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The wood anatomy of Sapindales: diversity and evolution of wood characters

Abstract

The Sapindales are a large order comprised of trees, shrubs, lianas and rarely herbs. This lineage is mostly pantropical with important temperate lineages, inclusing some of the most diverse, highly prized woods in the world, such as mahogany (Swietenia). In this study, we characterized the wood anatomy across eight of the nine Sapindales families, and leverage phylogenetic comparative methods to explore the evolution of wood traits in the order. We delimited 23 characters and reconstructed them onto the most recent time-calibrated phylogeny for the group. We found that ring-porosity is derived within the order, coinciding with the occupation of more seasonal climates; marginal parenchyma is ancestrally present, but largely lost in Anacardiaceae-Burseraceae-Kirkiaceae; vessels in radial chains are ancestrally absent but gained many times; scanty paratracheal parenchyma was ancestrally present with multiple evolutions of more abundant parenchyma. Anacardiaceae-Burseraceae-Kirkiaceae share tyloses and large vessel-ray pits. Radial ducts are exclusive to Anacardiaceae-Burseraceae, while traumatic ducts are exclusive to Meliaceae-Rutaceae-Simaroubaceae. Rays are generally 2–4 cells wide, heterocellular, but with multiple lineages evolving homocellular narrow rays or more heterocellular wide rays. Prismatic crystals are commonly located in rays in Anacardiaceae-Burseraceae while in the other families they are mainly in axial parenchyma. Silica bodies are abundant in Burseraceae, but also present in Anacardiaceae and Meliaceae. Lianas are exclusively in Anacardiaceae and Sapindaceae, with Sapindaceae displaying an enormous diversity of cambial variants. Our work unravels several potential synapomorphies of Sapindales major clades, and evolutionary patterns for the enormous wood anatomical diversity of the order. In addition, our work highlights variable characters worth of more detailed studies within individual families of the Sapindales.

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Acknowledgements

We are especially indebted to Elisabeth Wheeler, without whom InsideWood would not be a reality, and the present work not possible, and Alexandra Muellner-Riehl for authorizing the use of the chronogram of Sapindales. We also thank E. Wheeler for the authorization to use images of Toxicodendron. We thank Hisashi Abe and the staff of the TWTw wood collection for allowing the use of photos of Orixa japonica and Stanley Yankowski at the Smithsonian Institution for allowing the use of photos from the CTFT (Centre Technique Forestier Tropical) collection. Josefina Barajas-Morales and Calixto León Gómez for the many slides deposited in the MEXU collection that greatly contributed to this work, Carolina Lopes Bastos and André Lima, who made slides of Sapindaceae lianas for the Angyalossy’s collection. We are also indebted to three anonymous reviewers and the editors for their revisions and advices. This work or the authors received funding from Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (DGAPA, PAPIIT, Mexico) [Projects IA200521 to MRP, IB205419 to TT), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) [Project 2013/10679- 0; 2017/17107-3; 2018/06917-7], Joyce G. Chery was supported by Cornell University Lab Startup Funds.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design, first conceptualized by (alphabetically): Israel L. Cunha Neto, Marcelo R. Pace and Veronica Angyalossy. Project administration and supervision was carried by Marcelo R. Pace with constant feedback from Caian Gerolamo and Joyce G. Chery. Material preparation, data collection and analyses were performed by Caian S. Gerolamo, Israel L. Cunha Neto, Joyce G. Chery, Marcelo R. Pace, Teresa Terrazas. Joyce G. Chery led the phylogenetic comparative methods. Quantitative data were acquired by Mariana Victorio and analyzed by Caian Gerolamo. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Marcelo R. Pace and all authors commented on various versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Marcelo R. Pace.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Studied species, authorship, family, source of wood data (book, website or wood collection). When from our own Institutions or personal slide collections includes collector, collector number, locality and place where voucher is deposited. Different specimens of the same species are separated by a semi-colon. Herbarium and wood collection acronyms follow the Index Herbariorum and Index Xylariorum, respectively (Thiers 2017). Klassen 1999 stands for his book on Anatomy of the Sapindaceae fully cited on references.

Acer amoenum Carr. (= A. palmatum Thunb.) (Sapindaceae), TWTw slide collection, several specimens analyzed online, Tsuba Wood Collection. Acer negundo subsp. mexicanum (DC.) Wesm. (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, FITECMA 67, Guridi Gómez, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelia, MEXU. Actinocheita filicina (DC.) F.A.Barkley (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Zendejas López 4594, Mexico, Guerrero, Eduardo Neri, Xochipala, MEXU. Aesculus pavia L. (Sapindaceae) InsideWood, Cerre 1367, Inst IWCS. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Sapindaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 3635 J. Ilic CSIRO. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 11,332 Jugo Ilic CSIRO. Aglaia elaeognoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, AM 432 R. Aichbauer IWCS. Aglaia odoratissima Blume (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 28,972, Jugo Illic. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae), Evert’s slide collection; InsideWood, BWCw 8226 E. Wheeler NCSU; Uw 7286, 14,421 M. Bakker; WUE Studie 1–24 R. Aichbauer. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 3141 Jugo Ilic CSIRO; Uw 18,250 M. Bakker NBC; FHOw 245 E. Wheeler. Ailanthus integrifolia Lam. (Sapindaceae) InsideWood. Uw 18,250 M.E. Bakker NBC. Alectryon connatum (F.Muell.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Allophylus camptostachys Radlk. (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. T. Refugio 310, Mexico, Veracruz, Reserva Biológica Los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Amphipterygium adstrigens (Schltdl.) Standl. (Anacardiaceae), Orduño s.n. CHAPA, Terrazas’s slide collection. Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Apterokarpos gardneri (Engl.) Rizzini (= Loxopterygium gardneri Engl.) (Anacardiaceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Arytera divaricata F. Muell. (Sapindacee), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Agarwal and Gupta (2008). Wood anatomy of Sapindales. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 172 pp.; Sosef M.S.M., Hong L.T. & Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.) 1998. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. 5(3). Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 859 pp. Arytera littoralis Blume (Sapindaceae) InsideWood, FPAw ngf.3771 J. Ilic CSIRO; Uw 33,606 M.E. Bakker NBC. Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, I. Calzada 3114, INIREB-009, Mexico, Chiapas, Nuevo Jalisco, MEXU; C. León Gómez 91, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, La Salinas, MEXU. Astronium sp. (Anacardiaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Atalantia monophylla DC. (Rutaceae), InsideWood. Atalaya hemiglauca (F.Muell.) F.Muell. ex Benth. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FHOw 12,015 R. Klaassen NBC. Aucoumea klaineana Pierre (Burseraceae), InsideWood, Kw 15,749 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; AM379 R. Aichbauer IWCS. Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, Kw MPFSL 1974 P. Gasson KEW; Kw 21,963 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; FRI.s.n. Aza.ind N. Boonchai FRI; FPAw d.132 J. Ilic CSIRO. Balfourodendron riedelianum (Engl.) Engl. (Rutaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Beiselia mexicana Forman (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood, Forman L.L., P. E. Brandham M. M. Harley, Lawrence T.J. 1989. Beiselia mexicana (Burseraceae) and its affinities. Kew Bulletin 44:1–31. Boswellia neglecta S.Moore. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Blepharocarya involucrigera F.Muell. (Anacardiaceae), Terrazas’s slide collection. Brucea guineensis G. Don (Simaroubaceae), Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), Ogata, K. & A. Kalat. 1997. Wood anatomy of some trees, shrubs and climbers in Brunei Darussalam. After-care Programme, Brunei Forestry Research Project Special Publication No. 3. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Forestry Department, Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei Darussalam. Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume. (Anacardiaceae), Jacobs 4764(L), Terrazas’s slide collection. Bursera biflora (Rose) Standl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Bullock (Burseraceae) InsideWood. Bonilla LAMA, J. Barajas-Morales & P.T. Lezama, 2004. Anatomía de Maderas de México. Árboles y Arbustos del Matorral Xerófilo de Tehuacán. Publicaciones Especiales Del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México. Bursera cuneata (Schltdl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Bursera excelsa (Kunth) Engl. (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 39, 139, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Bursera fagaroides (Kunth) Engl. (Burseraceae), J. Barajas Morales 224, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Bursera heteresthes Bullock (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 126, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Bursera hindsiana (Benth.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Bursera instabilis McVaugh & Rzed. (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 24, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Bursera lancifolia (Schltdl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Bursera linanoe (La Llave) Rzed., Calderón & Medina (= B. aloexylon (Schiede ex Schltdl.) Engl.) (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, M. Delgado s.n. Bursera microphylla A. Gray. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Bursera morelensis Ramírez (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, Abundiz Bonilla 813, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, Carretera Teotitlan-Huautla, MEXU. Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (= B. arborea (Rose) L.Riley) (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez s.n., Mexico, Veracruz, Atoyac, MEXU; J. Barajas Morales 266, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtlas, Estación Biológicas los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Bursera tecomaca (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Standl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, RBHw 5935 H. Richter BFH.UH; Tw 9900 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw 19,213 L.Y.T. Westra NBC; Uw 6396 NBC M. Bakker NBC. Canarium decumanum Gaertn. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Canarium indicum L. (Burseraceae), Bw19, Terrazas’s slide collection. Canarium madagascariense Engl. (Burseraceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 16,278. Canarium muelleri F.M.Bailey (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Canarium oleiferum Baill. (Burseraceae) InsideWood. SJRw 14,707 S. Manchester FMNH. Canarium ovatum Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Canarium pilosum A. W. Benn. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Canarium tramdenum C.D.Dai & Yakovlev (= C. pimela K.D.Koenig) (Burseraceae). Capuronianthus mahafalensis J. Leroy (Meliaceae), Insidewood, CTFTw 7423 P. Detiénne CIRAD. Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil; InsideWood, Cerre 0015 J-C Cerre IWCS, Cerre 1199 J-C Cerre IWCS; FPAw 65 J. Ilic CSIRO; FPRI 41,172 P. Detiénne & R. Miller Tropen; HBw 299A R.C. Rivery; Tw 23,046 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw 10,650 L.Y.T. Westra NBC; Uw 601, 7588, 11,462 A.M.W. Mennega NBC. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Sapindaceae), InsideWood, Rock, B.N. 1972. The woods and flora of the Florida Keys: "Pinnatae". Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 5: 1–35. Casimiroa calderoniae F. Chiang & Medrano (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Abundiz Bonilla 821; Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, al SO de Coyotepec, MEXU. Casimiroa edulis La Llave (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Kribs DA. 1968. Commercial foreign woods of the American market. Dover Publications, NY. Casimiroa tetrameria Millsp. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Enríquez 7488, Mexico, Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Pishtimback, MEXU. Castela coccinea Griseb. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, M.N. Campagna, M. Gattuso, M.L. Martinez, M.V.Rodriguez & O. Di Sapio. 2016. Novel micromorphological features of wood and bark of Argentinean Simaroubaceae, New Zealand Journal of Botany, 55:134–150. Castela galapageia Hook.f. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, OUCE. LTEL 7 J. Lee OU. Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae), Angyalossy’s slide collection, SPFw 838–841 and BOTUw 1417–1427, BOTU. Cedrela odorata L. (= C. mexicana M.Roem.) (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Carmona 18, Mexico, Chiapas, Crucero Bonampak, INIREB 33, 58, 330; F. Miranda 5366, Mexico, Chiapas; InsideWood, CTFTWw 16,493 P. Detiénne & R. Miller Tropen; FPAw 33,724 J. Ilic CSIRO; MADw 21,261 P. Gasson KEW. Cedrela salvadorensis Standl. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Abundiz Bonilla 811, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, Carretera Teotitlán-Huautla, MEXU. Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. & Courchet (Meliaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 7436. Chloroxylon faho Capuron (Burseraceae) InsideWood, CTFTw 11,949 P. Detienne CIRAD. Chloroxylon swietenia DC. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Cerre 75, 529, J-C Cerre IWCS; FPAw 11,355 J. Ilic CSIRO; Tw 30,364 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw 6453 M Bakker NBC. Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L.Burtt & A.W.Hill (Anacardiaceae), Tw47711, Terrazas’s slide collection. Choisya dumosa (Torr. & A.Gray) A.Gray (= C. dumosa var. mollis (Standl.) L.D.Benson) (Rutaceae), InsideWood, E. Wheeler NCSU. Chorilaena quercifolia Endl. (Rutaceae), Carlquist S. 1977. Ecological fctors in wood evolution: a floristic approach. Am J Bot 64: 887–896. Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 10,235 J. Ilic CSIRO; FPAw 9123 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 22,021 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW. Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (= C. x limettioides Yu.Tanaka) (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, L. Carmona 94, Mexico, Puebla, Pahuatlán, Pahuatlán de Valle, MEXU. Citrus x aurantium L. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez 97, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtlas, Laguna Escondida, MEXU. Citrus medica L. (= C. limetta Risso) (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, L. Carmona 56, Mexico, Puebla, Pahuatlán, Pahuatlán de Valle, MEXU. Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, L. Carmona 16,386, Mexico, Puebla, Pahuatlán, Pahuatlán de Valle, MEXU. Clausena melioides Hiern (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Cneorum tricoccon L. (Rutaceae), Appelhans et al. 2021. Phylogenetic and ecological signals in the wood of Spathelioideae (Rutaceae). IAWA J 33: 337–353; Carlquist S. 1988. Wood anatomy of Cneoraceae: Ecology, relationships and generic definition. Aliso 12:7–16. Commiphora boranensis Vollesen (Burseraceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 15,458. Commiphora edulis (Klotzsch) Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Commiphora falcata Capuron (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Commiphora pervilleana Engl. (Burseraceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 8827. Commiphora pterocarpa H.Perrier (Burseraceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 15,457. Commiphora schimperi (O.Bergman) Engl. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Comocladia macrophylla (Hook. & Arn.) L.Riley (= C. engleriana Loes.) (Anacardiaceae), J. Barajas-Morales 237, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Cotinus obovatus Raf. (Anacardiaceae), MAD2159, Terrazas’s slide collection. Crepidospermum goudotianum (Tul.) Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Cupania dentata Moc. & Sessé ex DC. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; MEXUw slide collection, s.n., in Mexico, San Luis Potosí. Cupania furfuracea Radlk. (Sapindaceae), G. Somner 1653, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Poço das Antas, RBR. Cupania glabra Sw. (Sapindaceae) MEXUw slide collection, Ibarra Manriquez G. 1304 & 1594, in Mexico, Veracruz, Reserva Biológica Los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Cupania macrophylla A. Rich. (= Talisia macrophylla (Mart.) Radlk.) (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J.B. Morales 198, in Mexico, Veracruz, Reserva Biológica Los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A.Rich.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae), Abundiz Bonilla 817, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, Valle de Tehucán, MEXU. Dacryodes cuspidata (Cuatrec.) Daly. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J.Lam (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw GAB.14 J. Ilic CSIRO; Tw1165 H. Beeckman RMCA. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam. (Burseraceae) InsideWood. Détienne, P. Woods of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam. Unpublished. Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H.J.Lam. (Burseraceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe (Anacardiaceae), PUw446, Terrazas’s slide collection. Dilodendron bipinnatum Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood DMC95 R. Klaassen NBC. Diploglottis australis Radlk. (= D. cunninghamii (Hook.) Hook.f.) (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, E. Wheeler, North Carolina State University. Diplokeleba floribunda N.E.Br. (Sapindaceae), InsideWood, Tortorelli L.A. 1956. Maderas y bosques argentinos. Editorial Acme, Buenos Aires. 910 pp. Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw ngf.5367 J. Ilic CSIRO; Hw 8833 S. Carlquist SBBG; Uw 33,600 M.E. Bakker NBC. Dysoxylum arborescens (Blume) Miq. (Meliaceae), Inside Wood, FPAw ngf. 3973 Jugo Illic. Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, Kw 22,044 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; Tw 13,018 H. Beeckman NBC; Tw 33,812 H. Beeckman NBC; SJRw 12,441 E. Wheeler NCSU. Esenbeckia berlandieri Baill. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez 60, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Esenbeckia pentaphylla Griseb. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Abundiz Bonilla 3673, Turrialba. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae), Webber I. 1936. Systematic anatomy of the Woods of the Simaroubaceae. Am J Bot. 23: 577–587. Eurycorymbus cavaleriei (H.Lév.) Rehder & Hand.-Mazz. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Uw 33,602 R. Klaassen NBC. Faguetia falcata Marchand (Anacardiacee), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 13,870; FHO11584, Terrazas’s slide collection. Fegimanra africana (Oliv.) Pierre (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood, Détienne P. West Africa Wood Coding. CIRAD, Unpublished. Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.) Thwaites (Sapindaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 9003. Flindersia australis R.Br. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 2735 Jugo Ilic CSIRO. Ganophyllum falcatum Blume (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Garuga floribunda Decne. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw ngf.4017 J. Ilic CSIRO. Gluta tourtour Marchand (Anacardiaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 2251. Guarea chichon C. DC. (= G. megantha A.Juss.) (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, V. Carmona 43, Mexico, Chiapas, Tila, MEXU; R. Cedillo 403, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtlas, Estación Biológica los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Guarea glabra Vahl (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Baraja-Morales 181, Mexico, Veracruz, Catemaco, Colonia Coronel Adalberto Tejeda, MEXU. Guarea grandifolia DC. (= G. guidonia (L.) Sleumer). (Meliaceae), Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Guioa bijuga (Hiern) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), InsideWood, Ogata K. & A. Kalat. 1997. Wood anatomy of some trees, shrubs and climbers in Brunei Darussalam. After-care Programme, Brunei Forestry Research Project Special Publication No. 3. Japan International Cooperation Agency. (JICA) and Forestry Department, Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei Darussalam. Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. (Anacardiaceae), PFP930, Terrazas’s slide collection. Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw ngf.6210 J. Ilic CSIRO; SFEw D7948 R. Klaassen NBC. Helietta apiculata Benth. (= H. cuspidata (Engl.) Chodat & Hassl.) (Rutaceae), BCTw, Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Helietta lucida Brandegee (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Abundiz Bonilla 827, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, al SO de Coyotepec, MEXU; J. Barajas Morales 483, Cuba, Matanzas, Escaleras de Jaruco, MEXU. Holacantha emoryi A. Gray (Simaroubaceae), Webber I. 1936. Systematic anatomy of the Woods of the Simaroubaceae. Am J Bot. 23: 577–587. Hypelate trifoliata Sw. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Myatt 3715G26 R. Klaassen NBC, BWCw 8749 E. Wheeler NCSU, FPAw 8942 J. Ilic CSIRO. Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, PFAw af.8 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 24,705 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; Tw 606, 838, 950, 26,843 H. Beeckman RMCA. Khaya ivorensis A.Chev. (Meliaceae), Angyalossy’s wood collection, Nigeria, MADw 8679. Khaya madagascariensis Jum. & H.Perrier (Meliaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 7437. Kirkia acuminata Oliv. (Kirkiaceae), InsideWood, FHOw 3146, 4991 E. Wheeler NCSU; Tw 28,858 J. Parrott TXSU. Kirkia leandrii (Capuron) Stannard (Kirkiaceae), InsideWood, CRFTw 7879 P. Detiénne CIRAD. Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), InsideWood, Tervuren Xylarium Wood Database, Hans Beeckman. Kromhout C.P. 1977. 'N Studie van die Houtanatomie van die Vernaamste Inheemse Houtsoorte van Suid-Afrida en 'N Sleutel vir Hul Mikroskopiese Uitkennig. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Universiteit van Stellenbosch. South Africa. Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw 21,706 J. Ilic CSIRO; Lw.NewGuinea 2490 W E. Wheeler NCSU; PACw 744 E. Wheeler NCSU; WLw 2490 R. Klaassen NBC, WUR Studie 2 118 R. Archbauer IWCS. Lannea rivae Sacleux (Anacardiaceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Lansium domesticum Corr. (= L. parasiticum (Osbeck) K.C.Sahni & Bennet) (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 18,592 J. Ilic CSIRO. Leitneria floridana Chapm. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Lepidotrichilia convallariiodora (Baill.) J.-F. Leroy (Meliaceae), InsideWood, CTFTw 9425 P. Detiénne CIRAD. Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Uw 33,587 Klaassen NBC. Lovoa trichilioides (Spreng.) Harms (Meliaceae), InsideWood, AM 425 R. Aichbauer IWCS; FPAw ni.10 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 22,155, 31,169 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; Tw 708, 1033, 7120, 7467, 13,938, 26,496 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw 20,309 M. Bakker NBC. Loxopterygium huasango Spruce ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae), MER3383, Terrazas’s slide collection. Loxopterygium sp. (Anacardiaceae) BCTw, Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Loxostylis alata A.Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood, NYBT TT1004 E. Wheeler NCSU; Terrazas’s slide collection. Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), InsideWood, Kw 14,386 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; Puw 485 P. Gasson KEW; RBHw 10,408 H.G. Richter BFH.UH. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, BWCw 8315 E. Wheeler NCSU; FHOw 4291 P. Gasson KEW; FPAw a. 116 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 22,158 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW; Uw 20,735, 20,737 M. Bakker NBC. Melicope fatraina (H.Perrier) T.G.Hartley (Rutaceae), InsideWood, CTFTw 3024 P. Detiénne CIRAD. Metopium brownei (Jacq.) Urb. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, E. Martínez 30,351, Mexico, Campeche, Calakmul, MEXU; MAD14121, Terrazas’s slide collection. Micronychia macrophylla H. Perrier (Anacardiaceae), Terraza’s slide collection. Micronychia tsiramiramy H.Perrier (Anacardiaceae), CFTF13437, Terrazas’s slide collection. Mosquitoxylum jamaicense Krug & Urb. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, I. Calzada 2919, Mexico, Chiapas, Velasco Suárez, INIREB-28. Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Rutaceae), InsideWood, P. Detiénne. Woods of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam. Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae), Angyalossy’s slide collection, identified at Wood Collection from musical instrument in Brazil. Neobeguea leandriana J.-F. Leroy (Meliaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 7980. Neobeguea mahafaliensis J.-F. Leroy (Meliaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 7981. Neotina coursii Capuron (= Tina coursii (Capuron) Callm. & Buerki) (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 8812. Neotina isoneura (Radlk.) Capuron (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 13,290; Nephelium lappaceum L. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Uw 33,591 R. Klaassen NBC. Nitraria retusa Asch. (Nitrariaceae) InsideWood. FWB Nit.ret P. Baas. Nothospondias staudtii Engl. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Détienne, P. West Africa Wood Coding. CIRAD. Unpublished. Nymania capensis (Thunb.) Lindb. (Meliaceae), O. Amusa et al. 2020 Wood anatomy of South African Meliaceae: evolutionary and ecological implications. Bot J Linn Soc. Odyendea gabunensis (Pierre) Engl. (= Quassia gabonensis Pierre) (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Uw 9524 M. Bakker NBC. Operculicarya decaryi H.Perrier (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood. Detienne P. Woods of Madagascar. CIRAD, Unpublished. Owenia cepiodora F.Muell. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 9669 J. Ilic CSIRO. Pachycormus discolor (Benth.) Coville (Anacardiaceae), US30922, Terrazas’s slide collection. Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw 5137 R. Klaassen NBC; Malaisse 8629 R. Klaassen NBC. Peganum mexicanum A. Gray (Nitrariaceae), Guy Nesom 6604, Mexico, San Luís Potosí, Guadalcázar. MEXU; J. I. Calzada 25,452, Mexico, San Luís Potosí, Guadalcázar. MEXU. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 17,321 Jugo Ilic CSIRO; TWTw 18,444, 18,742. Perriera madagascariensis Courchet (Simaroubaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 13,398. Picrasma javanica Blume (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, FPAw ngf. 4748 J. Ilic CSIRO. Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, TWTw 18,407, 18,468 FFPRI. Pierreodendron africanum (Hook.f.) Little (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Détienne, P. West Africa Wood Coding. CIRAD. Unpublished. Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, E. Martínez 30,890, Mexico, Campeche, Calakmul, MEXU. Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae), PUw004, Terrazas’s slide collection. Pistacia mexicana Kunth (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, F. Miranda 6888, Mexico, Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Barranca Cueva del Tigre, MEXU; J. Barajas Morales 442, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, Brecha Teontepec-Nopala, MEXU. Plagioscyphus louvelii Danguy & Choux (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 9088. Pleiospermium alatum (Wight & Arn.) Swingle (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Poupartia chapelieri (Guillaumin) H. Perrier (Anacardiaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 8919. Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. (= Citrus trifoliata L.) (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Eom Young Geun. 2015. Wood anatomy of Korean species. Media Wood, Ltd. Seoul, Korea. Protium copal (Schltdl. & Cham.) Engl. (Burseraceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 179, Mexico, Veracruz, Estación Biológica los Tuxtlas, MEXU; E. Martínez 30,210, Mexico, Campeche, Calakmul, MEXU. Protium madagascariense Engl. (Burseraceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 8792. Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw16522 J. Ilic CSIRO. Protorhus thouvenotii H.Lecomte (= Abrahamia thouvenotii (Lecomte) Randrian. & Lowry) (Anacardiaceae), CFTF17046, Terrazas’s slide collection. Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Ptelea trifoliata L. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 459, Mexico, Puebla, Tehuacán, MEXU. Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, USw 16,131 E. Wheeler NCSU; Uw 2035 M. Bakker NBC. Quassia indica (Gaertn.) Noot. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, CTFTw 9842 P. Detiénne CIRAD; FPAw 8337 J. Ilic CSIRO. Quassia undulata (Guill. & Perr.) D.Dietr. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Tw 1412, 8029 H. Beeckman RMCA. Quivisianthe papinae Baill. (Meliaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 8747. Reinwardtiodendron celebicum Koord. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 13,591 J. Ilic CSIRO. Rhus chondroloma Standl. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas-Morales 524, Mexico, Puebla, Molcaxac, SW de Izcaquixtla, MEXU. Rhus perrieri (Courchet) H. Perrier (= Protorhus perrieri Courchet) (Anacardiaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 13,427. Rhus thouarsii (Engl.) H.Perrier. (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood. Detienne, P. Woods of Madagascar. CIRAD, Unpublished. Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), US8359, MAD18305, Terrazas’s slide collection. Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Fahn A., E. Werker, & P. Baas. 1986. Wood anatomy and identification of trees and shrubs from Israel and adjacent regions. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Samadera indica Gaertn. (= Quassia indica (Gaertn.) Noot.) (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Detienne, Pierre. Woods of Madagascar. CIRAD Unpublished. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, El 1339 R. Aichbauer IWCS; FPAw 10,345 J. Ilic; Uw 18,653 M.E. Bakker NBC. Santiria apiculata A.W.Benn. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw12199 J. Ilic CSIRO. Santiria griffithii Engl. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, R.H.M.J. Lemmens, I. Soerianegara & W.C. Wong, Plant resources of South-east Asia. No. 5(2) Timber trees. Santiria trimera (Oliv.) Aubrév. (Burseraceae), Insidewood Kw31165 A. Campbell & P. Gasson KEW. Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, BWCw 8764 E. Wheeler NCSU; MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas-Morales & G. Ángeles 64, collected in Mexico, Veracruz, Catemaco, MEXU. Sarcomelicope simplicifolia (Endl.) T.G.Hartley (Rutaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 7990 J. Ilic CSIRO. Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae), U26948, Terrazas’s slide collection. Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Merr. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw 24,474 J. Ilic CSIRO. Searsia erosa (Thunb.) Moffett (Anacardiaceae), Terrazas’s slide collection. Semecarpus forstenii Blume (Anacardiaceae), Terrazas’s slide collection. Serjania corrugata Radlk. (Sapindaceae), InsideWood, Araújo G.U.C. & C.G. Costa. 2007. Anatomia do caule de Serjania corrugata. Acta. Bot. Bras 21(2): 489–497. Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hil. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; G. Somner 1628, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Poço das Antas, RBR. Serjania schiedeana Schltdl. (Sapindaceae), L. Carmona 15,630, Mexico, Morelos, Tlaquiltenango, Chimalacatlán, MEXU. Serjania triquetra Radlk. (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, L. Carmona 15,618, Mexico, Morelos, Tlaquiltenango, Chimalacatlán, MEXU. Simaba cedron Planch. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Uw 215 M.E. Bakker NBC. Simaba orinocensis Kunth. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Uw 221 M.E. Bakker NBC. Simarouba amara Aubl. (= Simarouba glauca DC.) (Simaroubaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil; MEXUw slide collection (as S. glauca DC.), V. Carmona 51, Mexico, Chiapas, Macedonia, INIREB-51; R. Hernández 1246, Mexico, Campeche, Campo experimental “el tormento”, MEXU. Simarouba glauca DC. (= Simarouba amara Aubl.) (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, EI 1504 R. Aichbauer IWCS; FPAw 12,022 J. Ilic CSIRO; HBw 418 R.C. Rivery. Simarouba versicolor A. St.-Hil. (Simaroubaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s wood collection, Brazil. Skimmia japonica Thunb. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, FHOw 11,610 E. Wheeler NCSU. Soulamea sp. (Simaroubaceae), InsideWood, Metcalf CR. & Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. Spathelia sorbifolia L. (Rutaceae), Appelhans et al. 2021. Phylogenetic and ecological signals in the wood of Spathelioideae (Rutaceae). IAWA J 33:337–353. Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas-Morales 254, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtlas, Estación Biológica Los Tuxtlas, MEXU. Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, O. Téllez Valdés 30,964, Mexico, Campeche, Calakmul, Al oeste de 2 lagunas, MEXU. Spondias tuberosa Arruda. (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood. Scheel-Ybert, R. & Gonçalves T.A.P. 2017. Primeiro Atlas Antracológico de Espécies Brasileiras. Museu Nacional—Série Livros Digital 10, Rio de Janeiro. Stadmania oppositifolia Lam. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 13,279. Swietenia humilis Zucc. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, A. Pérez Jiménez 824, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, I. Calzada 3107, Mexico, Chiapas, Alfredo Bonfil, MEXU; X-112, Mexico, Campeche; InsideWood, AM 308 R. Aichbauer IWCS; AO 65,120 R. Aichbauer IWCS; FPAw 24,391 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 4353, 24,696 P. Gasson KEW; NITw 989, 992 A.F. N. Brandes UFF; Angyalossy’s slide collection, Panama, MADw 6027. Swietenia mahogani L. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, Cerre 3 J-C Cerre IWCS; Kw 4371 P. Gasson KEW; Uw 8358, 10,456, 11,471, 32,010 L.Y.T. Westra NBC. Talisia nervosa Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, Poveda 466 R. Klaassen NBC. Tapirira bethanniana J.D.Mitch. (Anacardiaceae) InsideWood. Uw 33,087 M.E.Bakker NBC. Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Tapirira mexicana Marchand (Anacardiaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas-Morales 251, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtlas, Laguna Escondida, MEXU; Wendt 5321, Mexico, Chiapas, Monte Líbano, MEXU. Tapirira obtusa (Benth) J.D.Mitch. (Anacardiaceae), MADw26816, Terrazas’s slide collection. Tetradium daniellii (Benn.) T.G.Hartley (Rutaceae), InsideWood, UN 441 E. Wheeler NCSU. Tetragastris altissima (Aubl.) Swart. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, CTFTw16667 P. Détienne & R. Miller Tropen; Tw22011 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw658 M. E. Bakker NBC. Tetragastris panamensis (Engl.) Kuntze (Burseraceae), Angyalossy’s slide collection, BCTw slide collection, Lâmina Permanente 37, IRENA 0254. Thouinia paucidentata Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gomez 64, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Thouinia portoricensis Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Thouinia serrata Radlk. (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 174, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Thouinia villosa DC. (Sapindaceae), MEXUw slide collection, Guridi Gómez 4199, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelia. FITECMA 131. Thouinidium decandrum (Humb. & Bonpl.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez 72, Mexico, Jalisco, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Tina apiculata (Radlk.) Radlk. ex Choux (= Tinopsis apiculata Radlk.) (Sapindaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTW 16,602. Toechima tenax Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, Cerre 1089 J-C Cerre IWCS. Toona sp. (Meliaceae), BCTw Angyalossy’s slide collection, Brazil. Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A.Barkley (Anacardiaceae), MADw6518, Terrazas’s slide collection. Trattinnickia demerarae Sandwith (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw17039 J. Ilic CSIRO; Tw31129 H. Beeckman RMCA; Uw2058 M. E. Bakker NBC. Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 4261 J. Ilic CSIRO; Kw 4430 P. Gasson KEW. Trichilia glabra L. (Meliaceae), Angyalossy’s slide collection, M. Vales 84, HACw 84, Brazil. Trichilia japurensis C. DC. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas-Morales 56, Mexico, Veracruz, Catemaco, Colonia Coronel Adalberto Tejeda, MEXU. Trichilia minutiflora Standl. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, E. Martínez 30,560, Mexico, Campeche, Calakmul, MEXU. Trichilia trifolia L. (Meliaceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez 27, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Triomma malaccensis Hook.f. (Burseraceae), Insidewood, FPAw12258 J. Ilic CSIRO. Tristira triptera Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999. Tristiropsis acutangula Radlk. (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, FPAw ngf.4092 J. Ilic CSIRO; IFIw 11,527 R. Klaassen NBC; Waturandang 22,236 R. Klaassen NBC. Turraea sericea Sm. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, P. Detiénne, Woods of Madagascar, CIRAD. Turraeanthus africana (Welw. ex C.DC.) Pellegr. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, Cerre 26 J-C Cerre IWCS; FPAw 10,304 J. Ilic CSIRO; Tw 1123, 2413 H. Beeckman RMCA; WUR 30,689 R. Aichbauer IWCS. Walsura (= villosa) tubulata Hiern (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 28,787, Jugo Illic. Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge (Sapindaceae), Klaassen 1999; InsideWood, UN 393 R. Klaassen NBC; Uw 33,605 M. E. Bakker NBC. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lamk) M. Roem. (Meliaceae), InsideWood, FPAw 4170, 7218, 10,381 J. Ilic CSIRO; JS 1535 R. Aichbauer IWCS. Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Siebold & Zucc. (Rutaceae), InsideWood, Hw 9168 E. Wheeler NCSU; TWTw 14,909 E. Wheeler NCSU. Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, C. León Gómez 34, Mexico, Jalisco, La Huerta, Estación de Biología de Chamela, MEXU. Zanthoxylum kellermanii P.Wilson (Meliaceae) InsideWood, E. Wheeler NCSU; MEXU 242, Veracruz, Catemaco, Colonia Coronel Adalberto Tejeda, Barajas-Morales & Angeles 72, MEXU. Zanthoxylum madagascariense Baker (Rutaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 13,221. Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection. Zanthoxylum riedelianum subsp. kellermanii (P. Wilson) Reynel ex C.Nelson (Rutaceae), MEXUw slide collection, J. Barajas Morales 68, Mexico, Veracruz, Catemaco, Colonia Coronel Adalberto Tejeda, MEXU. Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa H. Perrier (Rutaceae), Smithsonian NMNH slide collection, CTFTw 16,313.

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Pace, M.R., Gerolamo, C.S., Onyenedum, J.G. et al. The wood anatomy of Sapindales: diversity and evolution of wood characters. Braz. J. Bot 45, 283–340 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415-021-00764-2

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Keywords

  • Cambial variants
  • Ducts
  • Gums
  • Silica bodies
  • Tyloses
  • Vessel-ray pits
  • Wood evolution