Soil-to-Human Mineral Transmission with an Emphasis on Zinc, Selenium, and Iodine

Abstract

Soil-to-crop mineral transmission was first investigated in the 1960s and 1970s, and a large body of evidence now documents transmission of minerals from soil to crops. A smaller group of papers illustrates that soil concentrations of zinc, selenium, and iodine impact human intake of these important minerals, and even human mineral status. Despite this fact, estimates of human mineral intake or human mineral deficiency rates often rely on nutrient composition tables that assume a single mineral concentration for every crop or food worldwide. Public health policy-makers rarely discuss the role of soils in driving human mineral deficiencies, and scientists who study soil degradation tend to focus on the yield and production consequences of macronutrient depletion, ignoring the health consequences of micronutrient depletion. By reviewing and re-considering four decades of literature on soil-to-human mineral transmission, we may realize new points of intervention within the food system for addressing mineral deficiency in human populations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Notes

  1. 1.

    In soil science, the term “micronutrient” refers to elements essential for plant growth, but needed in only trace amounts. (“Macronutrients” are elements needed in larger quantities for plant growth.) In nutrition, the term “micronutrient” refers to minerals (chemical elements) and vitamins (organic compounds) needed in trace amounts within the human body. Since minerals, rather than vitamins, are the subjects of this review, the term “micronutrient” is generally avoided. However, when used, it is meant to reflect the nutritionists’ definition.

  2. 2.

    Animals may also contain nutrients through byproducts included in their diet. In industrialized nations, animal feed may include nutrient supplements that improve not only the nutrient status of the animal but also the nutrient status of the humans who consume that animal. In low input systems, even feeding dried fish waste or other food residues may increase the nutrient intake (iodine or selenium, in the case of fish remains) of animals.

  3. 3.

    A number of studies have found low selenium status to be positively associated with incidence of preeclampsia [93, 92, 88, 113], others have found no association [113], and some have found the reverse association [58, 84, 85]. In the studies by Maleki et al. [86] and Mistry et al. [93], the average serum selenium status in pregnant women who suffered preeclampsia was 51.8 μg/l Maleki et al. [86], and 39.7 μg/l by Mistry et al. [93]. This first figure is just slightly under the average expected for pregnant women, but the second is extremely low even given the generally low selenium status of pregnant women.

  4. 4.

    Animal organs are particularly rich in selenocysteines, as both humans and animals store selenium primarily in organs, with a lesser proportion going to muscle [98].

  5. 5.

    Such selenium-accumulating plants tend to contain predominantly γ-glutamyl methylselenocysteine, a form of selenium that may be less utilized by the body than selenocysteine or selenomethionine [45].

  6. 6.

    For instance, Drutel et al. [41] note that the bioavailability of sodium selenite, found in drinking water, is excellent.

  7. 7.

    They additionally suggest that selenium-deficient soils may contribute to low zinc status in those same Mongolian children. This would follow research by Gibson et al. [53], who showed that low selenium status seems to cause low zinc status.

  8. 8.

    McGlashan references an article by Levander [81] illustrating that breast milk averages at around 18 μg/l in the United States, generally ranging from 15 to 20 μg/l according to the mother’s diet. Infant formula, at the time, had no required minimum selenium content—selenium content was determined by chance, according to the components. Thus, many formulas contained little or no selenium, and certainly not enough to meet the 10 μg/day required for children less than 6 months old [81].

  9. 9.

    Graham et al. [56] explain the mechanism by which zinc deficiency seems to block iron uptake, and they also support their argument geographically; much of the world’s iron deficient populations live on the acidic soils of the wet, Asian and Africa tropics, where iron deficiency in crops is rare but soils are quite likely to be zinc deficient [56].

  10. 10.

    While a number of authors have found that soil iron concentration is not significantly associated with crop iron content (and thus not indicative of human iron status), Merrill et al. [91] did find that the iron content of groundwater was significantly associated with the iron status (plasma ferritin) of 207 women in rural Bangladesh.

References

  1. 1.

    Alfthan G, Bogye G, Aro A, Feher J (1992) The human selenium status in Hungary. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 6:233–238

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Allaway WH (1975) The effects of soils and fertilizers on human and animal nutrition. USDA-ARS Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 378. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office. Ref Type: Pamphlet

  3. 3.

    Allaway WH (1986) Soil-plant-animal and human interrelationships in trace element nutrition. In: Mertz W (ed) Trace elements in human and animals nutrition, 5th edn. Academic, Orlando, pp 465–488

  4. 4.

    Allen LH (2006) New approaches for designing and evaluating food fortification programs. J Nutr 136(4):1055–1058

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Alloway BJ (2004) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. International Zinc Association, Brussels

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Andersson M, Karumbunathan V, Zimmermann MB (2012) Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr 142(4):744–750

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Anttolainen M, Valsta LM, Alfthan G, Keemola P, Salminen I, Tamminen M (1996) Effect of extreme fish consumption on dietary and plasma antioxidant levels and fatty acid composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50:741–746

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Anyabolu HC, Adejuyigbe EA, Adeodu OO (2014) Serum micronutrient status of Haart-Naïve, HIV infected children in South Western Nigeria: a case controlled study. AIDS Res Treat

  9. 9.

    Aro A, Alfthan G (1998) Effects of selenium supplementation of fertilizers on human nutrition and selenium status. In: Frankenberger WT, Engberg JRA (eds) Environmental Chemistry of Selenium. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 81–97

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Aro A, Alfthan G, Varo P (1995) Effects of supplementation of fertilizers on human selenium status in Finland. Analyst 120:841–843

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, Overbaugh J, Bankson DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JP, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK (2001) Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 26(4):360–364

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Barclay MNI, MacPherson A, Dixon J (1995) Selenium content of a range of UK foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 8:307–318

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Barrett CB, Bevis LEM (Forthcoming) The micronutrient deficiencies challenge in African Food Systems. In: Sahn DE (ed) The fight against hunger and malnutrition: the role of food, agriculture, and targeted policies. Oxford University Press, Oxford

  14. 14.

    Bath S, Walter A, Taylor A, Rayman M (2008) Iodine status of UK women of childbearing age. J Hum Nutr Diet 21:379–380

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Baum MK, Shor-Posner S, Lai S, Zhang G, Lai H, Fletcher MA, Sauberlich H, Page JB (1997) High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 15(5):370–374

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Beckett GJ, Arthur JR (2005) Selenium and endocrine systems. J Endocrinol 184:455–465

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Beckett GJ, Nicol F, Rae PWH, Beech S, Guo Y, Arthur RJ (1993) Effects of combined iodine deficiency and selenium deficiency on thyroid hormone metabolism in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 57:240S–243S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Benjelloun S (1987) Consommation alimentaire. In: L’Ounein: Essai d’Ecologie Sociale d’une du Haut-Atlas Occidental (Maroc). CRDI-IAV Hassan II: Direction du Developpement Rural, Rabat, pp 236–286

  19. 19.

    Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, De Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J (2008) Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 371:243–260

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bouis HE, Welch RM (2010) Biofortification—a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Sci 50:S20–S32

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bratakos MS, Kanaki H, Vasiliov-Waite A, Ioannou P (1990) The nutritional selenium status of healthy Greeks. Science of the Total Environment 84:161–176

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Cakmuk I, Erdal I (1996) Phytic acid–zinc molar ratios in wheat grains grown in Turkey. Micronutr Agric 2:7–18

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Cao XY, Jiang XM, Kareem A, Dou ZH, Rakeman MR, Zhang ML, Ma T, O’Donnell K, DeLong N, DeLong GR (1994) Iodination of irrigation water as a method of supplying iodine to a severely iodine-deficient population in Xinjiang, China. Lancet 344:107–110

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Cenac AM, Simonoff M, Moretto P, Djibo A (1992) A low plasma selenium is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy. A comparative study in Sahelian Africa. Int J Cardiol 36(1):57–59

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Chilimba ADC, Young SD, Black CR, Rogerson KB, Ander EL, Watts M, Lammel J, Broadley MR (2011) Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi. Sci Rep 1:72

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Chilimba ADC, Young SD, Black CR, Meacham MC, Lammel J, Martin R, Broadley MR (2012) Agronomic biofortification of maize with selenium (Se) in Malawi. Field Crops Res 125:118–128

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Combs GR (2001) Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 85:517–547

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Combs GF Jr, Combs SB (1986) The biological availability of selenium in foods and feeds. In: Combs GF, Combs SB (eds) The Role of Selenium in Nutrition. Academic Press, New York, pp 127–177

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Curtin D, Hanson R, van der Weerden TJ (2008) Effect of selenium fertilizer formulation and rate of application on selenium concentrations in irrigated and dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum). N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 36:1–7

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    de Menezes Barbosa EG, Júnior FB, Machado AA, Navarro AM (2014) A longer time of exposure to antiretroviral therapy improves selenium levels. Clin Nutr

  31. 31.

    Delong GR, Leslie PW, Wang S-H, Jiang X-M, Zhang M-L, Rakeman MA, Jiang J-Y, Ma T, Cao X-Y (1997) Effect on infant mortality of iodination of irrigation water in a severely iodine-deficient area of China. Lancet 350:771–773

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Derumeaux H, Valeix P, Castetbon K, Bensimon M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Arnaud J, Hercberg S (2003) Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35- to 60-year-old French adults. Eur J Endocrinol 148:309–315

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Djujic I, Djujic B, Trajkovic L (1995) Dietary intake of selenium in Serbia: results for 1991. Naucni Skupovi (Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti). Odeljenje Prirodno-Matema- tickih Nauka 6:81–87

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Dodd N, Dinghe S (1993) Iodine content of diets of the people of different regions living in Bombay. J Food Sci Technol 30:134–136

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Donovan UM, Gibson RS, Ferguson EL, Ounpuu S, Heywood P (1992) Selenium intakes of children from Malawi and Papua New Guinea consuming plant-based diets. J Trace Elements Electr Health Dis 6:39–43

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Drobner C, RoEhrig B, Anke M, Thomas G (1997) Selenium intake of adults in Germany depending on sex, time, living area and type of diet. In: Fischer PWF, L’AbbeA MR, Cockell KA, Gibson RS (eds) Trace Elements in Man and Animals-9. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp 158–159

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Drutel A, Archameaud F, Caron P (2013) Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians. Clin Endocrinol 78:155–164

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Ducros V, Faure P, Ferry M, Couzy F, Biajoux I, Favier A (1997) The sizes of the exchangeable pools of selenium in elderly women and their relation to institutionalization. British Journal of Nutrition 78:379–396

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Duffield AJ, Thomson CD (1999) A comparison of methods of assessment of dietary selenium intakes in Otago, New Zealand. British Journal of Nutrition 82:131–138

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Ecker O, Weinberger K, Qaim M (2010) Patterns and determinants of dietary micronutrient deficiencies in rural areas of East Africa. Afr J Agric Resour Econ 4(2):175–194

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Eick F, Maleta K, Govasmark E, Duttaroy AK, Bjune AG (2009) Food intake of selenium and sulphur amino acids in tuberculosis patients and healthy adults in Malawi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1313–1315

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Eurola M, Alfthan G, Aro A, Ekholm P, Hietaniemi V, Rainio H, Rankanen R, Venäläinen E-R (2003) Results of the Finnish selenium monitoring program 2000–2001. Agri-food Research Reports 36, MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  43. 43.

