Dependence of plastic strain and microstructure on elastic modulus reduction in advanced high-strength steels

  • Sérgio Fernando Lajarin
  • Chetan P. Nikhare
  • Paulo Victor P. Marcondes
Technical Paper
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Increase in the use of the advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) is an interesting alternative to automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption. However, it has been limited due to challenges in formability, tool life, and springback. The springback is pointed in the literature as one of the challenges that involves the mass production of structural components and the aspects that shows influence are still not fully understood. There is still a gap in the literature to analyze the elastic modulus variation during unloading (also called chord modulus). Therefore, this study experimentally examines the variation of elastic modulus in conjunction with plastic strain and initial microstructure of various automotive steels. For all AHSS, it was found that the elastic modulus decreases during loading and unloading with respect to plastic strain. It was observed that the microstructure of AHSS greatly affects the reduction in elastic modulus upon deformation. It was also found that the degradation of elastic modulus also affected by the anisotropy of the material.

Keywords

Advanced high-strength steel Springback Elastic modulus Microstructure Anisotropy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Usiminas and Arcelor Mittal companies for supplying the steels used in this study and CNPq Agency (Brazil) for a grant.

References

  1. 1.
    Nikhare C, Weiss M, Hodgson PD (2009) Crash investigation of side intrusion beam during high and low pressure tube hydroforming. In: Proceedings of international conference of tube hydroforming conference, pp 107–112Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernert W et al (2008) Advanced high-strength steel product and process applications guidelines. Auto/steel partnershipGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asgari SA et al (2008) Statistical analysis of finite element modeling in sheet metal forming and springback analysis. J Mater Proc Technol 203(1):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nikhare C et al (2008) Experimental and numerical evaluation of forming and fracture behaviour of high strength steel. In: Proceedings of the conference on new developments on mettalurgy and applications of high strength steelsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Placidi F et al (2008) An efficient approach to springback compensation for ultra high strength steel structural components for the automotive field. In: International conference on new developments on metallurgy and applications of high strength steels, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gan W, Wagoner RH (2004) Die design method for sheet springback. Int J Mech Sci 46(7):1097–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tekıner Z (2004) An experimental study on the examination of springback of sheet metals with several thicknesses and properties in bending dies. J Mater Proc Technol 145(1):109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Broggiato GB et al (2012) Comparison between two experimental procedures for cyclic plastic characterization of high strength steel sheets. J Eng Mater Technol 134(4):041008-1-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Viswanathan V, Kinsey B, Cao J (2003) Experimental implementation of neural network springback control for sheet metal forming. J Eng Mater Technol 125(2):141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choi KS et al (2009) Influence of manufacturing processes and microstructures on the performance and manufacturability of advanced high strength steels. J Eng Mater Technol 131(4):041205-1-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sung JH, Kim JH, Wagoner RH (2012) The draw-bend fracture test and its application to dual-phase and transformation induced plasticity steels. J Eng Mater Technol 134(4):041015-1-15Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Worldautosteel (2009) Advanced high strength steel (AHSS) application guidelines 4. www.worldautosteel.org
  13. 13.
    Andersson A (2005) Numerical and experimental evaluation of springback in a front side member. J Mater Proc Technol 169(3):352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sever NK et al (2012) Springback prediction in bending of AHSS-DP 780. In: Proceedings of NAMRI/SME 40Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lems W (1963) The change of Young’s modulus after deformation at low temperature and its recovery. Doctoral dissertation, TU Delft, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morestin F, Boivin M (1996) On the necessity of taking into account the variation in the Young modulus with plastic strain in elastic–plastic software. N Eng Des 162(1):107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cleveland RM, Ghosh AK (2002) Inelastic effects on springback in metals. Int J Plast 18(5):769–785CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Luo L, Ghosh AK (2003) Elastic and inelastic recovery after plastic deformation of DQSK steel sheet. J Eng Mater Technol 125(3):237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang M, Akiyama Y, Sasaki T (2004) Evaluation of change in material properties due to plastic deformation. J Mater Proc Technol 151(1):232–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perez R, Benito JA, Prado JM (2005) Study of the inelastic response of TRIP steels after plastic deformation. ISIJ Int 45(12):1925–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benito JA et al (2005) Change of Young’s modulus of cold-deformed pure iron in a tensile test. Metall Mater Trans A 36(12):3317–3324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim H et al (2013) Nonlinear elastic behaviors of low and high strength steels in unloading and reloading. Mater Sci Eng A 562:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chongthairungruang B et al (2012) Experimental and numerical investigation of springback effect for advanced high strength dual phase steel. Mater Des 39:318–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim H et al (2011) Effects of variable elastic modulus on springback predictions in stamping advanced high-strength steels (AHSS). In: 10th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity (ICTP) pp 628–633. ISBN: 978-3-514-00784-0Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Toros S, Polat A, Ozturk F (2012) Formability and springback characterization of TRIP800 advanced high strength steel. Mater Des 41:298–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chongthairungruang B et al (2012) Experimental and numerical investigation of springback effect for advanced high strength dual phase steel. Mater Des 39:318–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang X, Choi C, Sever NK, Altan T (2016) Prediction of springback in air-bending of advanced high strength steel (DP780) considering Young’s modulus variation and with a piecewise hardening function. Int J Mech Sci 105:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghaei A, Green DE, Aryanpour A (2015) Springback simulation of advanced high strength steels considering nonlinear elastic unloading–reloading behavior. Mater Des 88:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Song JH, Huh H, Kim SH (2007) Stress-based springback reduction of a channel shaped auto-body part with high-strength steel using response surface methodology. J Eng Mater Technol 129(3):397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lim H et al (2012) Time-dependent springback of advanced high strength steels. Int J Plast 29:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sung JH, Kim JH, Wagoner RH (2010) A plastic constitutive equation incorporating strain, strain-rate, and temperature. Int J Plast 26(12):1746–1771CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sun L, Wagoner RH (2011) Complex unloading behavior: nature of the deformation and its consistent constitutive representation. Int J Plast 27(7):1126–1144CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun L, Kim JH, Wagoner RH (2009) Non-proportional loading of dual-phase steels and its constitutive representation, IDDRG. School Mines, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gan W, Babu SS, Kapustka N, Wagoner RH (2006) Microstructural effects on the springback of advanced high-strength steel. Metall Mater Trans A 37(11):3221–3231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lajarin SF, Marcondes PV (2013) Influence of computational parameters and nonlinear unloading behavior on springback simulation. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 35(2):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cobo MR, Pla M, Hernández Rossi R, Páramo B, Antonio J (2009) Analysis of the decrease of the apparent Young’s modulus of advanced high strength steels and its effect in bending simulations. In: IDDRG 2009 international conference, pp 109–117Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    NBR 6673, Flat steel products—determination of the mechanical properties of traction, ABNT, Rio de Janeiro, July 1981 (in Portugues)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoshida F, Uemori T (2002) A model of large-strain cyclic plasticity describing the bauschinger effect and work hardening stagnation. Int J Plast 18:661–686CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yoshida F, Uemori T, Fujiwara K (2002) Elastic–plastic behaviour of steel sheets underin-plane cyclic tension-compression at large strain. Int J Plast 18:633–659CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oliver S, Jones TB, Fourlaris G (2007) Dual phase versus TRIP strip steels: microstructural changes as a consequence of quasi-static and dynamic tensile testing. Mater Charact 58(4):390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang W et al (2013) Experimental study on high strain rate behavior of high strength 600–1000 MPa dual phase steels and 1200 MPa fully martensitic steels. Mater Des 47:510–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eggertsen PA, Mattiasson K (2010) On constitutive modeling for springback analysis. Int J Mech Sci 52(6):804–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chatterjee S (2006) Transformation in TRIP-assisted steels: microstructure and properties. Ph.D. thesis, Darwin College, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sérgio Fernando Lajarin
    • 1
  • Chetan P. Nikhare
    • 2
  • Paulo Victor P. Marcondes
    • 1
  1. 1.DEMECUniversidade Federal do ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Behrend CollegeThe Pennsylvania State UniversityErieUSA

Personalised recommendations