E, Cabello R, Sanchez D (2012) HCFC-22 replacement with drop-in and retrofit HFC refrigerants in a two-stage refrigeration plant for low temperature. Int J Refrig 35:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Llopis R, Cabello R, Sánchez D, Torrella E, Patiño J, Sánchez JG (2011) Experimental evaluation of HCFC-22 replacement by the drop-in fluids HFC-422A and HFC-417B for low temperature refrigeration applications. Appl Therm Eng 31:1323–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Llopis R, Sánchez D, Sanz-Kock C, Cabello R, Torrella E (2015) Energy and environmental comparison of two-stage solutions for commercial refrigeration at low temperature: fluids and systems. Appl Energy 138:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luo D, Mahmoud A, Cogswell F (2015) Evaluation of low-GWP fluids for power generation with organic rankine cycle. Energy 85:481–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mastrullo R, Mauro AW, Thome JR, Vanoli GP, Viscito L (2016) Critical heat flux: performance of R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a in an aluminum multi-minichannel heat sink at high saturation temperatures. Int J Therm Sci 106:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Barragan-Cervera A, Moles F, Peris B (2014) Drop-in energy performance evaluation of R1234yf and R1234ze(E) in a vapor compression system as R134a replacements. Appl Therm Eng 71:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Barragan-Cervera A, Moles F, Peris B (2015) Drop-in analysis of an internal heat exchanger in a vapour compression system using R1234ze(E) and R450A as alternatives for R134a. Energy 90:1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Barragan-Cervera A, Peris B, Verdu G (2016) A review of refrigerant R1234ze(E) recent investigations. Appl Therm Eng 95:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbrí J, Mendoza-Miranda JM, Peris B (2017) Experimental evaluation of system modifications to increase R1234ze(E) cooling capacity. Appl Therm Eng 111:786–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Navarro E, Martinez-Galvan IO, Nohales J, Gonzalvez-Macia J (2013) Comparative experimental study of an open piston compressor working with R-1234yf, R-134a and R-290. Int J Refrig 36:768–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Mendoza-Miranda JM, Mota-Babiloni A, Barragan-Cervera A, Belman-Flores JM (2013) Experimental analysis of R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a vapor compression system. Int J Refrig 36:870–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Barragan-Cervera A (2013) Experimental analysis of the internal heat exchanger influence on a vapour compression system performance working with R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a. Appl Therm Eng 59:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Peris B, Barragan-Cervera A, Mendoza-Miranda JM, Mota-Babiloni A, Belman JM (2014) Shell-and-tube evaporator model performance with different two-phase flow heat transfer correlations. Experimental analysis using R134a and R1234yf. Appl Therm Eng 62:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oruç V, Devecioğlu AG, Berk U, Vural İ (2016) Experimental comparison of the energy parameters of HFCs used as alternatives to HCFC-22 in split type air conditioners. Int J Refrig 63:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pottker G, Hrnjak P (2015) Experimental investigation of the effect of condenser subcooling in R134a and R1234yf air-conditioning systems with and without internal heat exchanger. Int J Refrig 50:104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006. Official Journal of the European Union. Accessed 14 Dec 2015
  35. 35.
    Sánchez D, Cabello R, Llopis R, Arauzo I, Catalán-Gil J, Torrella E (2017) Energy performance evaluation of R1234yf, R1234ze(E), R600a, R290 and R152a as low-GWP R134a alternatives. Int J Refrig 74:269–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sethi A, Vera Becerra E, Yana Motta S (2016) Low GWP R134a replacements for small refrigeration (plug-in) applications. Int J Refrig 66:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shu G, Liu L, Tian H, Wei H, Yu G (2014) Parametric and working fluid analysis of a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC) used in engine waste heat recovery. Appl Energy 113:1188–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Torella E, Cabello R, Sanchez D, Larumbe JA, Llopis R (2010) On-site study of HCFC-22 substitution for HFC non-azeotropic blends (R417A, R422D) on a water chiller of a centralized HVAC system. Energy Build 42:1561–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang CC (2014) System performance of R-1234yf refrigerant in air-conditioning and heat pump system—an overview of current status. Appl Therm Eng 73:1412–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang Z, Wu X (2013) Retrofits and options for the alternatives to HCFC-22. Energy 59:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zheng N, Zhao L (2015) The feasibility of using vapor expander to recover the expansion work in two-stage heat pumps with a large temperature lift. Int J Refrig 56:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zilio C, Brown JS, Schiochet G, Cavallini A (2011) The refrigerant R1234yf in air conditioning systems. Energy 36:6110–6120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDicle UniversityDiyarbakırTurkey

Personalised recommendations