Exploring the density-dependence theory is crucial to understanding how size patterns among individuals are established. This study tested if percent cover affects the morphological and allometric relationship variation of individuals of Eichhornia azurea (Swart) Kunth, an emergent perennial mat-forming macrophyte commonly found in the lower Amazon region. We predicted that (1) E. azurea found in sites with high percent coverage would have larger, thicker, heavier leaves and longer petioles than individuals found in sites with low percent coverage; (2) the percent coverage affects the allometric relationship between branch length and number of leaves. To test our predictions, we sampled sites with low and high E. azurea percent cover. Sampling occurred in Caxiuanã Bay located in Caxiuanã National Forest on the lower Amazon. The results supported our predictions, in which individuals of high percent cover sites had longer petioles, more leaves, thicker leaves and higher leaf mass per area. Individuals in low percent cover sites showed a positive relationship between branch length and number of leaves. These results indicate that E. azurea exhibits morphological and allometric plasticity in response to plant density which may help explain the success of E. azurea in a variety of habitats across South America.
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We are grateful to the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), University of Oslo, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA) and Biodiversity Research Consortium Brazil-Norway (BRC) for the opportunity to be part of the first Field Ecology Course in Caxiuanã, Melgaço, Brazil. We are deeply indebted to Bigode, a boat helper and a native from Melgaço who identified and navigated us to the exact location of the macrophyte mats. We want to thank the entire team of professors and students in the course; we learned a lot from this experience. We also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support to ACA (process 134389/2011–5) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—for providing a scholarship to COC.
This work was supported by the project Establishing a Brazilian-Norwegian master course in tropical rainforest ecology and biodiversity by UTFORSK 2017 number UTF-2017-four-year/10053 and in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001”.
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Carvalho, C.O., Barnhill, K.A., Ascenso, A.C. et al. Morphological and allometric variation due to percentage of cover in Eichhornia azurea (Swart) Kunth (Pontederiaceae). Braz. J. Bot 43, 389–395 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415-020-00610-x
- Allometric plasticity
- Amazonian biome
- Aquatic plants
- Functional traits