Skip to main content
Log in

Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Clinical Trials of Psychedelics for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

  • Published:
Current Addiction Reports Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the most common substance use disorder in the USA, with a considerable burden of disease. In recent years, psychedelics have emerged as particularly promising in treating AUD. In this paper, we review trials of classic and non-classic psychedelics in the treatment of AUD to determine whether there is substantial evidence, either confirming or refuting the need for accompanying psychotherapy on clinical effect for the treatment of AUD and whether any of the therapy methods are superior to others in this context.

Recent Findings

We found no study directly comparing different modalities of psychotherapy. Most trials did not include a psychotherapy-free arm to assess the psychedelic compounds independently. Only a few studies have compared arms with and without psychotherapy and no significant differences in the magnitude of improvement between arms were found. Moreover, many of the trials with a psychotherapy-free arm had methodological shortcomings such as poorly defined outcomes, small numbers of participants, and short follow-up periods.

Summary

There is a lack of high-quality empirical evidence confirming or refuting the necessity for concomitantly delivered psychotherapy during psychedelic trials for AUD. Therefore, future clinical trials should be designed in a manner that can shed light on the relationship between psychedelic treatment and use of psychotherapy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: results from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2020. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt29393/2019NSDUHFFRPDFWHTML/2019NSDUHFFR090120.htm. Accessed 15 Jun 2023.

  2. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238–45. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.10.1238.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Esser MB, Sherk A, Liu Y, Naimi TS, Stockwell T, Stahre M, et al. Deaths and years of potential life lost from excessive alcohol use—United States, 2011–2015. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(39):1428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 National and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):e73–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.031.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Hasin DS, Grant BF. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Waves 1 and 2: review and summary of findings. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(11):1609–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-015-1088-0.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Ray LA, Bujarski S, Grodin E, Hartwell E, Green R, Venegas A, et al. State-of-the-art behavioral and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2019;45(2):124–40.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA, Cisler RA, Couper D, Donovan DM, et al. Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: the COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;295(17):2003–17. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.295.17.2003.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Kelmendi B, Kaye AP, Pittenger C, Kwan AC. Psychedelics. Curr Biol. 2022;32(2):R63–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Krebs TS, Johansen P. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26(7):994–1002. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881112439253.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Calleja-Conde J, Morales-García JA, Echeverry-Alzate V, Bühler KM, Giné E, López-Moreno JA. Classic psychedelics and alcohol use disorders: a systematic review of human and animal studies. Addict Biol. 2022;27(6): e13229.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Zafar R, Siegel M, Harding R, Barba T, Agnorelli C, Suseelan S, et al. Psychedelic therapy in the treatment of addiction: the past, present and future. Front Psych. 2023;14:1183740.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bogenschutz MP, Ross S, Bhatt S, Baron T, Forcehimes AA, Laska E, et al. Percentage of heavy drinking days following psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy vs placebo in the treatment of adult patients with alcohol use disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiat. 2022;79(10):953–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA. Development of a psychotherapeutic model for psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcoholism. J Humanist Psychol. 2017;57(4):389–414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Andersen KAA, Carhart-Harris R, Nutt DJ, Erritzoe D. Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: a systematic review of modern-era clinical studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2021;143(2):101–18.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Fond G, Loundou A, Rabu C, Macgregor A, Lançon C, Brittner M, et al. Ketamine administration in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231:3663–76.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Goodwin GM, Malievskaia E, Fonzo GA, Nemeroff CB. Must psilocybin always “assist psychotherapy”? Am J Psychiatry. 2023;181(1):20–5. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.20221043.

  17. Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Day CMJ, Rucker J, Watts R, Erritzoe DE, et al. Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up. Psychopharmacology. 2018;235:399–408.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Davis AK, Barrett FS, May DG, Cosimano MP, Sepeda ND, Johnson MW, et al. Effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy on major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiat. 2021;78(5):481–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ross S, Bossis A, Guss J, Agin-Liebes G, Malone T, Cohen B, et al. Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30(12):1165–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Carhart-Harris R, Giribaldi B, Watts R, Baker-Jones M, Murphy-Beiner A, Murphy R, et al. Trial of psilocybin versus escitalopram for depression. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(15):1402–11.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Psychedelic drugs: considerations for clinical investigations—guidance for industry, draft guidance. Food and Drug Administration 2023. https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/psychedelic-drugs-considerations-clinical-investigations. Accessed 15 Aug 2023.

  22. Colloca L, Nikayin S, Sanacora G. The intricate interaction between expectations and therapeutic outcomes of psychedelic agents. JAMA Psychiat. 2023. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2023.1412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Olson DE. The subjective effects of psychedelics may not be necessary for their enduring therapeutic effects. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science. 2020;4(2):563–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Pahnke WN, Kurland AA, Unger S, Savage C, Grof S. The experimental use of psychedelic (LSD) psychotherapy. JAMA. 1970;212(11):1856–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Passie T, Guss J, Krähenmann R. Lower-dose psycholytic therapy—a neglected approach. Front Psych. 2022;13:1020505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Koslowski M, Johnson MW, Gründer G, Betzler F. Novel treatment approaches for substance use disorders: therapeutic use of psychedelics and the role of psychotherapy. Current Addiction Reports. 2022;9:48–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-021-00401-8.

  27. Richards WA. Psychedelic psychotherapy: insights from 25 years of research. J Humanist Psychol. 2017;57(4):323–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Garcia-Romeu A, Richards WA. Current perspectives on psychedelic therapy: use of serotonergic hallucinogens in clinical interventions. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2018;30(4):291–316.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Nielson EM, May DG, Forcehimes AA, Bogenschutz MP. The psychedelic debriefing in alcohol dependence treatment: illustrating key change phenomena through qualitative content analysis of clinical sessions. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:132.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Bennett R, Yavorsky C, Bravo G. Ketamine for bipolar depression: biochemical, psychotherapeutic, and psychedelic approaches. Front Psych. 2022;13: 867484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Krediet E, Bostoen T, Breeksema J, van Schagen A, Passie T, Vermetten E. Reviewing the potential of psychedelics for the treatment of PTSD. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020;23(6):385–400.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Hollister LE, Shelton J, Krieger G. A controlled comparison of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dextroamphetamine in alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry. 1969;125(10):1352–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Smith CM. A new adjunct to the treatment of alcoholism: the hallucinogenic drugs. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1958;19(3):406–17.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Chwelos N, Blewett DB, Smith CM, Hoffer A. Use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of alcoholism. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1959;20(3):577–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Rolo A, Krinsky LW, Goldfarb L. LSD as an adjunct to psychotherapy with alcoholics. J Psychol. 1960;50(1):85–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. MacLean JR, MacDonald DC, Byrne UP, Hubbard AM. The use of LSD-25 in the treatment of alcoholism and other psychiatric problems. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1961;22(1):34–45.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Jensen SE. A treatment program for alcoholics in a mental hospital. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1962;23(2):315–20.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Jensen SE, Ramsay R. Treatment of chronic alcoholism with lysergic acid diethylamide. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1963;8(3):182–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. O’Reilly PO, Funk A. LSD in chronic alcoholism. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1964;9(3):258–61.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Smart RG, Storm T, Baker EFW, Solursh L. A controlled study of lysergide in the treatment of alcoholism. I. The effects on drinking behavior. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1966;27(3):469–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Van Dusen W, Wilson W, Miners W, Hook H. Treatment of alcoholism with lysergide. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1967;28(2):295–304.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Johnson FG. LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 1969;126(4):481–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Ludwig A, Levine J, Stark L, Lazar R. A clinical study of LSD treatment in alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 1969;126(1):59–69.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Bowen WT, Soskin RA, Chotlos JW. Lysergic acid diethylamide as a variable in the hospital treatment of alcoholism: a follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1970;150(2):111–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Tomsovic M, Edwards RV. Lysergide treatment of schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic alcoholics; a controlled evaluation. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1970;31(4):932–49.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Kurland A, Savage C, Pahnke WN, Grof S, Olsson JE. LSD in the treatment of alcoholics. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1971;4(02):83–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Faillace LA, Vourlekis A, Szara S. Hallucinogenic drugs in the treatment of alcoholism: a two-year follow-up. Compr Psychiatry. 1970;11(1):51–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Grof S, Soskin RA, Richards WA, Kurland AA. DPT as an adjunct in psychotherapy of alcoholics. Int Pharmacopsychiatry. 1973;8(1–2):104–15.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Rhead JC, Soskin RA, Turek I, Richards WA, Yensen R, Kurland AA, et al. Psychedelic drug (DPT)-assisted psychotherapy with alcoholics: a controlled study. J Psychedelic Drugs. 1977;9(4):287–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Bigelow R, Barbosa PCR. A pilot study of psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: acute effects and short-term alcohol use, self-efficacy, and craving. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:155A-A.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Bogenschutz M. Mood, craving, and self-efficacy in psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:S90-S.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Barbosa PCR, Strassman RJ. Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29(3):289–99.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Sessa B, Sakal C, O’Brien S, Nutt D. First study of safety and tolerability of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder: preliminary data on the first four participants. BMJ Case Rep CP. 2019;12(7): e230109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Sessa B, Higbed L, O’Brien S, Durant C, Sakal C, Titheradge D, et al. First study of safety and tolerability of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2021;35(4):375–83.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Nicholas CR, Wang JB, Coker A, Mitchell JM, Klaire SS, Yazar-Klosinski B, et al. The effects of MDMA-assisted therapy on alcohol and substance use in a phase 3 trial for treatment of severe PTSD. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022;233: 109356.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. Mitchell JM, Bogenschutz M, Lilienstein A, Harrison C, Kleiman S, Parker-Guilbert K, et al. MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nat Med. 2021;27(6):1025–33.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Krupitsky EM, Grineko AY, Berkaliev TN, Paley AI, Tetrov UN, Mushkov KA, et al. The combination of psychedelic and aversive approaches in alcoholism treatment: the affective contra-attribution method. Alcohol Treat Q. 1992;9(1):99–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Krystal JH, Petrakis IL, Webb E, Cooney NL, Karper LP, Namanworth S, et al. Dose-related ethanol-like effects of the NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in recently detoxified alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(4):354–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Seery E, Glenn R, Orwat D, Hamner M, Malcom R. Ketamine’s impact on cravings for alcohol in a population of veterans with depression and alcohol dependence. American Psychiatric Association annual meeting: American Psychiatric Association Poster Abstracts; 2013. p. 56. https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Directories/Library-and-Archive/posters/am_newresearch_2013.pdf. Accessed 15 Jun 2023.

