Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 22–28 | Cite as

Tobacco Use and Smoking in Israel: Youth and Young Adults

  • Richard Isralowitz
  • Alexander Reznik
  • Itay Pruginin
  • Maria Bolshakova
Tobacco (S Sussman and R Garcia, Section Editors)
  • 30 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Tobacco

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

Tobacco smoking is a major cause of death and disease. In Israel, it has been reported that 22.7% of the population aged 18 and over smoke, mostly using cigarettes. Another smoking method is through a water pipe called hookah or nargila. This paper reviews recent studies of tobacco use among Israeli youth and young adults as well as research conducted by the Ben Gurion University, Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center.

Recent Findings

Study findings evidence high rates of smoking linked to being male, secular, non-Israeli origin, and school dropout. Hookah use may be a “gateway” to cigarette smoking. Youth and young adults reported they believe smoking prevention programs are not effective and do not have a noticeable effect on smoking-related attitudes and behavior. Motivation, peer-supported activities in school and the community, and family factors have been found to be important for possible smoking cessation.

Summary

This article suggests multiple factors be considered, organized, and sustained to promote smoking cessation.

Keywords

Smoking Gender School youth Dropouts Ethnicity Religiosity University students Israel 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Recognition and appreciation are given to Dr. Steve Sussman, University of Southern California—Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, for his smoking cessation efforts (e.g., Project EX) among youth. Furthermore, appreciation is expressed to Moshe Kron, Tzvika Kalush, and Adi Dagan for their contributions in promoting understanding of health-related needs among youth and young adults.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Richard Isralowitz, Alexander Reznik, Itay Pruginin, and Maria Bolshakova declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Tobacco. In: Facts sheets; 2016. http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_201203_tobacco/en/. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011. In: Warning about the dangers of tobacco; 2011. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44616/1/9789240687813_eng.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control. Smoking and tobacco use: fast facts. 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    • Isralowitz R, Afifi M, Reznik A, Sussman S. Cigarette smoking among youth: a regional health problem. In: Isralowitz R, Findley P, editors. Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 93–107. This is the first paper to address smoking among youth on a cross national, Middle East, perspective.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41556-7_7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kinnunen JM, Lindfors P, Rimpelä A, Salmela-Aro K, Rathmann K, Perelman J, et al. Academic well-being and smoking among 14- to 17-year-old schoolchildren in six European cities. J Adolesc. 2016;50:56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.04.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pförtner TK, Moor I, Rathmann K, Hublet A, Molcho M, Kunst AE, et al. The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth. Addiction. 2015;110(1):162–73.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Israel Ministry of Health. Report of the Minister of Health on smoking in Israel. 2017. https://www.health.gov.il/PublicationsFiles/smoking_2016.pdf (Hebrew). Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
  8. 8.
    Varsano S, Ganz I, Eldor N, Garenkin M. Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes. Harefuah. 2003;142(11):736–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Korn L, Harel-Fisch Y, Amitai G. Social and behavioural determinants of nargila (water-pipe) smoking among Israeli youth: findings from the 2002 HBSC survey. Journal of Substance Use. 2008;13(4):225–38.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14659890701682220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Education policy outlook. Israel. 2016. http://www.oecd.org/israel/Education-Policy-Outlook-Country-Profile-Israel.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ben Noach M, Steinberg DM, Rier DA, Goldsmith R, Shimony T, Rosen LJ. Ethnic differences in patterns of secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents in Israel. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(6):648–56.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntr261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rosen L, Rozhavski V, Levine H, Sela T, Bar-Ze'ev Y, Molina-Hazan V, et al. Smoking initiation among Israeli adolescents: a 24-year time-to-event analysis. Prev Med. 2014;65:141–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akl EA, Jawad M, Lam WY, Obeid R, Irani J. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review. Harm Reduct J. 2013;10(1):12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-10-12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Lung Foundation/American Cancer Association. 2012. http://www.tobaccoatlas.org/harm/secondhand_smoking/text/. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
  15. 15.
    Isralowitz RE, Trostler N. Substance use: toward an understanding of its relation to nutrition-related attitudes and behavior among Israeli high school youth. J Adolesc Health. 1996;19(3):184–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(96)00081-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Lung Foundation/American Cancer Association. 2012. http://tobaccoatlas.org/products. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.
