Skip to main content

Effects of different plantation types on soil properties after vegetation restoration in an alpine sandy land on the Tibetan Plateau, China

Abstract

Large areas of Artemisia ordosica Krasch., Caragana korshinskii Kom., and Caragana intermedia Kuang and H. C. Fu plantations were established on moving sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin (northeastern Tibetan Plateau) for vegetation restoration. Elevating our understanding of the changes in soil characteristics after the establishment of different plantation types can be useful in the context of combating desertification. To assess the effects of these plantation types on the restoration of sandy land, we measured soil physical-chemical properties at four depths (0–5, 5–10, 10–20, and 20–50 cm) in each of the three plantation types and also in non-vegetated moving sand dunes (as control sites). Generally, the establishment of A. ordosica, C. korshinskii and C. intermedia plantations on sand dunes has greatly ameliorated soil quality in the Gonghe Basin. Specifically, relative to the moving sand dunes, shrub plantation has increased the silt and clay contents, total porosity and water holding capacity, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium contents. The calculated soil quality index suggested that in the Gonghe Basin, C. intermedia is the best choice for soil amelioration. In all the three plantation types, soil amelioration mainly occurred in the shallow depths.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Andrews S S, Karlen D L, Mitchell J P. 2002. A comparison of soil quality indexing methods for vegetable production systems in northern California. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 90(1): 25–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bastida F, Moreno J L, Hernández T, et al. 2006. Microbiological degradation index of soils in a semiarid climate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38(12): 3463–3473.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bochet E, Rubio J L, Poesen J. 1999. Modified topsoil islands within patchy Mediterranean vegetation in SE Spain. Catena, 38(1): 23–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cao C Y, Jiang S Y, Ying Z, et al. 2011. Spatial variability of soil nutrients and microbiological properties after the establishment of leguminous shrub Caragana microphylla Lam. plantation on sand dune in the Horqin Sandy Land of Northeast China. Ecological Engineering, 37(10): 1467–1475.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dong G R, Gao S Y, Jin J. 1993. Land Desertification and its Remedial Measures in the Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province. Beijing: Science Press, 15–25. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Dong X W, Zhang X K, Bao X L, et al. 2009. Spatial distribution of soil nutrients after the establishment of sand-fixing shrubs on sand dune. Plant Soil and Environment, 55(7): 288–294.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fang X W, Wang X Z, Li H, et al. 2006. Responses of Caragana korshinskii to different aboveground shoot removal: combining defence and tolerance strategies. Annals of Botany, 98(1): 203–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gao G L, Ding G D, Zhao Y Y, et al. 2014. Fractal approach to estimating changes in soil properties following the establishment of Caragana korshinskii shelterbelts in Ningxia, NW China. Ecological Indicators, 43: 236–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gao L F, Hu Z A, Wang H X. 2002. Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Caragana intermedia in Maowusu sandland, north of China. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35(4): 347–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gao R H, Shi J, Huang R F, et al. 2015. Effects of pine wilt disease invasion on soil properties and Masson pine forest communities in the Three Gorges reservoir region, China. Ecology and Evolution, 5(8): 1702–1716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSCAS). 1978. Physical and Chemical Analysis Methods of Soils. Shanghai: Shanghai Science Technology Press, 62–136. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jia G M, Liu B R, Wang G, et al. 2010. The microbial biomass and activity in soil with shrub (Caragana korshinskii K.) plantation in the semi-arid loess plateau in China. European Journal of Soil Biology, 46(1): 6–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jia Z Q, Zhu Y J, Liu L Y. 2012. Different water use strategies of juvenile and adult Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau. PLoS ONE, 7(9): e45902.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang D M, Cao C Y, Zhang Y, et al. 2014. Plantations of native shrub species restore soil microbial diversity in the Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern China. Journal of Arid Land, 6(4): 445–453.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li Q X, Wang Y S, Zhu Y J, et al. 2014. Effects of soil improvement of Caragana intermedia plantations in alpine sandy land on Tibet Plateau. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34(2): 123–128. (in Chinese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li S G, Harazono Y, Zhao H L, et al. 2002. Micrometeorological changes following establishment of artificially established Artemisia vegetation on desertified sandy land in the Horqin sandy land, China and their implication on regional environmental change. Journal of Arid Environments, 52(1): 101–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li X R, Zhang J G, Wang X P, et al. 2000. Study on soil microbiotic crust and its influences on sand-fixing vegetation in arid desert region. Acta Botanica Sinica, 42(9): 965–970. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Li Y Q, Awada T, Zhou X H, et al. 2012. Mongolian pine plantations enhance soil physic-chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen capacities in semi-arid degraded sandy land in China. Applied Soil Ecology, 56: 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu L Y, Jia Z Q, Zhu Y J, et al. 2012. Water use strategy of different stand ages of Caragana intermedia in alpine sandland. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 26(5): 119–125. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu Q, Wang X Q, Wu B, et al. 2009. Can mobile sandy land be vegetated in the cold and dry Tibetan Plateau in China?. Frontiers of Biology in China, 4(1): 62–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luo Y Q, Zhao X Y, Andrén O, et al. 2014. Artificial root exudates and soil organic carbon mineralization in a degraded sandy grassland in northern China. Journal of Arid Land, 6(4): 423–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masto R E, Chhonkar P K, Singh D, et al. 2008. Alternative soil quality indices for evaluating the effect of intensive cropping, fertilisation and manuring for 31 years in the semi-arid soils of India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 136(1–3): 419–435.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinha S, Masto R E, Ram L C, et al. 2009. Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(9): 1824–1832.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Su Y Z, Zhang T K, Li Y L, et al. 2005. Changes in soil properties after establishment of Artemisia halodendron and Caragana microphylla on shifting sand dunes in semiarid Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Environmental Management, 36(2): 272–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang X P, Li X R, Xiao H L, et al. 2006. Evolutionary characteristics of the artificially revegetated shrub ecosystem in the Tengger Desert, northern China. Ecological Research, 21(3): 415–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wezel A, Rajot J L, Herbrig C. 2000. Influence of shrubs on soil characteristics and their function in Sahelian agro-ecosystems in semi-arid Niger. Journal of Arid Environments, 44(4): 383–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang H, Lu Q, Wu B, et al. 2006. Vegetation diversity and its application in sandy desert revegetation on Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Arid Environments, 65(4): 619–631.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang Z P, Zhang Q, Wang Y L, et al. 2011. Spatial and temporal variability of soil properties under Caragana microphylla shrubs in the northwestern Shanxi Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Arid Environments, 75(6): 538–544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yu Y, Jia Z Q. 2014. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen capacities of Salix cheilophila Schneid along a revegetation chronosequence in semi-arid degraded sandy land of the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau. Solid Earth, 5(2): 1045–1054.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang C, Xue S, Liu G B, et al. 2011. A comparison of soil qualities of different revegetation types in the Loess Plateau, China. Plant and Soil, 347(1–2): 163–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang D S, Gao S Y, Shi M Y, et al. 2009. Sandy Desertification and it’s Control in the Qinghai Plateau. Beijing: Science Press, 6–40. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang W R, Xu B T. 1986. The Method of Long-term Research on Forest Soil. Beijing: Chinese Forestry Press, 30–36. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y, Cao C Y, Han X S, et al. 2013. Soil nutrient and microbiological property recoveries via native shrub and semi-shrub plantations on moving sand dunes in Northeast China. Ecological Engineering, 53: 1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zuo X A, Zhao X Y, Zhao H L, et al. 2009. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation–soil relationships following vegetation restoration of mobile dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Plant and Soil, 318(1–2): 153–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Forestry Public Benefit Scientific Research Special Project of China (201504420), and the National Science & Technology Pillar Program during the 12th Five-year Plan Period (2012BAD16B0102).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhiqing Jia.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, Q., Jia, Z., Liu, T. et al. Effects of different plantation types on soil properties after vegetation restoration in an alpine sandy land on the Tibetan Plateau, China. J. Arid Land 9, 200–209 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-017-0006-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-017-0006-6

Keywords

  • alpine sandy land
  • plantation types
  • soil property
  • soil amelioration