Abdi S, Abbaspur N, Avestan S, et al. 2016. Sana physiological responses of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars to Cycocel™ treatment during drought. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 91(3): 211–219.
Acuña T B, Lisson S, Johnson P, et al. 2015. Yield and water-use efficiency of wheat in a high-rainfall environment. Crop and Pasture Science, 66(5): 419–429.
Andrew W, Jaime V, Alice B, et al. 2016. Past human disturbance effects upon biodiversity are greatest in the canopy: a case study on rainforest butterflies. PloS ONE, 11(3): e0150520.
Augé R M, Toler H D, Saxton A M. 2015. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters stomatal conductance of host plants more under drought than under amply watered conditions: a meta-analysis. Mycorrhiza, 25(1): 13–24.
Bai W, Fang Y, Zhou M, et al. 2015. Heavily intensified grazing reduces root production in an Inner Mongolia temperate steppe. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 200: 143–150.
Borchard N, Schirrmann M, von Hebel C, et al. 2015. Spatio-temporal drivers of soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes at field scale in an upland grassland in Germany. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 211(12): 84–93.
Calama R, Puértolas J, Madrigal G, et al. 2013. Modeling the environmental response of leaf net photosynthesis in Pinus pinea L. natural regeneration. Ecologcal Modelling, 251: 9–21.
Casazza M L, Overton C T, Bui T V D, et al. 2016. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground. Ecology and Society, 21(1): 19.
Chen S P, Bai Y F, Lin G H, et al. 2005. Effects of grazing on photosynthetic characteristics of major steppe species in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Photosynthetica, 43(4): 559–565.
Chesson P. 2000. Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31(1): 343–366.
Elazab A, Serret M D, Araus J L. 2016. Interactive effect of water and nitrogen regimes on plant growth, root traits and water status of old and modern durum wheat genotypes. Planta, 244(1): 125–144.
Erel R, Yermiyahu U, Ben-Gal A, et al. 2015. Modification of non-stomatal limitation and photoprotection due to K and Na nutrition of olive trees. Journal of Plant Physiology, 177: 1–10.
Farquhar G D, Sharkey T D. 1982. Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 33: 317–345.
Flexas J, Medrano H. 2002. Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non-stomatal limitations revisited. Annals of Botany, 89(2): 183–189.
Fu G, Shen Z X, Sun W, et al. 2015. A meta-analysis of the effects of experimental warming on plant physiology and growth on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 34(1): 57–65.
Ghorbani N, Raiesi F, Ghorbani S. 2012. Bulk soil and particle size-associated C and N under grazed and ungrazed regimes in Mountainous arid and semi-arid rangelands. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 93(1): 15–34.
Gu J, Zhou Z, Li Z, et al. 2017. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with reduced chlorophyll content exhibit higher photosynthetic rate and efficiency, improved canopy light distribution, and greater yields than normally pigmented plants. Field Crops Research, 200: 58–70.
Guo R Q, Ruan H, Yang W J, et al. 2011. Differential responses of leaf water-use efficiency and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency to fertilization in Bt-introduced and conventional rice lines. Photosynthetica, 49(4): 507–514.
Guo S, Zhou Y, Shen Q, et al. 2007. Effect of ammonium and nitrate nutrition on some physiological processes in higher plants growth, photosynthesis, photorespiration, and water relations. Plant Biology, 9(1): 21–29.
Herrero-Jáuregui, C, Oesterheld, M. 2017. Effects of grazing intensity on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis. Oikos, 127(6): 757–766.
Hu Y K, Gao G G, Li K H, et al. 2009. The succession of plant communities in alpine grasslands in different ages of enclosing. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 31(6): 1186–1194. (in Chinese)
Humphrey P T, Gloss A D, Alexandre N M, et al. 2016. Aversion and attraction to harmful plant secondary compounds jointly shape the foraging ecology of a specialist herbivore. Ecology and Evolution, 6(10): 3256–3268.
Jia K X, Wang Y Y, Sun W N, et al. 2012. Drought-responsive mechanisms in rice genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance during reproductive stage. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169(4): 336–344.
Jiang W W, Chen Y Q, Huang J R, et al. 2010. Photosynthetic characteristics with four cultivars of Aster novae-angliae. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College, 25(8): 487–506. (in Chinese)
Jiao J Y, Zou H Y, Jia Y F, et al. 2009. Research progress on the effects of soil erosion on vegetation. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(2): 85–91. (in Chinese)
Linkosalo T, Elkhouri H, Mäkipää R, et al. 2016. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration enhances the development of photosynthetic capacity beyond the temperature effect for silver birch in simulated future climate. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 32(8): 651–657.
Liu C, Wang Y, Jin Y, et al. 2017. Photoprotection regulated by phosphorus application can improve photosynthetic performance and alleviate oxidative damage in dwarf bamboo subjected to water stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 118: 88–97.
Liu H, Zang R, Chen H Y H. 2016. Effects of grazing on photosynthetic features and soil respiration of rangelands in the Tianshan Mountains of Northwest China. Scientific Reports, 6: 30087.
Liu M, Gong J R, Pan Y, et al. 2016. Effects of grass-legume mixtures on the production and photosynthetic capacity of constructed grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China. Crop and Pasture Science, 67(11): 1188–1198.
Liu H, Fu Y, Wang M, et al. 2017. Green light enhances growth, photosynthetic pigments and CO2 assimilation efficiency of lettuce as revealed by ‘knock-out’ of the 480–560 nm spectral waveband. Photosynthetica, 55(1): 144–152.
Liu L, Guan L, Liu X. 2017. Directly estimating diurnal changes in GPP for C3 and C4 crops using far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232: 1–9.
Marshall B, Biscoe P V. 1980. A model for C3 leaves describing the dependence of net photosynthesis on Irradiance. I. Derivation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 31(1): 29–39.
Müller K, Dickhoefer U, Lin L, et al. 2014. Impact of grazing intensity on herbage quality, feed intake and live weight gain of sheep grazing on the steppe of Inner Mongolia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 152(1): 153–165.
Mekuria W. 2013. Changes in regulating ecosystem services following establishing exclosures on communal grazing lands in Ethiopia: a synthesis. Journal of Ecosystems, https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/860736.
Mudrik V, Kosobrukhov A, Knyazeva I, et al. 2003. Changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of Plantago major plants caused by soil drought stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 40(1): 1–6.
Nijs I, Ferris R, Blum H. 1997. Stomatal regulation in a changing climate: A field study using free air temperature increase (FATL) and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE). Plant Cell and Environments, 20(8): 1041–1050.
Pei S, Fu H, Wan C. 2008. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 124(1–2): 33–39.
Prieto J A, Giorgi E G, Pena J P. 2010. Modelling photosynthetic-light response on Syrah leaves with different exposure. Vitis, 49(3): 145–146.
Pulido M, Schnabel S, Lozano-Parra J, et al. 2018. The impact of heavy grazing on soil quality and pasture production in rangelands of SW Spain. Land Degradation & Development, 29(2): 219–230.
Qian J, Wang Z, Liu Z, et al. 2017. Belowground bud bank responses to grazing intensity in the Inner-Mongolia Steppe, China. Land Degradation & Development, 28(3): 822–832.
Qiao Y Z, Zhang Y B, Wang K Y, et al. 2007. A new viewpoint to understand the response of leaf dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration. Photosynthetica, 45: 510–514.
Ramalhosa P, Debus S L, Kaufmann M, et al. 2017. A non-native macroalga is less attractive for herbivores but more susceptible to light limitation and grazing stress than a comparable native species. Helgoland Marine Research, https://doi.org/10.1186/s10152-016-0478-3.
Reef R, Winter K, Morales J, et al. 2015. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on the performance of the mangrove Avicennia germinans over a range of salinities. Physiologia Plantarum, 154(3): 358–368.
Ren H, Han G, Lan Z, et al. 2016. Grazing effects on herbage nutritive values depend on precipitation and growing season in Inner Mongolian Grassland. Journal of Plant Ecology, 9(6): 712–723.
Ren W, Hu N, Hou X, et al. 2017. Long-term overgrazing-induced memory decreases photosynthesis of clonal offspring in a perennial grassland plant. Frontiers in Plant Science, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00419.
Ruizalbarran M, Balocchi O, Wittwer F, et al. 2016. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 76(1): 34–39.
Shi F S, Wu Y, Wu N, et al. 2010. Different growth and physiological responses to experimental warming of two dominant plant species Elymus nutans and Potentilla anserina in an alpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Photosynthetica, 48(3): 437–445.
Singsaas E L, Ort D R, DeLucia E H. 2001. Variation in measured values of photosynthetic quantum yield in ecophysiological studies. Oecologia, 128(1): 15–23.
Strahan R T, Laughlin D C, Bakker J D, et al. 2015. Long-term protection from heavy livestock grazing affects ponderosa pine understory composition and functional traits. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 68(3): 257–265.
Thornley J H M. 1998. Dynamic model of leaf photosynthesis with acclimation to light and nitrogen. Annals of Botany, 81(3): 421–430.
Urban J, Ingwers M W, Mcguire M A, et al. 2017. Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra. Journal of Experimental Botany, 68(7): 1757–1767.
Wang D, Wu G L, Liu Y, et al. 2015. Effects of grazing exclusion on CO2 fluxes in a steppe grassland on the Loess Plateau (China). Ecological Engineering, 83: 169–175.
Wang H, Prentice I C, Davis T W, et al. 2017. Photosynthetic responses to altitude: an explanation based on optimality principles. New Phytologist, 213(3): 976–982.
Wang Q L, Hua L M, Yang S W. 2014. Variation of grassland NDVI, climate factors and standing carrying capacity and their correlation in northern-Qilian Mountains from 1982 to 2006. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 49(4): 127–135. (in Chinese)
Wang X, Vignjevic M, Liu F, et al. 2015. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat. Plant Growth Regulation, 75(3): 677–687.
Wang Y, Wesche K. 2016. Vegetation and soil responses to livestock grazing in Central Asian grasslands: a review of Chinese literature. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(12): 2401–2420.
Wertin T M, Reed S C, Belnap J. 2015. C3 and C4, plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Oecologia, 177(4): 997–1013.
Wu F, Sheng P, Tan J, et al. 2015. Plasma membrane receptor-like kinase leaf panicle 2 acts downstream of the drought and salt tolerance transcription factor to regulate drought sensitivity in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(1): 271–281.
Wu F Z, Bao W K, Li F L, et al. 2008. Effects of water stress and nitrogen supply on leaf gas exchange and fluorescence parameters of Sophora davidii seedlings. Photosynthetica, 46(1): 40–48.
Xia J, Zhang S, Guo J, et al. 2015. Critical effects of gas exchange parameters in Tamarix chinensis Lour on soil water and its relevant environmental factors on a shell ridge island in China’s Yellow River Delta. Ecological Engineering, 76: 36–46.
Xiao A, Xu B, Liu J. 2006. A study on photosynthetic characteristics of Callistemon rigidus R. Br. Southwest Horticulture, 34(3): 19–20. (in Chinese)
Xu B C, Li F M, Shan L, et al. 2006. Gas exchange, biomass partition, and water relationships of three grass seedlings under water stress. Weed Biology and Management, 6(2): 79–88.
Xu B C, Xu W Z, Huang J, et al. 2011. Biomass production and relative competitiveness of a C3 legume and a C4 grass co-dominant in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China. Plant and Soil, 347(1–2): 25–39.
Yang S H, Wei J J, Ge H. 2016. The altitudinal effects on photosynthesis of Rosa platyacantha from the Tianshan Mountains in Northwestern China. Photosynthetica, 54(4): 572–580.
Yin C Y, Berninger F, Li C Y. 2006. Photosynthetic responses of Populus przewalski subjected to drought stress. Photosynthetica, 44(1): 62–68.
Zhang H, Gilbert B, Wang W, et al. 2013. Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity. Ecology and Evolution, 3(10): 3604–3612.
Zhang Q, Zhang T J, Chow W S, et al. 2015. Photosynthetic characteristics and light energy conversions under different light environments in five tree species occupying dominant status at different stages of subtropical forest succession. Functional Plant Biology, 42(7): 1–9.
Zhang T, Zhang Y, Xu M, et al. 2015. Light-intensity grazing improves alpine meadow productivity and adaption to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau. Scientific Reports, 5: 15949.
Zhang Y L, Zhang H Z, Feng G Y, et al. 2009. Leaf diaheliotropic movement can improve carbon gain and water use efficiency and not intensify photoinhibition in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Photosynthetica, 47(4): 609–615.
Zhang Y P, Zhu X H, Ding H D, et al. 2013. Foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide alleviates high-temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in seedlings of two melon cultivars. Photosynthetica, 51(3): 341–349.
Zhao C, Gao J, Huang Y, et al. 2017. The contribution of Astragalus adsurgens roots and canopy to water erosion control in the water-wind crisscrossed erosion region of the Loess Plateau, China. Land Degradation & Development, 28(1): 265–273.
Zhao W Y, Xu S, Li J L, et al. 2008. Effects of foliar application of nitrogen on the photosynthetic performance and growth of two fescue cultivars under heat stress. Biologia Plantarum, 52(1): 113–116.
Zhu S D, Li R H, Song J, et al. 2016. Different leaf cost-benefit strategies of ferns distributed in contrasting light habitats of sub-tropical forests. Annals of Botany, 117(3): 497–506.
Zlatev Z, Fernando C L. 2012. An overview on drought induced changes in plant growth, water relations and photosynthesis. Emirates Journal of Food & Agriculture, 24(1): 520–524.