Randolph TG. The descriptive features of food addiction: addictive eating and drinking. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1956;17:198–224.
Gearhardt AN, Davis C, Kuschner R, Brownell KD. The addiction potential of hyperpalatable foods. Curr Drug Abus Rev. 2011;4:140–5.
Davis C, Carter JC. Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite. 2009;53:1–8.
Volkow ND, Wise RA. How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:555–60.
Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32:20–39.
Johnson PM, Kenny PJ. Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:635–41.
Ziauddeen H, Farooqi IS, Fletcher PC. Obesity and the brain: how convincing is the addiction model? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:279–86.
Ziauddeen H, Farooqi IS, Fletcher PC. Food addiction: is there a baby in the bathwater? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:514.
Ziauddeen H, Fletcher PC. Is food addiction a valid and useful concept? Obes Rev. 2013;14:19–28.
Avena NM, Gearhardt AN, Gold MS, Wang G-J, Potenza MN. Tossing the baby out with the bathwater after a brief rinse? The potential downside of dismissing food addiction based on limited data. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:514.
Meule A, Kübler A. The translation of substance dependence criteria to food-related behaviors: different views and interpretations. Front Psychiatry. 2012;3(64):1–2.
Meule A. Are certain foods addictive? Front Psychiatry. 2014;5(38):1–3.
Benton D. The plausibility of sugar addiction and its role in obesity and eating disorders. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:288–303.
de Silva P, Eysenck S. Personality and addictiveness in anorexic and bulimic patients. Personal Individ Differ. 1987;8:749–51.
Feldman J, Eysenck S. Addictive personality traits in bulimic patients. Personal Individ Differ. 1986;7:923–6.
Hatsukami D, Owen P, Pyle R, Mitchell J. Similarities and differences on the MMPI between women with bulimia and women with alcohol or drug abuse problems. Addict Behav. 1982;7:435–9.
Kagan DM, Albertson LM. Scores on MacAndrew Factors: bulimics and other addictive populations. Int J Eat Disord. 1986;5:1095–101.
Hetherington MM, Macdiarmid JI. “Chocolate addiction”: a preliminary study of its description and its relationship to problem eating. Appetite. 1993;21:233–46.
Macdiarmid JI, Hetherington MM. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in ‘chocolate addicts’. Br J Clin Psychol. 1995;34:129–38.
Tuomisto T, Hetherington MM, Morris M-F, Tuomisto MT, Turjanmaa V, Lappalainen R. Psychological and physiological characteristics of sweet food “addiction”. Int J Eat Disord. 1999;25:169–75.
Goodman A. Addiction: definition and implications. Br J Addict. 1990;85:1403–8.
Speranza M, Revah-Levy A, Giquel L, Loas G, Venisse J-L, Jeammet P, et al. An investigation of Goodman’s addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:182–9.
Cassin SE, von Ranson KM. Is binge eating experienced as an addiction? Appetite. 2007;49:687–90. This was the first study in which a structured clinical interview was used to assess food addiction symptoms. Using this technique, it could be shown that almost all participants with binge eating disorder met full criteria for substance dependence based on the DSM-IV.
Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite. 2009;52:430–6. In this article, the original version of the YFAS was presented and validated in a student sample.
Gearhardt AN, White MA, Masheb RM, Morgan PT, Crosby RD, Grilo CM. An examination of the food addiction construct in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:657–63.
Davis C, Curtis C, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL. Evidence that ‘food addiction’ is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite. 2011;57:711–7. This was the first study showing that food addicted and nonaddicted obese individuals (based on the YFAS) can be differentiated on a range of psychopathological and eating-related measures as well as behavioral measures assessing impulsivity.
Davis C, Loxton NJ, Levitan RD, Kaplan AS, Carter JC, Kennedy JL. ‘Food addiction’ and its association with a dopaminergic multilocus genetic profile. Physiol Behav. 2013;118:63–9. This was the first study showing that food addicted and nonaddicted obese individuals (based on the YFAS) differed on a multilocus genetic profile indicating higher dopamine signaling in those with food addiction. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by frequent experiences of food cravings. Thus, results showed that food addiction is related to reward-responsive overeating as indicated by both self-report measures and biological markers.
Eichen DM, Lent MR, Goldbacher E, Foster GD. Exploration of “food addiction” in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adults. Appetite. 2013;67:22–4.
Burmeister JM, Hinman N, Koball A, Hoffmann DA, Carels RA. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss. Appetite. 2013;60:103–10.
Murphy CM, Stojek MK, MacKillop J. Interrelationships among impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and body mass index. Appetite. 2014;73:45–50.
Meule A, Vögele C. Kübler A [German translation and validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale]. Diagnostica. 2012;58:115–26.
Meule A, Kübler A. Food cravings in food addiction: the distinct role of positive reinforcement. Eat Behav. 2012;13:252–5.
Meule A, Heckel D, Kübler A. Factor structure and item analysis of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:419–22.
Bégin C, St-Louis M-E, Turmel S, Tousignant B, Marion L-P, Ferland F, et al. Does food addiction distinguish a specific subgroup of overweight/obese overeating women? Health. 2012;4:1492–9.
Flint AJ, Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD, Field AE, Rimm EB. Food addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(3):578–86. This was the first large-scale study in which the YFAS was used, providing information about the prevalence of food addiction and associations with, for example, body mass index and smoking behavior.
Gearhardt AN, Roberto CA, Seamans MJ, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for children. Eat Behav. 2013;14:508–12.
Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Instruction sheet for the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Available from: http://wwwyaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/addiction/FoodAddictionScaleInstructions09.pdf. 2008.
Gearhardt AN, White MA, Masheb RM, Grilo CM. An examination of food addiction in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:500–5.
Meule A, Hermann T, Kübler A. Food addiction in overweight and obese adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment. Adipositas. 2013;7:A48.
Meule A, von Rezori V, Blechert J. Food addiction and bulimia nervosa. in revision.
Pedram P, Wadden D, Amini P, Gulliver W, Randell E, Cahill F, et al. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population. PLoS One. 2013;8(e74832):1–6.
Mason SM, Flint AJ, Field AE, Austin SB, Rich-Edwards JW. Abuse victimization in childhood or adolescence and risk of food addiction in adult women. Obesity. 2013;21:E775–81.
Lent MR, Eichen DM, Goldbacher E, Wadden TA, Foster GD. Relationship of food addiction to weight loss and attrition during obesity treatment. Obesity. 2014;22:52–5.
Clark SM, Saules KK. Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among a weight-loss surgery population. Eat Behav. 2013;14:216–9.
Meule A. How prevalent is “food addiction”? Front Psychiatry. 2011;2(61):1–4.
Meule A. Food addiction and body-mass-index: a non-linear relationship. Med Hypotheses. 2012;79:508–11. This article reviews the prevalence of food addiction (as measured with the YFAS) and of binge eating behavior as a function of body mass. It suggests that there may be a nonlinear relationship between food addiction and body mass, which would explain why positive relationships between the YFAS and BMI can primarily be observed in samples with a wide range in body mass, but not in samples with a restricted range in body mass.
Gearhardt AN, Yokum S, Orr PT, Stice E, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Neural correlates of food addiction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:808–16. This was the first study in which brain activity in anticipation of and in response to food intake was examined as a function of scores on the YFAS. Distinct associations between food addiction symptomatology and neural responses in reward-related and inhibitory regions could be found.
Meule A, Lutz A, Vögele C, Kübler A. Women with elevated food addiction symptoms show accelerated reactions, but no impaired inhibitory control, in response to pictures of high-calorie food-cues. Eat Behav. 2012;13:423–8.
Meule A, Heckel D, Jurowich CF, Vögele C, Kübler A. Correlates of food addiction in obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery. in revision.
Burgess EE, Turan B, Lokken KL, Morse A, Boggiano MM. Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale. Appetite. 2014;72:66–72.
Meule A, Papies EK, Kübler A. Differentiating between successful and unsuccessful dieters: validity and reliability of the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale. Appetite. 2012;58:822–6.
Davis C, Levitan RD, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL, Carter JC. Food cravings, appetite, and snack-food consumption in response to a psychomotor stimulant drug: The moderating effect of ‘food addiction’. Front Psychol. 2014;5(403). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00403.
Moeller FG, Barratt ES, Dougherty DM, Schmitz JM, Swann AC. Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. Am J Psychiatr. 2001;158:1783–93.
Meule A. Impulsivity and overeating: a closer look at the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Front Psychol. 2013;4(177):1–4.
Reslan S, Saules KK, Greenwald MK, Schuh LM. Substance misuse following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49:405–17.
Meule A. The relation between body mass index and substance use: a true can of worms. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience. 2014;11(3-4):11–3
Davis C. Compulsive overeating as an addictive behavior: overlap between food addiction and Binge Eating Disorder. Curr Obes Rep. 2013;2:171–8.
Davis C. From passive overeating to “food addiction”: a spectrum of compulsion and severity. ISRN Obes. 2013;2013(435027):1–20.
Meule A, Gearhardt AN. Does the revision of substance dependence criteria in DSM-5 have implications for food addiction? submitted.
Curtis C, Davis C. A qualitative study of binge eating and obesity from an addiction perspective. Eat Disord. 2014;22:19–32. This was the first study in which the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria were examined with regard to eating behavior.
Weingarten HP, Elston D. Food cravings in a college population. Appetite. 1991;17:167–75.