The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition, diversity, and structure of tidal “Várzea” and “Igapó” forests in eastern Amazonia, Amapá, Brazil. All live tree individuals with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥10 cm were registered. A total of 130 plots measuring 10 × 100 m were inventoried, distributed among 13 ha in each of the two forest typologies. A total of 10,575 trees were reported, belonging to 343 species, 172 genera, and 49 families. For all 26 ha sampled, mean tree density was 406 ± 61.27 trees ha−1 and mean basal area was 27.2 ± 11.13 m2 ha−1. Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, and Rubiaceae were the most important families in tidal “Várzea”, together accounting for 74.76 % of the family importance value index (FIVI %). In “Igapó”, the most important families were Lecythidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, and Arecaceae, which together accounted for 57.05 % of the family important value index (FIVI %). Smaller diameter trees measuring between 10 and 30 cm dbh dominated the landscape, accounting for 75.52 % of all individuals sampled. In general, 80 % (8285) individuals were under 24 m in height, while only 1.32 % of trees (140) reached heights above 34 m. There was evidence for statistically significant mean differences among tidal “Várzea” and “Igapó” with regard to the number of individuals, species, diversity, and tree height. However, no mean differences were detected for equitability, dbh, dominance, and basal area. Compositional patterns showed low similarity between the evaluated areas, indicating the existence of phytogeographic pattern based on species distribution.
Dominance Phytosociology Similarity Species distribution
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access
We thank the Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of Amapá (IEPA) for logistical support and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amapá for financial support. We thank Embrapa Amapá for macronutrient analyses, the National Research Institute of the Amazon (INPA), and the Botany post-graduate course at INPA for providing facilities and the opportunity to conduct the research. MJVC was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).
Almeida AF, Jardim MAG (2011) Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta de Várzea na Ilha de Sororoca, Ananindeua, Pará, Brasil. Sci For 39:191–198Google Scholar
Ferreira LV, Parolin P (2011) Effects of flooding duration on plant demography in a black-water floodplain forest in central Amazonia. Pesqui Bot 62:323–332Google Scholar
Ferreira LV, Almeida SS, Parolin P (2010) Amazonian white-and black-water floodplain forests in Brazil: large differences on a small scale. Ecotropica 16:31–41Google Scholar
Ferreira LV, Parolin P, Cunha DA, Chaves PP, Leal D (2013) Variação da riqueza e composição de espécies da comunidade de plantas entre as florestas de Igapós e Várzeas da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna-Caxiuanã na Amazônia Oriental. Pesqui Bot 64:175–195Google Scholar
Fine LV, Miller ZJ, Mesones I, Irazuzta S, Appel HM, Stevens MHH, Sääksjärvi I, Schultz JC, Coley PD (2006) The growth-defense trade-off and habitat specialization by plants in Amazonian forests. Ecology 87:S150–S162. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fisher RA, Corbet AS, Willians CB (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 1:42–58. doi:10.2307/1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Junk WL, Bayley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. In: Dodge DP (ed) Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci. 106:110–127Google Scholar
Targhetta N, Kesselmeier J, Wittmann F (2015) Effects of the hydroedaphic gradient on tree species composition and aboveground wood biomass of oligotrophic forest ecosystems in the central Amazon basin. Folia Geobot 50:185–205. doi:10.1007/s12224-015-9225-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ter Steege H, Sabatier S, Castellanos H, Van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, Oliveira AA, Ek RC, Lilwah R, Maas PJM, Mori SA (2000) An analysis of Amazonian floristic composition, including those of the Guiana Shield. J Trop Ecol 16:801–828. doi:10.1017/S0266467400001735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittmann F, Schöngart J, Montero JC, Motzer T, Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Queiroz H, Worbes M (2006) Tree species composition and diversity gradients in white-water forests across the Amazon Basin. J Biogeogr 33:1334–1347. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01495.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar