Alberti G, Vedove G D, Zuliani M, et al. 2010. Changes in CO2 emissions after crop conversion from continuous maize to alfalfa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 136(1–2): 139–147.
Al-Kaisi M M, Yin X H. 2005. Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn-soybean rotations. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34(2): 437–445.
Allen R G, Pereira L S, Raes D, et al. 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 56.
Amos B, Arkebauer T J, Doran J W. 2005. Soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases in an irrigated maize-based agroecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69(2): 387–395.
Anderson T H, Domsch K H. 1986. Carbon assimilation and microbial activity in soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 149(4): 457–468.
Arroita M, Causapé J, Comín F A, et al. 2013. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 263: 139–145.
Bajracharya R M, Lal R, Kimble J M. 2000. Diurnal and seasonal CO2-C flux from soil as related to erosion phases in central Ohio. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64(1): 286–293.
Butenschoen O, Scheu S, Eisenhauer N. 2011. Interactive effects of warming, soil humidity and plant diversity on litter decomposition and microbial activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43(9): 1902–1907.
Calderón F J, Jackson L E. 2002. Rototillage, disking, and subsequent irrigation: effects on soil nitrogen dynamics, microbial biomass, and carbon dioxide efflux. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31(3): 752–758.
Chai Z P, Liang Z, Wang X M, et al. 2008. The influence of the different methods of irrigation on the soil physical properties in cotton field. Journal of Xinjiang Agricultural University, 31(5): 57–59. (in Chinese)
Curtin D, Wang H, Selles F, et al. 2000. Tillage effects on carbon fluxes in continuous wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64(6): 2080–2086.
Duxbury J M. 1995. The significance of agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions from soil of tropical agroecosystems. In: Lal R, Kimble J, Levine E, et al. Soil Management and the Greenhouse Effect. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publication, 279–291.
Fang C, Moncrieff J B, Gholz H L, et al. 1998. Soil CO2 efflux and its spatial variation in a Florida slash pine plantation. Plant and Soil, 205(2): 135–146.
Gao Y, Yang L L, Shen X J, et al. 2014. Winter wheat with subsurface drip irrigation (SDI): crop coefficients, water-use estimates, and effects of SDI on grain yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management, 146: 1–10.
Gillabel J, Denef K, Brenner J, et al. 2007. Carbon sequestration and soil aggregation in center-pivot irrigated and dryland cultivated farming systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71(3): 1020–1028.
Han L, Zhang Y L, Jin S, et al. 2010. Effect of different irrigation methods on dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon in the greenhouse soil. Agricultural Sciences in China, 9(8): 1175–1182.
Han X Z, Li H B, Horwath W R. 2013. Temporal variations in soil CO2 efflux under different land use types in the black soil zone of Northeast China. Pedosphere, 23(5): 636–650.
Haynes R J. 2000. Labile organic matter as an indicator of organic matter quality in arable and pastoral soils in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(2): 211–219.
Insam H, Merschak P. 1997. Nitrogen leaching from forest soil cores after amending organic recycling products and fertilizers. Waste Management & Research, 15(3): 277–292.
Iqbal J, Hu R G, Feng M L, et al. 2010. Microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen strongly affect soil respiration in different land uses: a case study at Three Gorges Reservoir Area, South China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 137(3–4): 294–307.
Jabro J D, Sainju U, Stevens W B, et al. 2008. Carbon dioxide flux as affected by tillage and irrigation in soil converted from perennial forages to annual crops. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4): 1478–1484.
Kallenbach C M, Rolston D E, Horwath W R. 2010. Cover cropping affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions differently depending on type of irrigation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 137(3–4): 251–260.
Kendy E, Gérard-Marchant P, Walter M T, et al. 2003. A soil-water-balance approach to quantify groundwater recharge from irrigated cropland in the North China plain. Hydrological Processes, 17(10): 2011–2031.
Kennedy T L, Suddick E C, Six J. 2013. Reduced nitrous oxide emissions and increased yields in California tomato cropping systems under drip irrigation and fertigation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 170: 16–27.
Kirschbaum M U F. 2004. Soil respiration under prolonged soil warming: are rate reductions caused by acclimation or substrate loss?. Global Change Biology, 10(11): 1870–1877.
Lützow M V, Kögel-Knabnel I, Ekschmitt K, et al. 2007. SOM fractionation methods: relevance to functional pools and to stabilization mechanisms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39(9): 2183–2207.
Li C F, Zhou D N, Kou Z K, et al. 2012. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China. PLoS ONE, 7(5): e34642.
Li Z G, Zhang R H, Wang X J, et al. 2011. Carbon dioxide fluxes and concentrations in a cotton field in Northwestern China: effects of plastic mulching and drip irrigation. Pedosphere, 21(2): 178–185.
Li Z G, Zhang R H, Wang X J, et al. 2012. Growing season carbon dioxide exchange in flooded non-mulching and non-flooded mulching cotton. PLoS ONE, 7(11): e50760.
Lloyd J, Taylor J A. 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Functional Ecology, 8(3): 315–323.
Lv G H, Wen R H, Zhao Q S, et al. 2014. Effect of planting density on temporal and spatial dynamics of soil respiration of rainfed maize field in Northeast China. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 33(2): 283–289. (in Chinese)
McDowell R W, Smith C. 2012. The Winchmore trials. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 55(2): 89–91.
Nelson P N, Cotsaris E, Oades J M. 1996. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in streams draining two grazed catchments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 25(6): 1221–1229.
Niu H S, Li D P, Zhang N, et al. 2014. Effect of irrigation modes on carbon budget in winter wheat field. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 23(5): 749–755. (in Chinese)
Parkin T B, Kaspar T C. 2003. Temperature controls on diurnal carbon dioxide flux: Implications for estimating soil carbon loss. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67(6): 1763–1772.
Qi Y C, Dong Y S, Liu L X, et al. 2010. Spatial-temporal variation in soil respiration and its controlling factors in three steppes of Stipa L. in Inner Mongolia, China. Science China Earth Science, 53(5): 683–693.
Rastogi M, Singh S, Pathak H. 2002. Emission of carbon dioxide from soil. Current Science, 82(5): 510–517.
Sánchez-Martín L, Arce A, Benito A, et al. 2008. Influence of drip and furrow irrigation systems on nitrogen oxide emissions from a horticultural crop. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40(7): 1698–1706.
Samuelson L, Mathew R, Stokes T, et al. 2009. Soil and microbial respiration in a loblolly pine plantation in response to seven years of irrigation and fertilization. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(11): 2431–2438.
Shao R X, Deng L, Yang Q H, et al. 2014. Nitrogen fertilization increase soil carbon dioxide efflux of winter wheat field: a case study in Northwest China. Soil and Tillage Research, 143: 164–171.
Song Y Y, Song C C, Yang G S, et al. 2012. Changes in labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities after marshland reclamation and restoration in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. Environmental Management, 50(3): 418–426.
Sparling G P, Ross D J. 1988. Microbial contributions to the increased nitrogen mineralization after air-drying of soils. Plant and Soil, 105(2): 163–167.
Sparling G P, West A W. 1989. Importance of soil water content when estimating soil microbial C, N and P by the fumigation-extraction methods. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 21(2): 245–253.
Tang J W, Baldocchi D D. 2005. Spatial-temporal variation in soil respiration in an oak-grass savanna ecosystem in California and its partitioning into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Biogeochemistry, 73(1): 183–207.
Van Gestel M, Merckx R, Vlassak K. 1993. Microbial biomass responses to soil drying and rewetting: the fate of fast-and slow-growing microorganisms in soils from different climates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 25(1): 109–123.
Wang F L, Bettany J R. 1993. Influence of freeze-thaw and flooding on the loss of soluble organic carbon and carbon dioxide from soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 22(4): 709–714.
Wiseman P E, Seiler J R. 2004. Soil CO2 efflux across four age classes of plantation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on the Virginia Piedmont. Forest Ecology and Management, 192(2–3): 297–311.
Xie R, Wu X Q. 2016. Effects of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon of rangelands in Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(11): 1550–1560.
Wu D R, Yu Q, Lu C H, et al. 2006. Quantifying production potentials of winter wheat in the North China plain. European Journal of Agronomy, 24(3): 226–235.
Wu J S, Lin Q M, Huang Q Y, et al. 2006. Soil Microbial Biomass-Methods and Applications. Beijing: China Meteorological Press. (in Chinese)
Xu M, Qi Y. 2001. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variations in a young ponderosa pine plantation in northern California. Global Change Biology, 7(6): 667–677.
Zhang Q B, Yang L, Xu Z Z, et al. 2014. Effects of cotton field management practices on soil CO2 emission and C balance in an arid region of Northwest China. Journal of Arid Land, 6(4): 468–477.
Zhang Y Q, Kendy E, Yu Q, et al. 2004. Effect of soil water deficit on evapotranspiration, crop yield, and water use efficiency in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management, 64(2): 107–122.