Skip to main content

Organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Bosten Lake, Northwest China

Abstract

We evaluated organic pollution in Bosten Lake, Xinjiang, China, by measuring the concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 sites (B1–B19) in the lake for analysis. Our analytical results show that the concentrations of total OCPs in water ranges from 30.3 to 91.6 ng/L and the concentrations of PAHs ranges from undetectable (ND) to 368.7 ng/L. The concentrations of total OCPs in surface (i.e., lake bottom) sediment ranges from 6.9 to 16.7 ng/g and the concentrations of PAHs ranges from 25.2 to 491.0 ng/g. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) account for large proportions of the OCPs. Low α- to γ-HCH ratios in both water and sediment samples indicate possible contributions from both industrial products and lindane. DDTs in water are probably from historical input, whereas DDTs in sediments are from both historical and recent inputs. Moreover, DDT products in both water and sediments were from multiple sources in the northwestern part of the lake (B11, B12, B13, and B14). Fugacity ratios for DDT isomers (p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDT) at these sites were generally higher than equilibrium values. These results suggest that the input from the Kaidu River and diffusion of DDTs from the sediment to the water are responsible for DDT pollution in the water. Lower-molecular-weight PAHs, which originate primarily from wood and coal combustion and petroleum sources, represent the major fraction of the PAHs in both water and sediment samples. Our findings indicate that OCPs and PAHs in Bosten Lake can be attributed primarily to human activities. A risk assessment of OCPs and PAHs in water and sediment from Bosten Lake, however, suggests that concentrations are not yet high enough to cause adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Arienzo M, Albanese S, Lima A, et al. 2015. Assessment of the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Sarno River basin, Italy, and ecotoxicological survey by Daphnia magna. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(2): 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dai G, Liu X, Liang G, et al. 2011. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface water and sediments from Baiyangdian Lake in North China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 23(10): 1640–1649.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dai G, Liu X, Liang G, et al. 2014. Evaluating the exchange of DDTs between sediment and water in a major lake in North China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(6): 4516–4526.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Francu E, Schwarzbauer J, Lána R, et al. 2010. Historical changes in levels of organic pollutants in sediment cores from Brno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 209(1–4): 81–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo J, Wu F, Luo X, et al. 2010. Anthropogenic input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into five lakes in western China. Environmental Pollution, 158(6): 2175–2180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison R M, Smith D J T, Luhana L. 1996. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an urban location in Birmingham, UK. Environmental Science and Technology, 30(3): 825–832.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Helm P A, Milne J, Hiriart-Baer V, et al. 2011. Lake-wide distribution and depositional history of current-and past-use persistent organic pollutants in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 37: 132–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iwata H, Tanabe S, Ueda K, et al. 1995. Persistent organochlorine residues in air, water, sediments, and soils from the lake Baikal region, Russia. Environmental Science and Technology, 29(3): 792–801.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khairy M A, Lohmann R. 2012. Field validation of polyethylene passive air samplers for parent and alkylated PAHs in Alexandria, Egypt. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(7): 3990–3998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim K H, Jahan S A, Kabir E, et al. 2013. A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environment International, 60: 71–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li C, Huo S, Yu Z, et al. 2014. Spatial distribution, potential risk assessment, and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Lake Chaohu, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(20): 12028–12039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lin T, Hu Z, Zhang G, et al. 2009. Levels and mass burden of DDTs in sediments from fishing harbors: the importance of DDT-containing antifouling paint to the coastal environment of China. Environmental Science and Technology, 43: 8033–8038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu W X, He W, Qin N, et al. 2013. The residues, distribution, and partition of organochlorine pesticides in the water, suspended solids, and sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu) during the high water level period. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(4): 2033–2045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu X, Xu M, Yang Z, et al. 2010. Sources and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baiyangdian Lake, North China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 45(4): 413–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Yu N, Li Z, et al. 2012. Sedimentary record of PAHs in the Liangtan River and its relation to socioeconomic development of Chongqing, Southwest China. Chemosphere, 89(7): 893–899.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Mu S, Bao A, et al. 2015. Effects of salinity and (an) ions on arsenic behavior in sediment of Bosten Lake, Northwest China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73(8): 4707–4716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu M, Zeng D C, Liao Y, et al. 2012. Distribution and characterization of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment from Poyang Lake, China. Science of the Total Environment, 433: 491–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ma L, Wu J, Abuduwaili J. 2011. The climatic and hydrological changes and environmental responses recorded in lake sediments of Xinjiang, China. Journal of Arid Land, 3(1): 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacDonald D D, Ingersoll C G, Berger T A. 2000. Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 39(1): 20–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mackay D. 2001. Multimedia Environmental Models: the Fugacity Approach (2nd ed.) CRC Press: Boca Raton, 69–232.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Montuori P, Triassi M. 2012. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons loads into the Mediterranean Sea: estimate of Sarno River inputs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64: 512–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montuori P, Cirillo T, Fasano E, et al. 2014. Spatial distribution and partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide in water and sediment from Sarno River and Estuary, Southern Italy. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(7): 5023–5035.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2009. China Statistical Yearbook 2009. Beijing: China Statistics Press. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogata M, Fujisawa K. 1990. Gas chromatographic and capillary gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of organic sulfur compounds in sediment from ports: significance of these compounds as an oil pollution index. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 44(6): 884–891.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ok G, Shirapova G, Matafonova G, et al. 2013. Characteristics of PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in the sediment of Lake Baikal, Russia. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 33: 173–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qiu X, Zhu T, Li J, et al. 2004. Organochlorine pesticides in the air around the Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Science and Technology, 38(5): 1368–1374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qiu X, Zhu T, Yao B, et al. 2005. Contribution of dicofol to the current DDT pollution in China. Environmental Science and Technology, 39(12): 4385–4390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santschi P H., Presley B J, Wade T L, et al. 2001. History contamination of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and heavy metals in Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay Sediment cores. Marine Environmental Research, 52: 51–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • UNEP Chemicals. 2002. Regional reports of the regionally based assessment of persistent toxic substances program. [2013-11-25]. http://www.chem.unep.ch/pts.

