Meteorological impacts on evapotranspiration in different climatic zones of Pakistan

Abstract

Arid regions are highly vulnerable and sensitive to drought. The crops cultivated in arid zones are at high risk due to the high evapotranspiration and water demands. This study analyzed the changes in seasonal and annual evapotranspiration (ET) during 1951–2016 at 50 meteorological stations located in the extremely arid, arid, and semi-arid zones of Pakistan using the Penman Monteith (PM) method. The results show that ET is highly sensitive and positively correlated to temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed whereas vapor pressure is negatively correlated to ET. The study also identifies the relationship of ET with the meteorological parameters in different climatic zones of Pakistan. The significant trend analysis of precipitation and temperature (maximum and minimum) are conducted at 95% confidence level to determine the behaviors of these parameters in the extremely arid, arid, and semi-arid zones. The mean annual precipitation and annual mean maximum temperature significantly increased by 0.828 mm/a and 0.014°C/a in the arid and extremely arid zones, respectively. The annual mean minimum temperature increased by 0.017°C/a in the extremely arid zone and 0.019°C/a in the arid zone, whereas a significant decrease of 0.007°C/a was observed in the semi-arid zone. This study provides probabilistic future scenarios that would be helpful for policy-makers, agriculturists to plan effective irrigation measures towards the sustainable development in Pakistan.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.

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Correspondence to Shahzada Adnan.

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Adnan, S., Ullah, K., Khan, A.H. et al. Meteorological impacts on evapotranspiration in different climatic zones of Pakistan. J. Arid Land 9, 938–952 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-017-0107-2

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Keywords

  • evapotranspiration
  • meteorological parameters
  • climatic zone
  • Penman Monteith method
  • Pakistan