Tobacco Use and Smoking in Israel: Youth and Young Adults
- 30 Downloads
Purpose of the Review
Tobacco smoking is a major cause of death and disease. In Israel, it has been reported that 22.7% of the population aged 18 and over smoke, mostly using cigarettes. Another smoking method is through a water pipe called hookah or nargila. This paper reviews recent studies of tobacco use among Israeli youth and young adults as well as research conducted by the Ben Gurion University, Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center.
Study findings evidence high rates of smoking linked to being male, secular, non-Israeli origin, and school dropout. Hookah use may be a “gateway” to cigarette smoking. Youth and young adults reported they believe smoking prevention programs are not effective and do not have a noticeable effect on smoking-related attitudes and behavior. Motivation, peer-supported activities in school and the community, and family factors have been found to be important for possible smoking cessation.
This article suggests multiple factors be considered, organized, and sustained to promote smoking cessation.
KeywordsSmoking Gender School youth Dropouts Ethnicity Religiosity University students Israel
Recognition and appreciation are given to Dr. Steve Sussman, University of Southern California—Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, for his smoking cessation efforts (e.g., Project EX) among youth. Furthermore, appreciation is expressed to Moshe Kron, Tzvika Kalush, and Adi Dagan for their contributions in promoting understanding of health-related needs among youth and young adults.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Richard Isralowitz, Alexander Reznik, Itay Pruginin, and Maria Bolshakova declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
- 1.World Health Organization. Tobacco. In: Facts sheets; 2016. http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_201203_tobacco/en/. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 2.World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011. In: Warning about the dangers of tobacco; 2011. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44616/1/9789240687813_eng.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 3.Centers for Disease Control. Smoking and tobacco use: fast facts. 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 4.• Isralowitz R, Afifi M, Reznik A, Sussman S. Cigarette smoking among youth: a regional health problem. In: Isralowitz R, Findley P, editors. Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 93–107. This is the first paper to address smoking among youth on a cross national, Middle East, perspective. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41556-7_7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Pförtner TK, Moor I, Rathmann K, Hublet A, Molcho M, Kunst AE, et al. The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth. Addiction. 2015;110(1):162–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Israel Ministry of Health. Report of the Minister of Health on smoking in Israel. 2017. https://www.health.gov.il/PublicationsFiles/smoking_2016.pdf (Hebrew). Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
- 10.Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Education policy outlook. Israel. 2016. http://www.oecd.org/israel/Education-Policy-Outlook-Country-Profile-Israel.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 14.World Lung Foundation/American Cancer Association. 2012. http://www.tobaccoatlas.org/harm/secondhand_smoking/text/. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
- 16.World Lung Foundation/American Cancer Association. 2012. http://tobaccoatlas.org/products. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
- 17.United Nations. Youth and drugs: a global overview. In: Economic and social council, commission on narcotic drugs; 1999. https://www.unodc.org/pdf/document_1999-01-11_2.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 18.Swirski S, Konor-Atias E, Dagan-Buzaglo N. Where is the other half of the age cohort? Twelfth graders who do not matriculate: Adva Center Publication; 2016. http://adva.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/otherhalf-1.pdf (Hebrew). Accessed 9 Dec 2017
- 19.• Isralowitz R, Reznik A. Drug use among high-risk people: resistance and resilience factors. In: Isralowitz R, Findley P, editors. Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 19–46. This paper addresses key issues relevant to the use and abuse of harmful substances including tobacco use. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41556-7_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Zarka S, Levine H, Rozhavski V, Sela T, Bar-Ze’ev Y, Molina-Hazan V, et al. Smoking behavior change during compulsory military service in Israel, 1987–2011. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017;(ntw285)Google Scholar
- 22.Daoud N, Hayek S, Muhammad AS, Abu-Saad K, Osman A, Thrasher JF, et al. Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab-male smokers in Israel. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):672. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1950-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Isralowitz R, Afifi M, Reznik A. Adapting and evaluating an empirically-supported smoking cessation program for Israeli and Palestinian adolescents. In: A report to the US Agency for International Development–Middle East Regional Cooperation; 2013.Google Scholar
- 24.Ne’eman-Haviv V, Wilchek-Aviad Y. Differences in psychoactive substance abuse between youths residing in and outside conflict zones as a function of level of religiosity and political commitment. Subst Use Misuse. 2017;52(10):1247–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1245344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Walsh K, Elliott JC, Shmulewitz D, Aharonovich E, Strous R, Frisch A, et al. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana dependence in Israel. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(3):621–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Isralowitz R, Reznik A, Sarid O, Dagan A, Grinstein-Cohen O, Wishkerman VY. Religiosity as a substance use protective factor among female college students. J Relig Health. 2017; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0521-y.
- 31.Patton MQ. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park: Sage; 2002.Google Scholar
- 32.Jamal A. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2016. In: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 66; 2017.Google Scholar
- 33.• Isralowitz R, Reznik A. Impact of religious education and religiosity on adolescent alcohol use and risk-taking behavior. Relig Educ. 2015;110(3):303–310. This is the first study to examine the impact of religious education and religiosity on harmful substance use among Israeli school youth. https://doi.org/10.1080/00344087.2015.1039388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar