Optimizing performance of the Jatropha biodiesel engine using Taguchi approach

  • N. D. Gadhave
  • S. H. Gawande
Technical Paper


Development of any country depends upon the availability of transport facility. Oil is the main source of energy which is now consumed up to 30% for transport facility in the world. The fossil fuel stocks all over the world are reduced due to industrial growth, innovation in transport vehicles and expanding urbanization. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in minimizing these issues. Jatropha, locally known as ratanjot, is most considerable feedstock in India. Biodiesel (Jatropha methyl ester) of it as an environmentally and eco-friendly second-generation fuel has the potential to provide comparable compression ignition (CI) engine performance and enhance the lubrication. In this paper, the work is carried out on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio CI engine fuelled with various blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel to study vibration, performance and emission characteristics of the engine and its optimization using Taguchi method as well as multiple regression analysis. The experiments are conducted on a single-cylinder CI engine for various operating parameters with different levels, viz., compression ratio, fuel injection pressure, fuel fraction, and injection timing. The load for engine has been incremented with the step 1/3% of full load from zero to full load. This study aims first to address the optimal level of operating parameters and then evaluate by regression model of the output variables, viz., acceleration of engine head in linear and lateral directions, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and oxides of nitrogen as function of operating parameters. Taguchi’s L 16 orthogonal array is applied for reducing the number of runs and time for experiment. The obtained optimal combination of the operating parameters in the single-cylinder CI engine operated on Jatropha biodiesel blend for better output is compression ratio 15.5, injection pressure 270 bar, fuel fraction 20% and injection timing 23 °bTDC. The results demonstrate the Jatropha methyl ester can be applied as an alternative to the petroleum diesel in conventional diesel engines.


Alternative fuel Taguchi approach Compression ratio Injection pressure Injection timing Multiple regression analysis Biodiesel Performance 



Analysis of variance


Brake thermal efficiency


Brake specific fuel consumption


Before top dead centre


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Compression ratio


Compression ignition


Fuel fraction


Hydro carbon


Injection pressure


Injection timing


Nitrogen oxide


Root mean square


Specific fuel consumption


Vibration acceleration RMS (linear direction) m/s2


Vibration acceleration RMS (lateral direction) m/s2


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. 1.
    Owolabi RU, Adejumo AL, Aderibigbe AF (2012) Biodiesel: Fuel for the future (A brief review). Int J Energy Eng 2:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BP statistical review of world energy (2014) Energy academy, Heriot-Watt University, Pureprint Group Limited, Edinburgh. 63rd edn;
  3. 3.
    Bala M, Balat H (2010) Progress in biodiesel processing. Appl Energy 87:1815–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murugesan A, Umarani C, Subramanian R, Nedunchezhian N (2009) Bio-diesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:653–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ashraful AM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rizwanul Fattah IM, Imtenan S, Shahir SA, Mobarak HM (2014) Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: a review. Energy Convers Manage 80:202–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bankovic-Ilic IB, Stamenkovic OS, Veljkovic VB (2012) Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16(6):3621–3647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH (2010) A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl Energy 87(4):1083–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karmakar A, Karmakar S, Mukherjee S (2010) Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bio Resour Technol 101:7201–7210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tiwari AK, Kumar A, Raheman H (2007) Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) with high free fatty acids—an optimized process. Biomass Bioenerg 31:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Puhan S, Vedaraman N, Rambrahmam BV, Nagrajan G (2005) Mahua (madhuca indica) seed oil: a source of renewable energy in india. J Sci Ind Res 64:890–896Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Habibullah H, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rizwanul Fattah IM, Ashraful AM, Mobara HM (2014) Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single—cylinder diesel engine. Energy Convers Manage 87:250–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tuccar G, Tosun E, Ozgur T, Aydın K (2014) Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of citrus sinensis biodiesel and diesel fuel. Fuel 32:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muralidharan K, Vasudevan D, Sheeba K (2011) Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuelled variable compression ratio engine. Energy 36:5385–5393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sayin C, Gumus M, Canakci M (2013) Influence of injector hole number on the performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel-diesel fuel blends. Appl Therm Eng 61:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Al-Hasan M (2003) Effect of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission. Energy Convers Manage 44:1547–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ganapathy T, Gakkhar R, Murugesan K (2015) Influence of injection timing on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel engine. Appl Energy 88:4376–4386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hafizil M, Yasina M, Mamata R, Yusopa AF, Parukaa P, Yusafb T, Najafi G (2015) Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a diesel engine fuelled with palm-biodiesel. Energy Procedia 75:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Agarwal D, Singh Kumar, Agarwal A (2011) Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance, emissions, deposits and durability of a constant speed compression ignition engine. Appl Energy 88:2900–2907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abd-Alla GH (2002) Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines—a review. Energy Conver Manag 43:1027–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dangar H, Rathod GP (2013) Combine effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and varying inlet air pressure on performance and emission of diesel engine. J Mech Civil Eng 6:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elfasakhany A (2016) Performance and emissions of spark-ignition engine using ethanol–methanol–gasoline, n-butanol-iso-butanol–gasoline and iso-butanol–ethanol–gasoline blends—a comparative study. Eng Sci Technol Int J 19:2053–2059. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balaji D, Govindarajan P, Venkatesan J (2012) Emission and combustion characteristics of SI engine working under gasoline blended with ethanol oxygenated organic compounds. Am J Environ Sci 6(6):495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Murugesan A, Subramaniam D, Vijayakumar C, Avinash A, Nedunchezhian N (2012) Analysis on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fueled with methyl–ethyl esters. J Renew Sustain Energy 4:063116–1–063116–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taghizadeh-Alisaraei A, Ghobadian B, Avakoli-Hashjin T, Mohtasebi Seyyed Saeid, Rezaei-asl A, Azadbakht M (2016) Characterization of engine’s combustion-vibration using diesel and biodiesel fuel blends by time-frequency methods—a case study. Renew Energy 95:422–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alisaraei AT, Ghobadian B, Hashjin TT, Mohtasebi SS (2012) Vibration analysis of a diesel engine using biodiesel and petrodiesel fuel blends. Fuel 120:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jindal S (2012) Vibration signatures of a biodiesel fueled CI engine and effect of engine parameters. Int J Energy Environ 3:151–160Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gravalos I, Smoshou D, Gialamas T (2011) Vibration effect on spark iginition engine fuelled with methanol gasoline blends. J Agri Machin Sci 7:367–372Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Patel C, Lee S, Tiwari N, Agarwal AK, Lee CS, Park Sungwook (2016) Spray characterization, combustion, noise and vibrations investigations of Jatropha biodiesel fuelled genset engine. Fuel 185:410–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chiatti G, Chiavola O, Palmieri F (2016) Vibration and acoustic characteristics of a city-car engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Appl Energy 5:186–192Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shaikh MF, Umale S (2014) Noise and vibration analysis of diesel engine using diesel and Jatropha biodiesel. Int J Eng Trends 12:228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sastry GRK, Venkateswarlu K, Yousufuddin S, Rmurthy BS (2012) Performance, vibration and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with fish oil bio diesel blends. Int J Adv Eng Technol 3:116–120Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sayin Cenk, Canakci Mustafa (2009) Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine. Energy Convers Manage 50:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Uludamar E, Tosun E, Aydın K (2016) Experimental and regression analysis of noise and vibration of a compression ignition engine fuelled with various biodiesels. Fuel 177:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ganapathy T, Murugesan M, Gakkhar RP (2009) Performance optimization of Jatropha biodiesel engine model using Taguchi approach. Appl Energy 86(11):2476–2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tandale MS, Garjepatil GV, Jadhav SD (2016) Optimization of performance and emission characteristics of compressed ignition engine operated on Mahua biodiesel using Taguchi and multiple regression analysis, In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jain S, Sharma MP (2010) Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:763–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Agarwal D, Agarwal AK (2007) Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Appl Therm Eng 27:2314–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu F, He H, Zhang C, Feng Z, Zheng L, Xie Y, Hu T (2010) Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over iron titanate catalyst–catalytic performance and characterization. Appl Catal B Environ 96:408–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gadhave ND, Gawande SH (2017) Optimization of CI engine vibration characteristics operated on Jatropha methyl ester using Taguchi and multiple regression analysis. Int Rev Mech Eng 11(6):367–372Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College of Engineering and ResearchS.P. Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. E. S. College of EngineeringS.P. Pune UniversityPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations