Effect of Cr particulate reinforcements in different ratios on wear performance and mechanical properties of Cu matrix composites

  • Mahir Uzun
  • U. Ali Usca


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ratios Cr particle reinforcement on the hardness and wear resistance of Cu matrix composites produced by using (P/M) method. Cr particles were added at different weight ratios of 5, 10 and 15%, in pure Cu dust. The prepared mixtures were shaped under a pressure of 400 MPa. The shaped pieces were sintered at 900 °C for 30 min. The success of the sintering process was evaluated by examining the intensity and SEM images. Microscope studies were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness measurement method was used for determining hardness. In the SEM analysis, it was observed that the Cr phase was uniformly distributed in the Cu matrix composed of coaxial grains. In addition, an increase in the hardness was observed depending on the increase in the Cr ratio. The wear behaviors of the composite materials produced were investigated by pin-on-disk wear test. As the disk, a surface-hardened AISI 1050 steel was used. As a result of this examination, composite materials; depth of wear, losses in the weight, variation of friction coefficient, variation of wear diameters at 0.4 m/s shear rate and 1500 m shear distance were investigated by applying 50 N and 75 N loads. As a result of these investigations, it has been found that as the Cr particle reinforcement ratio in the Cu matrix composites increases, hardness and the wear resistance were increased positively.


Chromium Composite Copper Hardness Sintering Wear 



This paper was produced from project (number: MMF.3.16.001) supported by The Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Bingol University.


  1. 1.
    Yilmaz SS (2004) The effects of physical and mechanical properties of surface hardening treatments at ferrous based P/M parts. Ph.D. thesis, Manisa Celal Bayar University, Institute of Natural and Applied SciencesGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lawley A (1992) Atomization: the production of metal powders. Princeton, Metal Powder Industries FederationGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turan H, Saritas S Metal dust production with gas atomization. In: 6. International Machine Design and Manufacturing Congress, Ankara, Turkey, 1994. METUGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yilmaz SS, Unlu BS, Varol R (2008) Borlanmis ve bilyalı dovulmus demir esasli T/M malzemelerinin asinma ve mekanik ozellikleri. Makine Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 1:7–16Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muratoglu M, Demirel M (2009) Influence of non-standart geometry of plastic gear on sliding velocities. In: 5. International Advanced Technologies Symposium, Karabuk, Turkey. pp 759–764Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alpas AT, Zhang J (1992) Effect of sic particulate reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of aluminum silicon alloys (A356). Wear 155(1):83–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen R, Iwabuchi A, Shimizu T, Shin HS, Mifune H (1997) The sliding wear resistance behavior of NiAl and SiC particles reinforced aluminum alloy matrix composites. Wear 213(1–2):175–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liang YH, Zhao Q, Zhang ZH, Li XJ, Ren LQ (2014) Effect of B4C particle size on the reaction behavior of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis of TiC-TiB2 ceramic/Cu composites from a Cu-Ti-B4C system. Int J Refract Met H 46:71–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bargel HJ (1980) Werkstoffkunde. VDI-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tandon KN, Tian RZ (1993) Effect of Sb on the wear behavior of a Cu–Pb alloy. Scr Metall Mater 29(6):857–861. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barmouz M, Asadi P, Givi MKB, Taherishargh M (2011) Investigation of mechanical properties of Cu/SiC composite fabricated by FSP: effect of SiC particles’ size and volume fraction. Mat Sci Eng a-Struct 528(3):1740–1749. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barmouz M, Givi MKB, Seyfi J (2011) On the role of processing parameters in producing Cu/SiC metal matrix composites via friction stir processing: investigating microstructure, microhardness, wear and tensile behavior. Mater Charact 62(1):108–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen Z, Liu P, Verhoeven JD, Gibson ED (1996) Sliding wear behavior of deformation-processed Cu-15vol. %Cr in situ composites. Wear 195(1–2):214–222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Funkenbusch PD, Courtney TH, Kubisch DG (1984) Fabricability of an microstructural development in cold-worked metal matrix composites. Scripta Metall Mater 18(10):1099–1104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nath D, Biswas SK, Rohatgi PK (1980) Wear Characteristics and bearing performance of aluminum-mica particulate composite-material. Wear 60(1):61–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saka N, Karalekas DP (1985) Friction and wear of particle-reinforced metal ceramic composites. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wear of Materials. CanadaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yonetken A, Erol A, Kaplan H Microwave sintering and characterization of Cu–Cr–SiC composite materials. In: 24th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Metal 2015, Brno, Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Turhan H, Yildiz T, Gulenc B (2007) Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/Fe Mnp and Cu/FeCrp matrix composites produced by powder metallurgy. Fırat Univ Sci and Eng Mag 19(4):569–574Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Callister WD (2007) Materials science and engineering: an introduction. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sawla S, Das S (2004) Combined effect of reinforcement and heat treatment on the two body abrasive wear of aluminum alloy and aluminum particle composites. Wear 257(5–6):555–561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bektasoglu A, Savaskan T (2005) Zn-60Al-(1-5) Cu alaşımlarının kuru sürtünme durumundaki aşınma özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Mühendis ve Makina 46(544):31–39Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahlatci H, Candan E, Cimenoglu H (2003) The effect of SiC size on the wear behaviour of 60 vol% SiC–Al composites. J Istanbul Tech Univ Ser D Eng 2(3):37–42Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ekrem M, Senyurt MA, Duzcukoglu H, Sahin OS, Avci A (2016) The effect of multiwall carbon nanotubes upon wear and thermal stability of epoxy resin. In: 16. International Materials Symposium, Pamukkale University. pp 470–477Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    ISO 20808:2016 (2016) Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced tehnical ceramics)—Determination of friction and wear characteristics of monolithic ceramics by ballon-disk method. Technical Committee, ISO/TC 206 Fine ceramics Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ozgun O, Balalan Z, Ekinci O (2016) Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu matrix composites with SiC particle reinforcements at different ratios. In: International Material Science and Technology Conference, Nevsehir, Turkey. pp 229–233Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhan YZ, Zhang G (2004) Mechanical mixing and wear-debris formation in the dry sliding wear of copper matrix composite. Tribol Lett 17(3):581–592. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhan YZ, Zhang GD, Zhuang YH (2004) Wear transitions in particulate reinforced copper matrix composites. Mater Trans 45(7):2332–2338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering and Architecture Department of Mechanical EngineeringBingol UniversityBingolTurkey

Personalised recommendations