  • USEPA. 2002. Current national recommended water quality criteria. [2014-03-15]. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/ wqcriteria.html.

  • Willett K L, Ulrich E M, Hites R A. 1998. Differential toxicity and environmental fates of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Environmental Science and Technology, 32(15): 2197–2207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu J, Liu W, Zeng H, et al. 2014. Water quantity and quality of six lakes in the arid Xinjiang region, NW China. Environmental Processes, 1(2): 115–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang C, Feng Z, Yang Q, et al. 2010. Holocene environmental variations recorded by organic-related and carbonate-related proxies of the lacustrine sediments from Bosten Lake, northwestern China. The Holocene, 20(3): 363–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang L, Dong L, Shi S, et al. 2009. Organochlorine pesticides contamination in surface soils from two pesticide factories in Southeast China. Chemosphere, 77: 628–633.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y, Lu Y, Xu J, et al. 2011. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Lake Taihu, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 87(1): 80–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Z L, Hong H S, Zhou J L, et al. 2003. Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China. Chemosphere, 52(9): 1423–1430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao Z, Zhang L, Wu J, et al. 2009. Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and benthic organisms from Taihu Lake, China. Chemosphere, 77(9): 1191–1198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhi H, Zhao Z, Zhang L. 2015. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Chemosphere, 119: 1134–1140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41471173; 41671200; U1603242) and the Specific Scientific Research Fund from the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (201309041). We thank Prof. GAO Guang, Dr. TANG Xiangming and Dr. ZENG Hai’ao for their helps in the field, and Professor Mark BRENNER for his valuable supports in language improvements. We also thank anonymous reviewers and the journal editors for their helpful comments and suggestions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jinglu Wu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shen, B., Wu, J. & Zhao, Z. Organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Bosten Lake, Northwest China. J. Arid Land 9, 287–298 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-017-0008-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-017-0008-4

Keywords

  • organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)
  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Bosten Lake
  • surface water and sediment
  • spatial distribution