Advertisement

Journal of Arid Land

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 38–50 | Cite as

Effects of converting natural grasslands into planted grasslands on ecosystem respiration: a case study in Inner Mongolia, China

  • Meng Zhang
  • Xiaobing LiEmail author
  • Hong Wang
  • Fei Deng
  • Xu Li
  • Xue Mi
Article
  • 96 Downloads

Abstract

With increasingly intensifying degradation of natural grasslands and rapidly increasing demand of high quality forages, natural grasslands in China have been converted into planted grasslands at an unprecedented rate and the magnitude of the conversion in Inner Mongolia is among the national highest where the areal extent of planted grasslands ranks the second in China. Such land-use changes (i.e., converting natural grasslands into planted grasslands) can significantly affect carbon stocks and carbon emissions in grassland ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the effects of converting natural grasslands into planted grasslands (including Medicago sativa, Elymus cylindricus, and M. sativa+E. cylindricus) on ecosystem respiration (F eco ) in Inner Mongolia of China. Diurnal F eco and its components (i.e., total soil respiration (F ts), soil heterotrophic respiration (F sh) and vegetation autotrophic respiration (F va)) were measured in 2012 (27 July to 5 August) and 2013 (18 July to 25 July) in the natural and planted grasslands. Meteorological data, aboveground vegetation data and soil data were simultaneously collected to analyze the relationships between respiration fluxes and environmental factors in those grasslands. In 2012, the daily mean F eco in the M. sativa grassland was higher than that in the natural grassland, and the daily mean F va was higher in all planted grasslands (i.e., M. sativa, E. cylindricus, and M. sativa+E. cylindricus) than in the natural grassland. In contrast, the daily mean Fts and Fsh were lower in all planted grasslands than in the natural grassland. In 2013, the daily mean F eco, F ts and F va in all planted grasslands were higher than those in the natural grassland, and the daily mean F sh in the M. sativa+E. cylindricus grassland was higher than that in the natural grassland. The two-year experimental results suggested that the conversion of natural grasslands into planted grasslands can generally increase the F eco and the increase in F eco is more pronounced when the plantation becomes more mature. The results also indicated that F sh contributed more to F eco in the natural grassland whereas F va contributed more to F eco in the planted grasslands. The regression analyses show that climate factors (air temperature and relative humidity) and soil properties (soil organic matter, soil temperature, and soil moisture) strongly affected respiration fluxes in all grasslands. However, our observation period was admittedly too short. To fully understand the effects of such land-use changes (i.e., converting natural grasslands into planted grasslands) on respiration fluxes, longer-term observations are badly needed.

Keywords

natural grasslands planted grasslands ecosystem respiration soil respiration vegetation autotrophic respiration Inner Mongolia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB138803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31570451), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT1108). We thank the staff of the Duolun Grassland Research Station, Inner Mongolia, and LIN Guohui and ZHAO Shijie for their help during the field observations.