    Fairweather-Tait SJ, Collings R, Hurst R (2010) Selenium bioavailability: current knowledge and future research requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 91(5):1484S–1491S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Fischer-Walker CLF, Black RE, de Benoist B, Darnton-Hill I, Davidsson L, Fontaine O (2007) Functional indicators for assessing zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 28:5454–5479

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Foster HD (2003) Why HIV-I has diffused so much more rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa than in North America. Med Hypotheses 60(4):611–614

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Gibson RS (2005) Principals of nutritional assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Gibson RS, Hess SY, Hotz C, Brown KH (2008) Indicators of zinc status at the population level: a review of the evidence. Br J Nutr 99(Supplement 3):S14–S23

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Ampong Romano AB, Thomson CD (2011) Plasma selenium concentrations in pregnant women in two countries with contrasting soil selenium levels. J Trace Elem Med Biol 25(2011):230–235

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Parnell WR, Wilson N, Ferguson EL (2011) Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Maori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey. Br J Nutr 105:436–446

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Gissel-Nielsen G (1998) Effects of selenium supplementation of field crops. In: Frankenberger WT, Engberg RA (eds) Environmental Chemistry of Selenium. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 99–112

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Golubkina NA (1994) Selenium intake of Briansk region population living in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Voprosy Pitania 4:3–6

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Goyens P, Golstein J, Nsombola B, Vis H, Dumont JE (1987) Selenium deficiency as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of myxoedematous endemic cretinism. Acta Endocrinol 114:497–502

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Graham RD, Knez M, Welch RM (2012) How much nutritional iron deficiency in humans globally is due to an underlying zinc deficiency? Adv Agron 115:1–40

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Gromadzińska J, Wasowicz W, Rydzyński K, Krasomski G, Broniarczyk D, Andrijewski M, Wolkanin P (1998) Selenium levels, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood of women with gestosis and imminent premature labour. Analyst 123(1):35–40

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Grunes DL, Allaway WH (1985) Nutritional quality of plants in relation to fertilizer use. In: Engelstad OP (ed) Fertilizer technology and use. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 589–619

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Grunes DL, Boawn LC, Carlson CW, Viets FG Jr (1961) Zinc deficiency of corn and potatoes as related to soil and plant analysis. Agron J 52(2):68–71

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Harthill M (2011) Review: micronutrient selenium deficiency influences evolution of some viral infectious diseases. Biol Trace Elem Res 143(3):1325–1336

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Hartikainen H (2005) Biogeochemistry of selenium and its impact on food chain quality and human health. J Trace Elem Med Biol 18(4):309–318

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Hess SY, Peerson JM, King JC, Brown KH (2007) Use of serum zinc concentration as an indicator of population zinc status. Food Nutr Bull 28(Supplement 3):403S–429S

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Hetzel BS (1990) Iodine deficiency: an international public health problem. In: Brown ML (ed) Present knowledge in nutrition. International Life Sciences Institute, Nutrition Foundation, Washington, pp 308–313

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Hipp BW, Cowley WR (1971) Importance of the P–Zn interaction in okra production. HortScience 6:211–212

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Horton S, Miloff A (2010) Iodine status and availability of iodized salt: a cross-country analysis. Food Nutr Bull 31(2):214–220

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Hotz C, Brown KH (2004) Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull 25:S91–S204

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    House WA, Welch RM (1989) Bioavailability of and interactions between zinc and selenium in rats fed wheat germ intrinsically labeled with 65Zn and 75Se. J Nutr 199:916–921

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Hussein L, Bruggeman J (1999) Selenium analysis of selected Egyptian foods and estimated daily intakes among a population group. Food Chemistry 65:527–532

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Johnson CC, Fordyce FM, Rayman MP (2010) Symposium on ‘Geographical and geological influences on nutrition’: factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 69(1):119–132

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Joint Food Safety and Standards Group (1999) Food Surveillance Information Sheet: Dietary Intake of Selenium, no. 126, LondonMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

  68. 68.

    Joy EJM, Ander EL, Young SD, Black CR, Watts MJ, Chilimba ADC, Chilima B, Siyame EWP, Kalimbira AA, Hurst R, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Stein AJ, Gibson RS, White PJ, Broadley MR (2014) Dietary mineral supplies in Africa. Physiologia Plantarum. doi:10.1111/ppl.12144

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Kadrabová J, Madaric A, Ginter E (1998) Determination of the daily selenium intake in Slovakia. Biological Trace Elements Research 61:277–286

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Kavas-Ogly AA, Lutfullaev FE, Rafiev AN, Onishenko VA, Abbasova BA, Rish MA (1995) Selenium intakes by inhabitants of the Samarkland oasis. In: Anke M (ed) Mengen-Spurenelem., Arbeitstag 18th. Verlag Harald Schubert, Leipsig, pp 395–399

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Kibirige MS, Hutchison S, Owen CJ, Delves HT (2004) Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F436–F439

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    King JC (2001) Effect of reproduction on the bioavailability of calcium, zinc and selenium. J Nutr 131(4):1355–13588S

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Kishosha PA, Galukande M, Gakwaya AM (2011) Selenium deficiency a factor in endemic goiter persistence in sub-Saharan Africa. World J Surg 35:1540–1545

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Klapec T, Mandic ML, Grigic J, Primorac L, Ikic M, Lovric T, Grigic Z, Herceg Z (1998) Daily dietary intake of selenium in eastern Croatia. Science of the Total Environment 217:127–136

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Kvíčala J, Zamrazil V, CIerIovska J, Bednar J, Janda J (1995) Evaluation of selenium supply and status of inhabitants of three selected rural and urban regions of the Czech Republic. Biological Trace Elements Research 47:365–375

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    La Daniels R, Gibson K Simmer (2000) Indicators of selenium status in Australian infants. J Paediatr Child Health 36:370–374

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Lamand M, Tressol JC, Bellanger J (1994) The mineral and trace element composition in French food items and intake levels in France. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 8:195–202

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Lander RL, Enkhjargal T, Batjargal J, Bailey KB, Diouf S, Green TJ, Murray Skeaff C, Gibson RS (2008) Multiple micronutrient deficiencies persist during early childhood in Mongolia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17(3):429–440

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Latteur JP (1962) Cobalt deficiencies and sub-deficiencies in ruminants. Centre D’Information du Cobalt, Brussels

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Lee KH, Jeong D (2012) Bimodal actions of selenium essential for antioxidant and toxic pro-oxidant activities: the selenium paradox (Review). Mol Med Rep 5(2):299–304

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Levander OA (1989) Upper limit of selenium in infant formulas. J Nutr 119(12 Suppl):1869–1872

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Lowe NM, Medina MW, Stammers A-L, Patel S, Souverein OW, Dullemeijer C, Serra-Majem L, Nissensohn M, Moran VH (2012) Systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 108:1962–1971

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    MacPherson A, Barclay MNI, Scott R, Yates RWS (1997) Loss of Canadian wheat imports lowers selenium intake and status of the Scottish population. In: Fischer PWF, L’AbbeA MR, Cockell KA, Gibson RS (eds) Trace Elements in Man and Animals-9. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp 203–205

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Mahomed K, Williams MA, Woelk GB, Mudzamiri S, Madzime S, King IB, Bankson DD (2000) Leukocyte selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Biological Trace Element Research 75(1–3):107–118

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Mäkelä A-L, Näntö V, Mäkelä P, Wang W (1993) The effect of nationwide selenium enrichment of fertilizers on selenium status of healthy Finnish medical students living in south western Finland. Biol Trace Elem Res 36:151–157

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Maleki A, Fard MK, Zadeh DH, Mamegani MA, Abasaizadeh S, Mazloomzadeh S (2011) The relationship between plasma level of Se and preeclampsia. Hypertension in Pregnancy 30(2):180–187

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Marzec Z (1999) Analytical and estimated values of chromium, nickel and selenium intakes with adult daily food rations. Bromatologi Chemicale Toksykologi 32:185–189

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Mayer A-M, Latham M, Duxbury J, Hassan N, Frongillo E (2007) A food-based approach to improving zinc nutrition through increasing the zinc content of rice in Bangladesh. J Hunger Environ Nutr 2(1):19–39

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    McDowell LR (2003) Minerals in animals and human nutrition, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science B.V, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    McGlashan ND (1991) Low selenium status and cot deaths. Med Hypotheses 35:311–314

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Merrill RD, Shamim AA, Ali H, Labrique AB, Schulze K, Christian P, West KP (2012) High prevalence of anemia with lack of iron deficiency among women in rural Bangladesh: a role for thalassemia and iron in groundwater. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 21(3):416–424

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Mistry HD, Wilson V, Ramsay MM, Symonds ME, Pipkin FB (2008) Reduced selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in preeclamptic pregnancies. Hypertension 52(5):881–888

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Mistry HD, Pipkin F, Redman C, Posten L (2012) Selenium in reproductive health. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206(1):21–30

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Mistry HD, Pipkin FB, Redman CWG, Poston L (2012) Selenium in reproductive health. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 206(1):21–30

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Mitchell JH, Nicol F, Beckett GJ, Arthur JR (1997) Selenium and iodine deficiencies: effects on brain and brown adipose tissue selenoenzyme activity and expression. J Endocrinol 155(2):255–263

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Moraghan JT (1994) Accumulation of zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium by navy bean seed. J Plant Nutr 17(7):1111–1125

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Muros P, Ruiz-Lopez D, Oea F (1992) Intake of iodine and major nutrients in an area of endemic goiter. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 38(6):603–607

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Murphy SP, Beaton GH, Calloway DH (1992) Estimated mineral intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr 56(3):565–572

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Ngo DB, Dikassa L, Okitolonda W, Kashala TD, Gervy C, Dumont J, Vanovervelt N, Contempre B, Diplock AT, Peach S, Vanderpas J (1997) Selenium status in pregnant women of rural population (Zaire) in relationship to iodine deficiency. Tropical Med Int Health 2(6):572–581

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Oldham E, Barrett CB, Benjelloun S, Ahanou B, Riley PJ (1998) An analysis of iodine deficiency disorder and eradication strategies in the high at atlas mountains of morocco. Ecol Food Nutr 37:197–217

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin, C, Vitamin, E. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, Selenium and Beta-Carotene and other Carotenoids

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Peak D, Sparks DL (2002) Mechanisms of selenate adsorption on iron oxides and hydroxides. Environ Sci Technol 36:1460–1466

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Pearce E, Andersson M, Zimmerman MB (2013) Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in 2013? Thyroid 23(5):523–528

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Peck NH, Grunes DL, Welch RM, MacDonald GE (1980) Nutritional quality of vegetable crops as affected by phosphorus and zinc fertilizers. Agron J 72:528–534

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Pesce L, Kopp P (2014) Iodide transport: implications for health and disease. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2014(1):8

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Pieczyńska J, Grajeta H (2015) The role of selenium in human conception and pregnancy. J Trace Elem Med Biol 29:31–38

  107. 107.

    Prasad A (1991) Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. Am J Clin Nutr 53:403–412

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Prasad A (2003) Zinc deficiency. Br Med J 326:409–410

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Prasad A, Halsted J, Nadimi M (1961) Syndrome of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypogonadism, dwarfism and geophagi. Am J Med 31:532–546

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Prasad AS, Schulert AR, Miale A, Farid Z, Sandstead HH (1963) Zinc and iron deficiencies in male subjects with dwarfism and hypogonadism but without ancylostomiasis, schistosomiasis or severe anemia. Am J Clin Nutr 12:437–444

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Rayman MP (1997) Dietary selenium: time to act. Br Med J 314:387–388

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356:233–241

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Rayman MP, Abou-Shakra FR, Ward NI, Redman CWG (1996) Comparison of selenium levels in pre-eclamptic and normal pregnancies. Biol Trace Element Res 55(1–2):9–20

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Rayman MP, Peter B, Redman CWG (2003) Low selenium status is associated with the occurrence of the pregnancy disease preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom. Am J Obst Gynecol 189(5):1343–1349

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Reilly C (1993) Selenium in health and disease: a review. Aust J Nutr Dietetics 50:136–144

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Ren Q, Fan F, Zhang Z, Zheng X, DeLong GR (2008) An environmental approach to correcting iodine deficiency: supplementing iodine in soil by iodination of irrigation water in remote areas. J Trace Elem Med Biol 22:1–8

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Robberecht HJ, Hendrix P, Van Cauwenbergh R, Deelstra HA (1994) Actual daily dietary intake of selenium in Belgium, using duplicate portion sampling. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung 199:251–254

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Robinson MF, Thomson CD (1987) Status of the food supply and residents of New Zealand. In: Combs GF Jr, Spallholz JE, Levander OA, Oldfield JE (eds) Selenium in Biology and Medicine, vol 2. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, pp 631–644

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Rodgers A, Vaughan P, Prentice T, Edejer T, Evans D, Lowe J (2002) The World Health Report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Santhosh Kumar B, Priyadarsini KI (2014) Selenium nutrition: how important is it? Biomed Prevent Nutr 4(2):333–341

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Sheppard MI, Thibault DH (1992) Chemical behaviour of iodine in organic and mineral soils. Appl Geochem 7(3):265–272

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Shetaya WH, Young SD, Watts MJ, Ander EL, Bailey EH (2012) Iodine dynamics in soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 77:457–473

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Shivay YS, Kumar D, Prasad R (2008) Effect of zinc-enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice–wheat cropping system. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 81:229–243

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Shortt CT, Duthie GC, Robertson JD, Morrice PC, Nicol F, Arthur JR (1997) Selenium status of a group of Scottish adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51:400–404

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Sillanpää M (1972) Trace elements in soils and agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin, 17. Rome

  126. 126.

    Sillanpää M (1982) Micronutrients and the Nutrient Status of Soils: A Global Study. FAO Soils Bulletin, 48. Rome

  127. 127.

    Sillanpää M (1990) Micronutrient assessment at the country level: an international study. FAO Soils Bulletin, 63. Rome

  128. 128.

    Sillanpää M, Vlek PLG (1985) Micronutrients and the agroecology of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Fertil Res 7:151–167

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Sima A, Pfannhauser W (1998) Selenium levels in foods produced in Austria. In: Anke M (ed) Mengen-Spurenelem., Arbeitstag 18th. Leipsig, Verlag Harald Schubert, pp 197–204

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Singh MV (2009) Micronutrient nutritional problems in soils of india and improvement for human and animal health. Indian J Fertil 5(4):11–16, 19–26, 56

  131. 131.

    Suzuki T, Hongo T, Ohba T, Kobayashi K, Imai H, Ishida H, Suzuki H (1989) The relation of dietary selenium to erythrocyte and plasma selenium concentrations in Japanese college women. Nutrition Research 9:839–848

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Takata H, Zheng J, Tagami K, Aono T, Fujita K, Yamasaki S, Tsuchiya N, Uchita S (2013) Distribution coefficients (Kd) of stable iodine in estuarine and coastal regions, Japan, and their relationship to salinity and organic carbon in sediments. Environ Monit Assess 185(5):3645–3658

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Thomson C (2004) Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Br J Nutr 91:66–672

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Thomson CD, Robinson MF (1988) Food concentrations and dietary intakes of selenium in Otago, New Zealand. In: McLaren RG, Haynes RJ, Savage GP (eds) Trace elements in New Zealand: environmental, human and animal. Lincoln College, Canterbury, pp 113–117

  135. 135.

    Tinggi U (2003) Essentiality and toxicity of selenium and its status in Australia: a review. Toxicol Lett 137:103–110

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    van Lettow M, Harries AD, Kumwenda JJ, Zijlstra EE, Clark TD, Taha TE, Semba RD (2004) Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi. BMC Infect Dis 4:61

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Vanderpump MP, Lazarus JH, Smyth PP, Laurberg P, Holder RL, Boelaert K, Franklyn JA (2011) Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 377(9782):2007–2012

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Weinberger K, Msuya J (2004) Indigenous vegetables in Tanzania—significance and prospects. The World Vegetable Center, Technical Bulletin No. 31

  139. 139.

    Welch RM, Graham RD (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crop Res 60:1–10

    Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Welch RM, House WA, Allaway WH (1974) Availability of Zn from pea seeds to rats. J Nutr 104(6):733–740

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Wessells KR, Brown KH (2012) Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. PLoS ONE 7(11):e50568

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Whitehead DC (1984) The distribution and transformations of iodine in the environment. Environ Int 10(4):321–339

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    WHO (2004) In: de Benoist B, Maria A, Ines E, Bahi T, Hnreitte A (eds) Iodine status worldwide: WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency. World Health Organization, Geneva

  144. 144.

    WHO (2008) In: de Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M (eds) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005, WHO Global Database on Anaemia. World Health Organization, Geneva, p. 9

  145. 145.

    World Bank (1994) Enriching lives: overcoming vitamin and mineral malnutrition in developing countries. World Bank, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    World Health Organization (1996) Selenium. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. WHO, Geneva, pp 105–122

    Google Scholar 

  147. 147.

    Xian G, Cai H, He Y, Li C (1997) Study of nutrition of Ca, P, Fe, Zn and Se of old people in Guangzhou city. Guangdong Weiliang Yuansu Kexue 4:38–41

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Yang GQ, Yin S, Zhou R, Gu L, Yan B, Liu Y, Liu Y (1989) Studies of safe maximal daily dietary Se-intake in a seleniferous area in China. Part II Relation between Se-intake and the manifestations of clinical signs and certain biochemical alterations in blood and urine. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 3:123–130

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Yoshita K, Tabata M, Kimura R, Miyashita Y, Hayashi K, Sagara T, Nakagawa H (1998) Relationship between selenium intake and foods intake and nutrients intake in middle-aged men. Eiyogaku Zasshi 56:19–148

    Google Scholar 

  150. 150.

    Zimmermann MB (2006) Iodine and the iodine deficiency disorders. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM (eds) Present knowledge in nutrition. International Life Sciences Institute, Nutrition Foundation, Washington, pp 471–479

    Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Zimmermann MB, Adou P, Torresani T, Zeder C, Hurrel RF (2000) Effect of oral iodized oil on thyroid size and thyroid hormone metabolism in children with concurrent selenium and iodine deficiency. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:209–213

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

I thank the NSF-funded Food Systems and Poverty Reduction IGERT for financial support, and workshop audiences at Cornell University, IFPRI Uganda, and IFPRI Washington DC for helpful comments and questions. Special thanks goes to Ross Welch, Christopher Barrett, Beth Medvecky, Christine Hotz, Anna-Marie Ball, Rachel Hestrin, Matthew Stasiewicz, Raymond Glahn and Michael Rutzke for valuable conversations and for thoughts and suggestions on earlier drafts of this paper. Thanks to two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful, detailed comments on an earlier draft of this paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leah E. M. Bevis.

Additional information

Endorsed by Christopher B. Barrett.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bevis, L.E.M. Soil-to-Human Mineral Transmission with an Emphasis on Zinc, Selenium, and Iodine. Springer Science Reviews 3, 77–96 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40362-014-0026-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Minerals
  • Zinc
  • Selenium
  • Iodine
  • Soil
  • Micronutrient malnutrition