  60. Yoon G, Niciu MJ, Ralevski E, Arias AJ, Limoncelli D, Newcomb J, et al. A single infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in comorbid depression and alcohol use disorder. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:96A-A.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Yoon G, Ralevski E, Abdallah CG, Arias AJ, Limoncelli D, Newcomb J, et al. Repeated ketamine treatment for comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorder. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:97A-A.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Yoon G, Ralevski E, Arias AJ, Limoncelli D, Newcomb J, Levy L, et al. Naltrexone plus ketamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorder. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res. 2018;42:236A-A.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Yoon G, Petrakis IL, Krystal JH. Association of combined naltrexone and ketamine with depressive symptoms in a case series of patients with depression and alcohol use disorder. JAMA Psychiat. 2019;76(3):337–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Dakwar E, Levin F, Hart CL, Basaraba C, Choi J, Pavlicova M, et al. A single ketamine infusion combined with motivational enhancement therapy for alcohol use disorder: a randomized midazolam-controlled pilot trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2020;177(2):125–33.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Rothberg RL, Azhari N, Haug NA, Dakwar E. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by ketamine mediate its impact on at-risk drinking: results from a randomized, controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2021;35(2):150–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Das RK, Gale G, Walsh K, Hennessy VE, Iskandar G, Mordecai LA, et al. Ketamine can reduce harmful drinking by pharmacologically rewriting drinking memories. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):5187.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. Mollaahmetoglu OM, Keeler J, Ashbullby KJ, Ketzitzidou-Argyri E, Grabski M, Morgan CJA. “This is something that changed my life”: a qualitative study of patients' experiences in a clinical trial of ketamine treatment for alcohol use disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2021;12:695335. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.695335.

  68. Grabski M, McAndrew A, Lawn W, Marsh B, Raymen L, Stevens T, et al. Adjunctive ketamine with relapse prevention-based psychological therapy in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2022;179(2):152–62.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Mithoefer M. A manual for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Version 8.1. Santa Cruz, CA, USA: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS); 2017. https://maps.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/MDMA-Assisted-Psychotherapy-Treatment-Manual-V8.1-22AUG2017.pdf. Accessed 15 Jun 203.

  70. Yaden DB, Griffiths RR. The subjective effects of psychedelics are necessary for their enduring therapeutic effects. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci. 2020;4(2):568–72.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Carducci MA, Umbricht A, Richards WA, Richards BD, et al. Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized double-blind trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30(12):1181–97.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. Feduccia A, Agin-Liebes G, Price CM, Grinsell N, Paradise S, Rabin DM. The need for establishing best practices and gold standards in psychedelic medicine. J Affect Disord. 2023;332:47–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Heifets BD, Malenka RC. Disruptive psychopharmacology. JAMA Psychiat. 2019;76(8):775–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Cameron LP, Nazarian A, Olson DE. Psychedelic microdosing: prevalence and subjective effects. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2020;52(2):113–22.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. Cameron LP, Tombari RJ, Lu J, Pell AJ, Hurley ZQ, Ehinger Y, et al. A non-hallucinogenic psychedelic analogue with therapeutic potential. Nature. 2021;589(7842):474–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Yaden DB, Earp D, Graziosi M, Friedman-Wheeler D, Luoma JB, Johnson MW. Psychedelics and psychotherapy: cognitive-behavioral approaches as default. Front Psychol. 2022;13:1604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Harris JC. Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy and Carl Jung’s Red Book. JAMA Psychiat. 2021;78(8):815–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Nayak S, Johnson MW. Psychedelics and psychotherapy. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2021;54(04):167–75.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Luborsky L, Rosenthal R, Diguer L, Andrusyna TP, Berman JS, Levitt JT, et al. The dodo bird verdict is alive and well-mostly. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2002;9(1):2–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.9.1.2.

  80. Glowacki DR, Wonnacott MD, Freire R, Glowacki BR, Gale EM, Pike JE, et al. Isness: using multi-person VR to design peak mystical type experiences comparable to psychedelics. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2020. pp. 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376649.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to extend our appreciation to Mr. Neil Nero for developing the search syntax and for his invaluable assistance in conducting the search.

Funding

Dr. Martins is funded by award R25MH071584-14 supporting clinical neuroscience residency training. Dr. Bassir Nia is supported by the National Institute of Health K12 DA000167 grant.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

ABN and AA conceptualized the study. AMA, JW, BM, KI, and RF searched the relevant literature. AMA prepared the first draft of the paper supervised by ABN. All authors made substantial contributions to the critical review, editing, and revision of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anahita Bassir Nia.

Ethics declarations

The Section Editors for the topical collection Psychedelics are Gustavo Angarita and Anahita Bassir Nia. Please note that Section Editor Anahita Bassir Nia was not involved in the editorial process of this article as she is a co-author.

Competing interests

Dr. Barnett holds stock options in CB Therapeutics. He also serves on advisory boards for CB Therapeutics and Compass Pathways. He receives monetary compensation from DynaMed Plus (EBSCO Industries, Inc.) for editorial work and from Janssen Pharmaceuticals for consulting services. Dr. Barnett has received research funding from MindMed. Dr. Bassir Nia is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Synendos Therapeutics AG, Switzerland.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

No animal or human subjects by the authors were used in this study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 38 KB)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mohammad Aghaei, A., Weleff, J., Martins, B. et al. Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Clinical Trials of Psychedelics for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder. Curr Addict Rep (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-024-00574-y

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-024-00574-y

Keywords

Navigation