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Seasonal changes in the water-use strategies of three herbaceous species in a native desert steppe of Ningxia, China

Abstract

Frequent periods of drought conditions are known to limit plant performance, primary production, and ecosystem stability in arid and semi-arid desert steppe environments. Plants often avoid competition by shifting their water use seasonally, which affects the water-use patterns of dominant species as well as the composition and structure of plant communities. However, the water-use strategies of dominant herbaceous species, which grow under natural field conditions in the desert steppe region of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, are poorly known. Here, we explored the possible sources of water uptake and water-use efficiency (WUE) of three dominant herbaceous plant species (Stipa breviflora, Agropyron mongolicum, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) in a native desert steppe in the semi-arid area of Ningxia through an analysis of multiple parameters, including (1) the stable isotopic oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δ2H) compositions of precipitation, soil water, and stem water, (2) the carbon isotope (13C) composition of leaves, and (3) the soil water contents, based on field sampling across varying water conditions from June to September, 2017. Frequent small precipitation events replenished shallow soil water, whereas large events only percolated down to the deep soil layers. Changes in soil water availability affected the water-use patterns of plants. Generally, during light precipitation periods, the deep root system of G. uralensis accessed deeper (>80 cm) soil water, whereas S. breviflora and A. mongolicum, which only have shallow roots, primarily absorbed water from the shallow and middle soil layers. As precipitation increased, all three plant species primarily obtained water from the shallow soil layers. Variation in soil water uptake between the dry and wet seasons enabled plants to make better use of existing satoil water. In addition, the δ13C values of G. uralensis and S. breviflora were higher than those of A. mongolicum. The δ13C values of the three plant species were significantly negatively correlated with soil water content. Therefore, G. uralensis and S. breviflora maintained a higher WUE through their conservative and water-saving strategies across the entire growing season. In contrast, A. mongolicum, with a relatively low WUE in the wet season but a high WUE in the dry season, exhibited a more flexible water-use strategy. The different water-use strategies of these dominant plant species demonstrated the mechanisms by which plant communities can respond to drought.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Open Project Program of the Breeding Base for State Key Laboratory of Land Degradation and Ecological Restoration of Northwestern China/Key Laboratory for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Northwestern China of Ministry of Education (2017KF004) and the Ningxia Natural Science Foundation of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China (2018AAC03002). We would like to thank Professor Cory MATTHEW from Massey University for his helpful suggestions and Dr. WANG Xing and Dr. WANG Lei from the Breeding Base for State Key Laboratory of Land Degradation and Ecological Restoration of Northwestern China/Key Laboratory for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in North-western China of Ministry of Education for their assistance with data analysis.

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Correspondence to Yingzhong Xie.

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Hu, H., Zhu, L., Li, H. et al. Seasonal changes in the water-use strategies of three herbaceous species in a native desert steppe of Ningxia, China. J. Arid Land 13, 109–122 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-021-0051-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-021-0051-z

Keywords

  • stable isotope
  • water source
  • water availability
  • water-use efficiency
  • soil water
  • desert steppe