References

  1. Aslam T, Choudhary M A, Saggar S. 2000. Influence of land-use management on CO2 emissions from a silt loam soil in New Zealand. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 77(3): 257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball B A, Virginia R A, Barrett J E, et al. 2009. Interactions between physical and biotic factors influence CO2 flux in Antarctic dry valley soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(7): 1510–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borchard N, Schirrmann M, Hebel C V, et al. 2015. Spatio-temporal drivers of soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes at field scale in an upland grassland in Germany. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 211: 84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bremer D J, Ham J M, Owensby C E, et al. 1998. Responses of soil respiration to clipping and grazing in a tallgrass prairie. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27(6): 1539–1548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brito L F, Azenha M V, Janusckiewicz E R, et al. 2015. Seasonal fluctuation of soil carbon dioxide emission in differently managed pastures. Agronomy Journal, 107(3): 957–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cao G M, Tang Y H, Mo W H, et al. 2004. Grazing intensity alters soil respiration in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan plateau. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36(2): 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casals P, Lopez-Sangil L, Carrara A, et al. 2011. Autotrophic and heterotrophic contributions to short-term soil CO2 efflux following simulated summer precipitation pulses in a Mediterranean dehesa. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25(3): GB3012, doi: 10.1029/2010GB003973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen H Q, Fan M S, Kuzyakov Y, et al. 2014. Comparison of net ecosystem CO2 exchange in cropland and grassland with an automated closed chamber system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 98(2): 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dai E F, Huang Y, Wu Z, et al. 2016. Analysis of spatio-temporal features of a carbon source/sink and its relationship to climatic factors in the Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(3): 297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davidson B A, Belk E, Boone R D. 1998. Soil water content and temperature as independent or confounded factors controlling soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forest. Global Change Biology, 4(2): 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deng F, Li X B, Wang H, et al. 2014. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: A case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(2): 364–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diekow J, Mielniczuk J, Knicker H, et al. 2005. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in physical fractions of a subtropical Acrisol as influenced by long-term no-till cropping systems and N fertilisation. Plant and Soil, 268(1): 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fang C, Moncrieff J B. 2001. The dependence of soil CO2 efflux on temperature. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33(2): 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flanagan L B, Johnson B G. 2005. Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130(3–4): 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frank A B, Liebig M A, Tanaka D L. 2006. Management effects on soil CO2 efflux in northern semiarid grassland and cropland. Soil and Tillage Research, 89(1): 78–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomez-Casanovas N, Matamala R, Cook D R, et al. 2012. Net ecosystem exchange modifies the relationship between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration with abiotic factors in prairie grasslands. Global Change Biology, 18(8): 2532–2545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gong J R, Wang Y H, Liu M, et al. 2014. Effects of land use on soil respiration in the temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Soil and Tillage Research, 144: 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grace J, Rayment M. 2000. Respiration in the balance. Nature, 404(6780): 819–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Han Y, Zhang Z, Wang C H, et al. 2012. Effects of mowing and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in three patches in an oldfield grassland in Inner Mongolia. Journal of Plant Ecology, 5(2): 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hanson P J, Edwards N T, Garten C T, et al. 2000. Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: A review of methods and observations. Biogeochemistry, 48(1): 115–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holst J, Liu C, Yao Z, et al. 2008. Fluxes of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide during freezing-thawing cycles in an Inner Mongolian steppe. Plant and Soil, 308(1–2): 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holthausen R S, Caldwell M M. 1980. Seasonal dynamics of root system respiration in Atriplex confertifolia. Plant and Soil, 55(2): 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Summary for policymakers. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom, New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jenkinson D S. 1990. The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 329(1255): 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kainiemi V, Arvidsson J, Kätterer T. 2013. Short-term organic matter mineralisation following different types of tillage on a Swedish clay soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 49(5): 495–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim D G, Kirschbaum M U F. 2015. The effect of land-use change on the net exchange rates of greenhouse gases: A compilation of estimates. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 208: 114–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuzyakov Y V, Larionova A A. 2005. Root and rhizomicrobial root respiration: A review of approaches to estimate respiration by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168(4): 503–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lal R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma, 123(1–2): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li X B, Li G Q, Wang H, et al. 2015. Influence of meadow changes on net primary productivity: A case study in a typical steppe area of XilinGol of Inner Mongolia in China. Geosciences Journal, 19(3): 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li X D, Zhang C P, Fu H, et al. 2013. Grazing exclusion alters soil microbial respiration, root respiration and the soil carbon balance in grasslands of the Loess Plateau, northern China. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 59(6): 877–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu W X, Zhang Z, Wan S Q. 2009. Predominant role of water in regulating soil and microbial respiration and their responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland. Global Change Biology, 15(1): 184–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu X Z, Wan S O, Su B, et al. 2002. Response of soil CO2 efflux to water manipulation in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. Plant and Soil, 240(2): 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu X Y, Fan J H, Yan Y, et al. 2013. Responses of soil CO2 fluxes to short-term experimental warming in alpine steppe ecosystem, Northern Tibet. PLoS ONE, 8(3): e59054, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ma T. 2008. Effect of grazing on soil respiration in typical Leymus chinensis grassland of Xilin River basin in Inner Mongolia. MSc Thesis. Yangling: Northwest A&F University. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. MacDonald N W, Zak D R, Pregitzer K S. 1995. Temperature effects on kinetics of microbial respiration and net nitrogen and sulfur mineralization. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59(1): 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mielnick P C, Dugas W A. 2000. Soil CO2 flux in a tallgrass prairie. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(2): 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Monkany K, Raison R J, Prokushkin A S. 2006. Critical analysis of root: Shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Global Change Biology, 12(1): 84–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pang Y Y, Deng B, Zhang Y J, et al. 2011. Soil respiration of alfalfa fields in the agro-pastoral ecotone of Northern China and its environment on responses. Acta Agrestia Sinica, 19(3): 432–437. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. Pendall E, Schwendenmann L, Rahn T, et al. 2010. Land use and season affect fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, H2 and isotopic source signatures in Panama: Evidence from nocturnal boundary layer profiles. Global Change Biology, 16(10): 2721–2736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peng F, You Q G, Xu M H, et al. 2015. Effects of experimental warming on soil respiration and its components in an alpine meadow in the permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. European Journal of Soil Science, 66(1): 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peri P L, Bahamonde H, Christiansen R. 2015. Soil respiration in Patagonian semiarid grasslands under contrasting environmental and use conditions. Journal of Arid Environments, 119: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qi Y C, Dong Y S, Liu J Y, et al. 2007. Effect of the conversion of grassland to spring wheat field on the CO2 emission characteristics in Inner Mongolia, China. Soil and Tillage Research, 94(2): 310–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Regina K, Alakukku L. 2010. Greenhouse gas fluxes in varying soil types under conventional and no-till practices. Soil and Till Research, 109(2): 144–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reichstein M, Falge E, Baldocchi D, et al. 2005. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: Review and improved algorithm. Global Change Biology, 11(9): 1424–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rochette P, Desjardins R L, Pattey E. 1991. Spatial and temporal variability of soil respiration in agricultural fields. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 71(2): 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rong Y P, Ma L, Johnson D A, et al. 2015. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 213: 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sánchez M L, Ozores M I, Colle R, et al. 2002. Soil CO2 fluxes in cereal land use of the Spanish plateau: Influence of conventional and reduced tillage practices. Chemosphere, 47(8): 837–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schlentner R E, Van Cleve K. 1985. Relationships between CO2 evolution from soil, substrate temperature, and substrate moisture in four mature forest types in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 15(1): 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharkhuu A, Plante A F, Enkhmandal O, et al. 2016. Soil and ecosystem respiration responses to grazing, watering and experimental warming chamber treatments across topographical gradients in northern Mongolia. Geoderma, 269: 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thierron V, Laudelout H. 1996. Contribution of root respiration to total CO2 efflux from the soil of a deciduous forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26(7): 1142–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tomotsune M, Yoshitake S, Watanabe S, et al. 2013. Separation of root and heterotrophic respiration within soil respiration by trenching, root biomass regression, and root excising methods in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan. Ecological Research, 28(2): 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Valentini R, Matteucci G, Dolman A J, et al. 2000. Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature, 404(6780): 861–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Varella R F, Bustamante M M C, Pinto A S, et al. 2004. Soil fluxes of CO2, CO, NO, and N2O from an old pasture and from native Savanna in Brazil. Ecological Applications, 14(4): 221–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Walkley A, Black I A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang C K, Jiang J Y, Zhang Q Z. 2006. Soil respiration in six temperate forests in China. Global Change Biology, 12(11): 2103–2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang W J, Dalal R C, Moody P W, et al. 2003. Relationships of soil respiration to microbial biomass, substrate availability and clay content. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35(2): 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang Y S, Hu Y O, Ji B M, et al. 2003. An investigation on the relationship between emission/uptake of greenhouse gases and environmental factors in semiarid grassland. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 20(1): 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang Z, Ji L, Hou X Y, et al. 2016. Soil respiration in semiarid temperate grasslands under various land management. PLoS ONE, 11(1): e014798–7, doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0147987.Google Scholar
  59. Wu X, Yao Z, Brüggemann N, et al. 2010. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on CO2 and CH4 soil-atmosphere exchange of various land use/cover types in a semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42(5): 773–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xie H H, Fan J, Qi L B, et al. 2010. Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. Environmental Science, 31(12): 2995–3003. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  61. Xie R, Wu X Q. 2016. Effects of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon of rangelands in Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(11): 1550–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Xu L J, Wang B, Yu Z, et al. 2009. Soil respiration in fields of Medicago sativa L. cv. Aohan with different growth years. Arid Zone Research, 26(1): 14–20. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  63. Yang J, Huang J H, Zhan X M, et al. 2004. The diurnal dynamic patterns of soil respiration for different plant communities in the agro-pastoral ecotone with reference to different measuring methods. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 28(3): 318–325. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  64. Zhan J Y, Yan H M, Chen B, et al. 2012. Decomposition analysis of the mechanism behind the spatial and temporal patterns of changes in carbon bio-sequestration in China. Energies, 5(2): 386–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang X S, Tang H P, Dong X B, et al. 2016. The dilemma of steppe and it’s transformation in China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 61(2): 165–177. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Zhang Z H, Duan J C, Wang S P, et al. 2012. Effects of land use and management on ecosystem respiration in alpine meadow on the Tibetan plateau. Soil and Tillage Research, 124: 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer - Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiaobing Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hong Wang
    • 1
  • Fei Deng
    • 1
  • Xu Li
    • 1
  • Xue Mi
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Resources Science and TechnologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations