Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. is a major species that is widely planted in afforested soils with different textures in the transitional zone between Mu Us Desert and Loess Plateau, China. However, the responses of A. pedunculata to increasing intensity of water stress in different textural soils are not clear. Here, we conducted a soil column experiment to evaluate the effects of different textures (sandy and loamy) on water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE), biomass accumulation and ecological adaptability of A. pedunculata under increasing water stress, i.e., 90% (±5%) FC (field capacity), 75% (±5%) FC, 60% (±5%) FC, 45% (±5%) FC and 30% (±5%) FC in 2018. A. pedunculata grown in the sandy soil with the lowest (30% FC) and highest (90% FC) water contents had respectively 21.3%–37.0% and 4.4%–20.4% less transpiration than those with other water treatments (45%–75% FC). In contrast, A. pedunculata transpiration in the loamy soil decreased with decreasing water content. The magnitude of decrease in transpiration increased with increasing level of water deficit (45% and 30% FC). Mean daily and cumulative transpirations of the plant were significantly lower in the sandy soil than in the loamy soil under good water condition (90% FC), but the reverse was noted under water deficit treatments (45% and 30% FC). Plant height, stem diameter and total biomass initially increased with decreasing water content from 90% to 75% FC and then declined under severe water deficit conditions (45% and 30% FC) in the sandy soil. However, these plant parameters decreased with decreasing water content in the loamy soil. WUE in the sandy soil was 7.8%–12.3% higher than that in the loamy soil, which initially increased with decreasing water content from 90% to 75% FC and then declined under water deficit conditions (45% and 30% FC). The study showed that plant transpiration, biomass production and WUE responded differentially to increasing intensity of water stress in the sandy and loamy soils. The contrasting responses of A. pedunculata to water stress in different textural soils can guide future revegetation programs in the northern region of Chinese Loess Plateau by considering plant adaptability to varying soil and water conditions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alberti G, Vicca S, Inglima I, et al. 2015. Soil C: N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree biomass and soil organic matter in high fertility forests. iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry, 8(2): 195–206.
Blackman C J, Brodribb T J, Jordan G J. 2010. Leaf hydraulics and drought stress: response, recovery and survivorship in four woody temperate plant species. Plant, Cell and Environment, 32(11): 1584–1595.
Blum A. 2009. Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crops Research, 112(2–3): 119–123.
Bozorov T A, Usmanov R M, Yang H L, et al. 2018. Effect of water deficiency on relationships between metabolism, physiology, biomass and yield of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Journal of Arid Land, 10(3): 441–456.
Bui H, Maloney, E D. 2018. Changes in Madden-Julian oscillation precipitation and wind variance under global warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(14): 7148–7155.
Chen H S, Shao M A, Li Y Y. 2008. Soil desiccation in the Loess Plateau of China. Geoderma, 143(1–2): 91–100.
Dolferus R, Ji X, Richards R. 2011. Abiotic stress and control of grain number in cereals. Plant Science, 181(4): 331–341.
Duong T, Penfold C, Marschner P. 2012. Amending soils of different texture with six compost types: impact on soil nutrient availability, plant growth and nutrient uptake. Plant and Soil, 354(1–2): 197–209.
Fang S M, Zhao C Y, Jian S Q. 2016. Canopy transpiration of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation forest in the Loess Plateau region of China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(5): 376–385.
Feng X M, Fu B J, Piao S L, et al. 2016. Revegetation in china’s loess plateau is approaching sustainable water resource limits. Nature Climate Change, 6(11): 1019–1022.
Feng Z, Wang X, Wu G. 1999. The Biomass and Productivity of the Forestry Ecosystem in China. Beijing: Scientific Publishing, 18–39. (in Chinese)
Fu Y L, Ma H L, Chen S Y, et al. 2018. Control of proline accumulation under drought via a novel pathway comprising the histone methylase CAU1 and the transcription factor ANAC055. Journal of Experimental Botany, 69(3): 579–588.
Gooding M J, Ellis R H, Shewry P R, et al. 2003. Effects of restricted water availability and increased temperature on the grain filling, drying and quality of winter wheat. Journal of Cereal Science, 37(3): 295–309.
Huang L M, Shao M A. 2019. Advances and perspectives on soil water research in China’s Loess Plateau. Earth-Science Reviews, 199: 102962.
Huang L M, Shao M A, Pei Y W, et al. 2019. Review on biological characteristics and abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms and applications of Amygdalus pedunculata. Soils, 51(2): 217–223. (in Chinese)
ISSCAS (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences). 1978. Methods for Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis. Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 55–150. (in Chinese)
Jiao L, Lu N, Sun G, et al. 2016. Biophysical controls on canopy transpiration in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China. Ecohydrology, 9(6): 1068–1081.
Jin S S, Wang Y K, Wang X, et al. 2019. Effect of pruning intensity on soil moisture and water use efficiency in jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) plantations in the hilly Loess Plateau region, China. Journal of Arid Land, 11(3): 446–460.
Katerji N, Mastrorilli M. 2009. The effect of soil texture on the water use efficiency of irrigated crops: results of a multi-year experiment carried out in the Mediterranean region. European Journal of Agronomy, 30(2): 95–100.
Kiani S P, Grieu P, Maury P, et al. 2007. Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 114(2): 193–207.
Korup K, Laerke P E, Baadsgaard H, et al. 2018. Biomass production and water use efficiency in perennial grasses during and after drought stress. Global Climate Bioenergy, 10(1): 12–27.
Kpoghomou B K, Sapra V T, Beyl C A. 2010. Sensitivity to drought stress of three soybean cultivars during different growth stages. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 164(2): 104–109.
Landi S, Hausman J F, Guerriero G, et al. 2017. Poaceae vs. abiotic stress: focus on drought and salt stress, recent insights and perspectives. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8(8): 1214–1223.
Lei Z Y, Han J M, Yi X P, et al. 2018. Coordinated variation between veins and stomata in cotton and its relationship with water-use efficiency under drought stress. Photosynthetica, 56(4): 1326–1335.
Li Y, Wallach R, Cohen Y. 2002. The role of soil hydraulic conductivity on the spatial and temporal variation of root water uptake in drip-irrigated corn. Plant and Soil, 243(2): 131–142.
Liberati D, Dedato G, Guidolotti G, et al. 2018. Linking photosynthetic performances with the changes in cover degree of three Mediterranean shrubs under climate manipulation. Oikos, 127(11): 1633–1645.
Liu X, Fan Y Y, Long J X, et al. 2013. Effects of soil water and nitrogen availability on photosynthesis and water use efficiency of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25(3): 585–595.
Lu X L, Zhuang Q L. 2010. Evaluating evapotranspiration and water-use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems in the conterminous United States using MODIS and AmeriFlux data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(9): 1924–1939.
Ma J, Li R Q, Wang H G, et al. 2017. Transcriptomics analyses reveal wheat responses to drought stress during reproductive stages under field conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 592–605.
Ma Y Q, An Y, Shui J F, et al. 2011. Adaptability evaluation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars on the Loess Plateau of China. Plant Science, 181(6): 638–643.
Mao N, Huang L M, Shao M A. 2018. Vertical distribution of soil organic and inorganic carbon under different vegetation covers in two toposequences of Liudaogou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 73: 479–491. (in Chinese)
Mathobo R, Marais D, Steyn J M. 2017. The effect of drought stress on yield, leaf gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Agricultural Water Management, 180: 118–125.
Mi M X, Shao M A, Liu B X. 2016. Effect of rock fragments content on water consumption, biomass and water-use efficiency of plants under different water conditions. Ecological Engineering, 94: 574–582.
Nelissen H, Sun X, Rymen B, et al. 2018. The reduction in maize leaf growth under mild drought affects the transition between cell division and cell expansion and cannot be restored by elevated gibberellic acid levels. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 16(2): 615–627.
Pei Y W, Huang L M, Jia X X, et al. 2018. Effects of drought stress on the physiological and ecological characteristics of Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. and Salix psammophila seedlings in soils with different texture on the Loess Plateau. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 32(5): 237–242. (in Chinese)
Pei Y W, Huang L M, Jia X X, et al. 2019. Soil water availability and its influencing factors in soils under two types of shrubberies typical of the Loess Plateau. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 56(3): 627–637. (in Chinese)
Qin J, Xi W M, Alexander R, et al. 2016. Effects of forest plantation types on leaf traits of Ulmus pumila and Robinia pseudoacacia on the Loess Plateau, China. Ecological Engineering, 97: 416–425.
Quick W P, Chaves M M, Wendler R, et al. 1992. The effect of water stress on photosynthetic carbon metabolism in four species grown under field conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment, 15(1): 25–35.
Roncucci N, Nicoletta N, Bonari E, et al. 2015. Influence of soil texture and crop management on the productivity of miscanthus in the Mediterranean. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 7(5): 998–1008.
Shao M A, Wang Y Q, Xia Y H, et al. 2018. Soil drought and water carrying capacity for vegetation in the critical zone of the Loess Plateau: a review. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1): 1–8.
