Modeling of pressure line behavior of a common rail diesel engine due to injection and fuel variation

  • Mostafa MohebbiEmail author
  • Azhar Abdul Aziz
  • Arman Hamidi
  • Alireza Hajialimohammadi
  • Vahid Hosseini
Technical Paper


Common rail diesel engines with electronic fuel injection can accurately meter the fuel injection quantity with more accurate fuel injection control capability. In this work a common rail fuel injection system of a single cylinder diesel engine has been proposed and the important parameters like injection pressure, energizing time and high pressure pipes diameter and length are designed such that to be compatible with the engine basic design in case of pressure waves and injected mass variations. A one-dimensional approach has been used to model the injector using AMESim code in which Adiabatic models have been used to model injector system. Injected mass quantity has been calculated for different working point of fuel injection system that can be utilized as engine electronic control maps as inlet parameters. Results indicated that pressure fluctuation at the injector inlet is increased by decreasing pipe diameter while tube length has no significant effect on pressure waves. It is also shows that using biodiesel as fuel will lead to decrease in injection quantity but there is no significant impact on pressure fluctuations.


Common rail injector Pressure frequency Injection rate AMESim 

List of symbols


Area of nozzle hole (mm3)


Discharge coefficient


Cavitation number




Spring spire diameter (mm)


Spring diameter (mm)


Diameter at the orifice outlet (mm)


Energizing time (ms)


Electronic desel control


High pressure Common-rail


Injection Quantity Adjustment


Stiffness of spring (N/m)




Mass flow rate (kg/s)


Spring number of spires


Discharge pressure (bar)


Injection pressure (bar)


Vapor pressure of fuel (bar)


Pressure wave correction


Rape seed methyl ester


Velocity (m/s)


Flow number


Fuel kinematic viscosity (cSt)


Fuel density (kg/m3)


Pressure drop (bar)



The authors would like to thanks Fuel Combustion and Emission center of Sharif University of Technology for financial support and Mr. Varzdar and Mr. Hosseinian for their assistance on experimental setup establishment.


  1. 1.
    Reif K (2014) Diesel engine management. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hummel K et al (2004) Third-generation common rail system with piezo inline injectors from Bosch for passenger cars. MTZ Worldw 65(3):9–12MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coppo M, Dongiovanni C, Negri C (2002) Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of a common rail type diesel injector. In: ASME 2002 internal combustion engine division fall technical conference: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp 271–80Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahlin K (2000) Modelling of pressure waves in the common rail diesel injection system. Linköpings Universitet, SE-581, 83Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gullaksen J (2003) Simulation of diesel fuel injection dynamics: MSc Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boudy F, Seers P (2009) Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system. Energy Convers Manag 50:2905–2912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salvador FJ, Plazas AH, Gimeno J, Carreres M (2014) Complete modelling of a piezo actuator last-generation injector for diesel injection systems. Int J Engine Res 15:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ubertini S (2006) Injection pressure fluctuations model applied to a multidimensional code for diesel engines simulation. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 128:694–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Catania A, Ferrari A, Mittica A, Spessa E (2007) Common rail without accumulator: development, theoretical-experimental analysis and performance enhancement at di-hcci level of a new generation FIS. SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beierer P (2007) Experimental and numerical analysis of the hydraulic circuit of a high pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. Ph.D. thesis, Tampere University of Technology, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Imagine SA (2004) AMESim v4.2 User Manual. Imagine SA, RoanneGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baratta M, Catania AE, Ferrari A (2008) Hydraulic circuit design rules to remove the dependence of the injected fuel amount on dwell time in multi jet CR systems. J Fluids Eng 130(12):121104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hajialimohammadi A, Honnery D, Abdullah A, Mirsalim MA (2013) Time resolved characteristics of gaseous jet injected by a group-hole nozzle. Fuel 113:497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han D, Duan Y, Wang C, Lin H, Huang Z (2014) Experimental study on injection characteristics of fatty acid esters on a diesel engine common rail system. Fuel 123:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tat M, Van Gerpen J (2003) Measurement of biodiesel speed of sound and its impact on injection timing. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/SR-510-31462Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Han D, Duan Y, Wang C, Lin H, Huang Z, Wooldridge MS (2016) Experimental study of the two-stage injection process of fatty acid esters on a common rail injection system. Fuel 163:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mostafa Mohebbi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azhar Abdul Aziz
    • 1
  • Arman Hamidi
    • 2
  • Alireza Hajialimohammadi
    • 3
  • Vahid Hosseini
    • 4
  1. 1.Automotive Development Center (ADC), Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Johor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering FacultyAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering FacultySemnan UniversitySemnanIran
  4. 4.Mechanical Engineering FacultySharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations