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Unlocking the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of flavone and amide-rich fractions from Conchocarpus macrocarpus (Rutaceae) leaves

  • Biochemistry & Physiology - Original Article
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Conchocarpus macrocarpus (Rutaceae) is an endemic species in Brazil, whose chemical and biological properties are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the butanolic partition phase extracted from C. macrocarpus leaves collected in Espírito Santo, Brazil. In vitro antioxidant assays, including DPPH radical scavenging and Folin–Ciocalteu assay, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity in RAW cells using the MTT method were performed. Additionally, antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans was investigated. Results showed that the flavone-rich fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, as observed for the PF-BuOH G2.1 fraction that showed values of 237.2 ± 1.4 mg TE/g of extract and 118.2 ± 1.6 mg GAE/g of extract. However, the samples did not show protective effects against hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the flavones and amides present in the PF-BuOH G2.1 fraction displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans, showing a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/mL at the highest microbial load (1.5 × 105 CFU/mL). Our findings provide insights into the chemical composition and biological potential of C. macrocarpus and highlight the promising applications of the BuOH partition phase and its fractions.

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The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) (Process number: 88887.699686/2022-00) for providing the PhD research grants to ERS and to CNPq (Process number: 304699/2018-7) for awarding the scholarship to IBS. Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge Aline Bertinatto Cruz and Mourisa Ferreira for their valuable technical assistance.

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ERS and DYACS conceptualized and designed the study, critically revised the manuscript, and actively contributed to data discussions. PBT and ERS conducted the in vitro antioxidant activity, and actively participated in data discussions. ERS prepared the extracts, performed statistical analyses, conducted the experiments, and identified the compounds. KCS and HAOR performed the in vivo antioxidant experiments. IBS and JSS assessed the antimicrobial activity. All authors critically reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Elielson Rodrigo Silveira or Déborah Yara Alves Cursino dos Santos.

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Silveira, E.R., Torres, P.B., Scortecci, K.C. et al. Unlocking the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of flavone and amide-rich fractions from Conchocarpus macrocarpus (Rutaceae) leaves. Braz. J. Bot 46, 853–866 (2023).

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