Su Y Z, Wang J Q, Yang R, et al. 2015. Soil texture controls vegetation biomass and organic carbon storage in arid desert grassland in the middle of Hexi Corridor region in northwest china. Soil Research, 53(4): 366–376.
Sun W Y, Song X Y, Mu X M, et al. 2015. Spatiotemporal vegetation cover variations associated with climate change and ecological restoration in the loess plateau. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 209–210(1): 87–99.
Swain P, Raman A, Singh S P, et al. 2017. Breeding drought tolerant rice for shallow rainfed ecosystem of eastern India. Field Crops Research, 209: 168–178.
Taghvaeian S, Chavez J L, Bausch W C, et al. 2014. Minimizing instrumentation requirement for estimating crop water stress index and transpiration of maize. Irrigation Science, 32(1): 53–65.
Tang Y K, Xu W, Chen Y M, et al. 2018. Water use strategies for two dominant tree species in pure and mixed plantations of the semiarid Chinese Loess Plateau. Ecohydrology, 11(4): e1943.
Tian G, Huang Y, Ying S. 1987. The soil physical properties with relation to the loess genesis in the loess region. Memoir of NISWC, Academic Sinica, 1: 1–12. (in Chinese)
Tramontini S, van Leeuwen C, Domec J, et al. 2013. Impact of soil texture and water availability on the hydraulic control of plant and grape-berry development. Plant and Soil, 368(1–2): 215–230.
Verslues P E. 2017. Time to grow: factors that control plant growth during mild to moderate drought stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 40(2): 177–179.
Wang S, Fu B J, Chen H B, et al. 2018. Regional development boundary of China’s Loess Plateau: Water limit and land shortage. Land Use Policy, 74: 130–136.
Wang W, Wang H L, Xiao X Z, et al. 2019. Wild almond (Amygdalus pedunculata Pall.) as potential nutritional resource for the future: studies on its chemical composition and nutritional value. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 13(1): 250–258.
Wang Y Q, Shao M A, Zhu Y J, et al. 2018. A new index to quantify dried soil layers in water-limited ecosystems: A case study on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geoderma, 322: 1–11.
Wu Y Z, Huang M A, Warrington D N. 2011a. Growth and transpiration of maize and winter wheat in response to water deficits in pots and plots. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 71(1): 65–71.
Wu Y Z, Huang M B, Warrington D. 2011b. Responses of different physiological indices for maize (Zea mays) to soil water availability. Pedosphere, 21(5): 639–649.
Xu B C, Xu W Z, Huang J, et al. 2011. Biomass allocation, relative competitive ability and water use efficiency of two dominant species in semiarid Loess Plateau under water stress. Plant Science, 181(6): 644–651.
Yan W M, Zhong Y Q, Shangguan Z P. 2016. Evaluation of physiological traits of summer maize under drought stress. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 66(2): 133–140.
Yan W M, Zhong Y Q, Shangguan Z P. 2017. Rapid response of the carbon balance strategy in Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa to recurrent drought. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 138: 46–56.
Yu M Z, Zhang L L, Xu X X, et al. 2015. Impact of land-use changes on soil hydraulic properties of calcaric regosols on the Loess Plateau, NW China. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 178(3): 486–498.
Zarebanadkouki M, Ahmed M A, Carminati A. 2015. Hydraulic conductivity of the root-soil interface of lupin in sandy soil after drying and rewetting. Plant and Soil, 398(1): 1–14.
Zhang X. 2002. Study on the composition of soil particles and texture zoning of the Loess Plateau. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 3: 11–13. (in Chinese)
Zhang X B, Lei L, Lai J S, et al. 2018. Effects of drought stress and water recovery on physiological responses and gene expression in maize seedlings. Biomed Central Plant Biology, 18(1): 68–79.
Zhang W Q, Wang Y Q, He K N, et al. 2008. Factors affecting transpiration of Pinus tabulaeformis in a semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau. Frontiers of Forestry in China, 3(2): 194–199.
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41601221), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFC0501605), the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (2019QZKK0306), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA23070202), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2019052), the Bingwei Outstanding Young Talent Project from the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research (2017RC203), and the Scientific Research Program from State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Resources (A314021402-1602, A314021402-2010). We thank Dr. WU Yuanzhi and Mr. LI Ronglei for their help during the experiment.
About this article
Cite this article
Pei, Y., Huang, L., Shao, M. et al. Responses of Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. in the sandy and loamy soils to water stress. J. Arid Land 12, 791–805 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-020-0016-7
- soil texture
- water consumption
- biomass production
- water use efficiency
- Loess Plateau