  17. 17.
    United Nations. Youth and drugs: a global overview. In: Economic and social council, commission on narcotic drugs; 1999. https://www.unodc.org/pdf/document_1999-01-11_2.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Swirski S, Konor-Atias E, Dagan-Buzaglo N. Where is the other half of the age cohort? Twelfth graders who do not matriculate: Adva Center Publication; 2016. http://adva.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/otherhalf-1.pdf (Hebrew). Accessed 9 Dec 2017
  19. 19.
    • Isralowitz R, Reznik A. Drug use among high-risk people: resistance and resilience factors. In: Isralowitz R, Findley P, editors. Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 19–46. This paper addresses key issues relevant to the use and abuse of harmful substances including tobacco use.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41556-7_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isralowitz R, Rawson R. Gender differences in prevalence of drug use among high risk adolescents in Israel. Addic Behav. 2006;31(2):355–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.05.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zarka S, Levine H, Rozhavski V, Sela T, Bar-Ze’ev Y, Molina-Hazan V, et al. Smoking behavior change during compulsory military service in Israel, 1987–2011. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017;(ntw285)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daoud N, Hayek S, Muhammad AS, Abu-Saad K, Osman A, Thrasher JF, et al. Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab-male smokers in Israel. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):672.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1950-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Isralowitz R, Afifi M, Reznik A. Adapting and evaluating an empirically-supported smoking cessation program for Israeli and Palestinian adolescents. In: A report to the US Agency for International Development–Middle East Regional Cooperation; 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ne’eman-Haviv V, Wilchek-Aviad Y. Differences in psychoactive substance abuse between youths residing in and outside conflict zones as a function of level of religiosity and political commitment. Subst Use Misuse. 2017;52(10):1247–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1245344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schiff M, Fang L. Adolescent substance use in Israel: the roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Psychol Addict Behav. 2014;28(2):453–63.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Walsh K, Elliott JC, Shmulewitz D, Aharonovich E, Strous R, Frisch A, et al. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana dependence in Israel. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(3):621–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hawke JM, Hennen J, Gallione P. Correlates of therapeutic involvement among adolescents in residential drug treatment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2005;31(1):163–77.  https://doi.org/10.1081/ADA-47913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Isralowitz R. Twenty years of effort and intervention for Middle East peace through social work practice in the addictions. J Soc Work Pract Addict. 2017;17(3):334–7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1533256X.2017.1337433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Isralowitz R, Reznik A, Sarid O, Dagan A, Grinstein-Cohen O, Wishkerman VY. Religiosity as a substance use protective factor among female college students. J Relig Health. 2017;  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0521-y.
  30. 30.
    Palmer M, Larkin M, de Visser R, Fadden G. Developing an interpretative phenomenological approach to focus group data. Qual Res Psychol. 2010;7(2):99–121.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14780880802513194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Patton MQ. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park: Sage; 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jamal A. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2016. In: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 66; 2017.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    • Isralowitz R, Reznik A. Impact of religious education and religiosity on adolescent alcohol use and risk-taking behavior. Relig Educ. 2015;110(3):303–310. This is the first study to examine the impact of religious education and religiosity on harmful substance use among Israeli school youth.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00344087.2015.1039388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tesler R, Harel-Fisch Y, Baron-Epel O. School health promotion policies and adolescent risk behaviors in Israel: a multilevel analysis. J Sch Health. 2016;86(6):435–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wishkerman V, Isralowitz R, Reznik A. Regional social and community development: substance use patterns and prevention needs among model college program “change agents”. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2017;15(5):1037–43.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9729-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Isralowitz
    • 1
  • Alexander Reznik
    • 1
  • Itay Pruginin
    • 1
  • Maria Bolshakova
    • 2
  1. 1.Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research CenterBen Gurion UniversityBeer ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations