Journal of Arid Land

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 264–276 | Cite as

Variations of the thermal growing season during the period 1961–2015 in northern China

Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Researching into changes in thermal growing season has been one of the most important scientific issues in studies of the impact of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies investigated the differences under various definitions of thermal growing season and compared the trends of thermal growing season in different parts of China. Based on the daily mean air temperatures collected from 877 meteorological stations over northern China from 1961 to 2015, we investigated the variations of the thermal growing season parameters including the onset, ending and duration of the growing season using the methods of differential analysis, trend analysis, comparative analysis, and Kriging interpolation technique. Results indicate that the differences of the maximum values of those indices for the thermal growing season were significant, while they were insignificant for the mean values. For indices with the same length of the spells exceeding 5°C, frost criterion had a significant effect on the differences of the maximum values. The differences of the mean values between frost and non-frost indices were also slight, even smaller than those from the different lengths of the spells. Temporally, the starting date of the thermal growing season advanced by 10.0–11.0 days, while the ending dates delayed by 5.0–6.0 days during the period 1961–2015. Consequently, the duration of the thermal growing season was prolonged 15.0–16.0 days. Spatially, the advanced onset of the thermal growing season occurred in the southwestern, eastern, and northeastern parts of northern China, whereas the delayed ending of the thermal growing season appeared in the western part, and the length of the thermal growing season was prolonged significantly in the vast majority of northern China. The trend values of the thermal growing season were affected by altitude. The magnitude of the earlier onset of the thermal growing season decreased, and that of the later ending increased rapidly as the altitude increased, causing the magnitude of the prolonged growing season increased correspondingly. Comparing the applicability of selected indices and considering the impacts of frost on the definitions are important and necessary for determining the timing and length of the thermal growing season in northern China.

Keywords

daily mean air temperatures length of the growing season starting date of the thermal growing season ending date of the thermal growing season trend northern China 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571044, 41401661, 41001283), the Climate Change Special Fund of the China Meteorological Administration (CCSF201716) and the China Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Fund Project (2012043).

References

  1. Barichivich J, Briffa K R, Osborn T J, et al. 2012. Thermal growing season and timing of biospheric carbon uptake across the northern Hemisphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 26(4): GB4015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown P J, Bradley R S, Keimig F T. 2010. Changes in extreme climate indices for the northeastern United States, 1870–2005. Journal of Climate, 23(24): 6555–6572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burrows M T, Schoeman D S, Buckley L B, et al. 2011. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Science, 334(6056): 652–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter T R. 1998. Changes in the thermal growing season in Nordic countries during the past century and prospects for the future. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland, 7(2): 161–179.Google Scholar
  5. Chi D K, Wang H, Li X B, et al. 2016. The variability of growing season of different vegetation types in Xilingol League. Pratacultural Science, 33(9): 1825–1834. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Dong M Y, Jiang Y, Zheng C T, et al. 2012. Trends in the thermal growing season throughout the Tibetan Plateau during 1960–2009. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 166–167: 201–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frich P, Alexander L V, Della-Marta P, et al. 2002. Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research, 19(3): 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo L H, Wu S H, Zhao D S, et al. 2013. Change trends of growing season over Inner Mongolia in the past 50 years. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 33(4): 505–512. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Guo L H, Wu S H, Zhao D S, et al. 2014. Variations and trends of climatic growing season in different vegetation zones, Inner Mongolia over the past 50 years. Arid Land Geography, 37(3): 532–538. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Guo Y Y, Jiang Y, Dong M Y, et al. 2016. Trends in the tree growing season throughout the Hebei and Shanxi mountainous region and Loess Plateau of North China from 1961 to 2013. Resources Science, 38(4): 758–767. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Hao H F, Gu Y Q, Hao H L. 2017. The spring phenological change characteristics of ligneous plants and their response to climate warming in Kashgar prefecture. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 31(5): 153–157. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Høgda K A, Tømmervik H, Karlsen S R. 2013. Trends in the start of the growing season in Fennoscandia 1982–2011. Remote Sensing, 5(9): 4304–4318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1–95.Google Scholar
  14. Jones P D, Briffa K R, Osborn T J, et al. 2002. Relationships between circulation strength and the variability of growing-season and cold-season climate in northern and central Europe. The Holocene, 12(6): 643–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Linderholm H W. 2006. Growing season changes in the last century. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 137(1–2): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mozafari G, Torki M. 2015. A study of initial, final and growing season length in west of Iran. International Journal of Advanced Biological & Biomedical Research, 3(1): 65–69.Google Scholar
  17. Nagai S, Saitoh T M, Nasahara K N, et al. 2015. Spatio-temporal distribution of the timing of start and end of growing season along vertical and horizontal gradients in Japan. International Journal of Biometeorology, 59(1): 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Piao S L, Friedlingstein P, Ciais P, et al. 2007. Growing season extension and its impact on terrestrial carbon cycle in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 2 decades. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21(3): GB3018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shen M G, Tang Y H, Chen J, et al. 2012. Specification of thermal growing season in temperate China from 1960 to 2009. Climatic Change, 114(3–4): 783–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Song Y L, Linderholm H W, Chen D L, et al. 2010. Trends of the thermal growing season in China, 1951–2007. International Journal of Climatology, 30(1): 33–43.Google Scholar
  21. Sun Y L, Yang Y L, Zhang Y, et al. 2015. Assessing vegetation dynamics and their relationships with climatic variability in northern China. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 87–88: 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Walther A, Linderholm H W. 2006. A comparison of growing season indices for the Greater Baltic Area. International Journal of Biometeorology, 51(2): 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang H, Liu G H, Li Z S, et al. 2016. Driving force and changing trends of vegetation phenology in the Loess Plateau of China from 2000 to 2010. Journal of Mountain Science, 13(5): 844–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. White M A, Hoffman F, Hargrove W, et al. 2005. A global framework for monitoring phenological responses to climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(4): L04705, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xu C Y, Liu H Y, Williams A P, et al. 2016. Trends toward an earlier peak of the growing season in northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Global Change Biology, 22(8): 2852–2860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang L P, Qin Y, Zhang C H, et al. 2016. Influence of climate change on the phenophase of Larix gmelinii in the Greater Khingan Mountains. Arid Zone Research, 33(3): 577–583. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Yang X C, Tian Z, Chen B D. 2013. Thermal growing season trends in east China, with emphasis on urbanization effects. International Journal of Climatology, 33(10): 2402–2412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng J Y, Ge Q S, Hao Z X. 2002. Impacts of climate warming on plants phenophases in China for the last 40 years. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47(21): 1826–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Institute of Meteorological ScienceShanghai Meteorological BureauShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and HealthShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Climate CenterShanghai Meteorological BureauShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations