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In vivo correlation of near-infrared transillumination and visual inspection with bitewing radiography for the detection of interproximal caries in permanent and primary teeth

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate near-infrared light transillumination (NILT) for interproximal caries detection in children by comparing the correlation between both NILT and visual inspection (ICDAS) with bitewing (BW) radiography and by investigating possible differences in caries detection with NILT between primary and permanent teeth.

Methods

From 35 patients, 121 and 63 interproximal surfaces in, respectively, primary and permanent teeth were included. NILT images were obtained using DIAGNOcam™ (KaVo) and scored by two calibrated raters. A consensus diagnosis was reached for BW radiography; whereas, the ICDAS scores were obtained by one calibrated rater. Weighted Kappa (wκ) was used to evaluate inter- and intra-rater reliability of NILT and to evaluate the correlation between NILT, ICDAS and BW radiography.

Results

The correlation between NILT and BW radiography was moderate to substantial for primary teeth [Rater 1: wκ = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49–0.75), Rater 2: wκ = 0.55 (95% CI = 0.41–0.69)] and fair for permanent teeth [Rater 1: wκ = 0.34 (95% CI = 0.15–0.53), Rater 2: wκ = 0.33 (95% CI = 0.08–0.58)]. The correlation between ICDAS and BW radiography was moderate for primary teeth [wκ = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.35–0.63)] and substantial for permanent teeth [wκ = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.32–0.92)]. No significant differences were found between primary and permanent teeth.

Conclusion

NILT cannot be recommended as a single diagnostic tool for interproximal caries detection in primary teeth. The number of false negatives for dentine caries, especially in first primary molars, was too high. For the use in permanent teeth, NILT could be more accurate than BW radiography.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the manufacturer (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) for providing the DIAGNOcam for free. We acknowledge dr. Sivaprakash Rajasekharan (PaeCoMeDiS Research Cluster, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium) and dr. Ellen Deschepper (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium) for the assistance with the statistical analysis of this study. The roles of the authors were: Conceived and designed the experiment: J. D. Vandenbulcke and M. De Zutter; Performed the clinical examinations: M. De Zutter; Rated the NILT images: J. D. Vandenbulcke and L. C. Martens; Performed statistical analysis: J. W. G. Van Acker and M. De Zutter; Wrote the paper: M. De Zutter. All authors read, commented and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to J. D. Vandenbulcke.

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Conflict of interest

The DIAGNOcam device was provided for free by the manufacturer (KaVo).

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M. De Zutter: research award winner during the EAPD interim conference in Chania, Crete, 2019.

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De Zutter, M., Vandenbulcke, J.D., Van Acker, J.W.G. et al. In vivo correlation of near-infrared transillumination and visual inspection with bitewing radiography for the detection of interproximal caries in permanent and primary teeth. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 21, 509–518 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40368-020-00538-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40368-020-00538-6

Keywords

  • Dental caries
  • Near-infrared transillumination
  • Digital bitewing radiography
  • DIAGNOcam