The southwestern Iran is one of the regions that are most prone to dust events. The objective of this study is the analysis of the spatial and temporal distributions of dust deposition rate as a key factor for finding the relative impact of the dust. First, the monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was analyzed and compared with the dust amount variations from ground deposition rate (GDR), and the results were further used to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dust events in southwestern Iran for the period between 2014 and 2015. Moving air mass trajectories, using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, were proven to be a discriminator of their local and regional origin. The results from GDR analysis produced a correlation coefficient between dust event history and deposition rates at dust magnitudes of >0.93 that is meaningful at the 95% confidence level. Furthermore, the deposition rates varied from 3 g/m2 per month in summer to 10 g/m2 per month in spring and gave insight into the transport direction of the dust. Within the same time series, AOT correspondences with MODIS on Terra in four aerosol thickness layers (clean, thin, thick, and strong thick) were shown in relation to each other. The deepest mixed layers were observed in spring and summer with a thickness of approximately 3500 m above ground level in the study area. Investigations of ground-based observations were correlated with the same variations for each aerosol thickness layer from MODIS images and they can be applied to discriminate layers of aeolian dust from layers of other aerosols. Together, dust distribution plots from AOT participated to enhance mass calculations and estimation deposition rates from the thick and strong thick aerosol thickness layers using the results from GDR. Despite all the advances of AOT, under certain circumstances, ground-based observations are better able to represent aerosol conditions over the study area, which were tested in southwestern Iran, even though the low number of observations is a commonly acknowledged drawback of GDR.
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The authors would like to thank IRIMO (Iranian Meteorological Organization) for providing observation data for this research and MODIS Giovanni and NEO/NASA for their technical assistance and useful data. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Team (ARL) for providing the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model online.
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Foroushani, M.A., Opp, C. & Groll, M. Spatial and temporal gradients in the rate of dust deposition and aerosol optical thickness in southwestern Iran. J. Arid Land 13, 1–22 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-020-0079-5