Skip to main content

Soil organic matter amendments in date palm groves of the Middle Eastern and North African region: a mini-review

Abstract

Countries in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region are among the most water-scarce regions in the world, and their dryland soils are usually poor in organic carbon content (<0.5%). In this study, we summarize examples of how people in the few oases of the MENA region overcome environmental challenges by sustainably managing economically important date production. On the basis of the limited studies found in the existing literature, this mini-review focuses on the role of traditional soil organic matter amendments beneath the soil surface as a key tool in land restoration. We conclude that soil organic matter amendments can be very successful in restoring soil water and preventing the soil from salinization.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Al-Rawi A A H. 1998. Fertilization of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) in Iraq. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Date Palm, 8–9 March. 1998. Alain, United Arab Emirates, 320–327.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Shayaa M S, Baig M B, Straquadine G S. 2012. Agricultural extension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Difficult present and demanding future. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 22: 239–246.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Yahyai R. 2006. Improvement of date palm production in the Sultanate of Oman. In: Zaid A, Hegarty V, Al Kaabi H H S. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 736: III International Date Palm Conference. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 337–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Yassin A. 2005. Influence of salinity on citrus: A review paper. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 5: 263–272.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alkoaik F N, Khalil A I, Alqumajan T. 2011. Performance evaluation of a static composting system using date palm residues. Middle-Eastern Journal of Science Research, 7: 972–983.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amelung W, Kimble J M, Samson-Liebig S, et al. 2001. Restoration of microbial residues in soils of the conservation reserve program. Soil Society of America Journal, 65: 1704–1709.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amelung W, Zech W, Zhang X, et al. 1998. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pools in particle-size fractions as influenced by climate. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62: 172–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anibat I, Bessam, F, El-Brahli A, et al. 2003. No-tillage technology: research review of impacts on soil quality and wheat production in semiarid Morocco. In: Cantero-Martínez C, Gabiña D. Mediterranean Rainfed Agriculture: Strategies for Sustainability. IAMZ Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza–ciheam, Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, 60: 133–138.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anjum R, Ahmed A, Rahmatullah M J, et al. 2005. Effect of soil salinity/sodicity on the growth and yield of different varieties of cotton. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 4: 606–608.

    Google Scholar 

  • Atalla A M, Etman A A, El-Kobbia A M, et al. 2007. Influence of foliar boron spray and soil spplication with some micronutrients in calcareous soil on 2 yield, quality and mineral content of Zaghloul dates in Egypt. In: The 4th Symposium on Date Palm. Date Palm Research Center, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia (Challenges of Processing, Marketing and Pests control).

    Google Scholar 

  • Bacha M A, Abo-Hassan A A. 1983. Effects of soil fertilization on yield, fruit quality and mineral content of Khudari date palm variety. In: Proceedings of the First Symposium on Date Palm in Saudi Arabia. Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia, 174–180.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldock J A, Skjemstad J O. 1999. Soil organic carbon/soil organic matter. In: Peverill K I, Sparrow L A, Reuter D J. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, 159–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bastida F, Kandeler E, Moreno J L, et al. 2008. Application of fresh and composted organic wastes modifies structure, size and activity of soil microbial community under semiarid climate. Applied Soil Ecology, 40: 318–329.

    Google Scholar 

  • Batjes N H. 2014. Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. European Journal of Soil Science, 65: 10–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Battesti V. 2005. Gardens in desert: evolution of oasian knowledge and practice: Tunisian Jerid. IRD Editions, Paris, 440. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00004609v2. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanchart E, Albrecht A, Bernoux M, et al. 2007. Organic matter and biofunctioning in tropical sandy soils and implications for its management. In: Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Development. In: Proceedings of the International Congress Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. Bangkok: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 224–241.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bot A, Benites J. 2005. The importance of soil organic matter: key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food production. FAO Soils Bulletins, 80: 94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouhouach H, Culot M, Kouki K. 2009. Composting and recycling of oasis waste to ameliorate soil and improve its productivity. In: International Symposium “Sustainable Agriculture in the Mediteranean Region” (AGDUMED).

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabat, Ma. 2009). IAV Hassan II Rabat, INRA Morroco, FUSA Gembleux Belgium and Agricultural Society of Morroco, 14–16. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Brahim N, Gallali T, Bernoux M. 2011. Carbon stock by soils and departments in Tunisia. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11: 46–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruand A, Hartmann C, Lesturgez G. 2005. Physical properties of tropical sandy soils: A large range of behaviours. In: Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. A Holistic Approach for Sustainable Development of Problem Soils in the Tropics. Khon Kaen, Thailand. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/PAR00007514.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buerkert A, Nagieb M, Siebert S, et al. 2005. Nutrient cycling and field-based partial nutrient balances in two mountain oases of Oman. Field Crops Research, 94(2): 149–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buerkert A, Schlecht E. 2010). Oases of Oman: Millenia Old Livelihood Systems at the Crossroads (2rd ed.). Muscat: Al Roya Press & Publishing House, 50–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burt J. 2005). Growing date palms in Western Australia. Farm Note No. 55/99. South Perth, Australia: Government of Western Australia, Department of Agriculture and Food. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/hort/fn/cp/ strawberries/f05599.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chandoul I R, Bouaziz S, Dhia H B. 2014. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using GIS-based DRASTIC models in shallow aquifer of Gabes North (South East Tunisia). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, doi: 10.1007/s12517-014-1702-6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conacher A J, Sala M. 1998. Land degradation in mediterranean environments of the world: nature and extent, causes and solutions. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8: 1717–1718.

    Google Scholar 

  • Croitoru L, Sarraf M. 2010. The Cost of Environmental Degradation: Case Studies from the Middle East and North Africa. Washington: World Bank, 3–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curiel Yuste J, Baldocchi D D, Gershenson A, et al. 2007. Microbial soil respiration and its dependency on carbon inputs, soil temperature and moisture. Global Change Biology, 13: 2018–2035.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis J G, Wilson C R. 2000). Choosing a soil amendment. Gardening Series: Basics. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Fort Collins: Colorado State University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawoud H D, Fatima A A. 2011. Effect of different levels of elemental sulfur fertilizer on the growth, fruit quality, yield, and nutrient levels in the leaves of Mishrig Wad laggai date palm cultivar under Al Mukabrab conditions. In: Arab Plam Conferenc. 2011. 4–7 December. Ryiadh, KSA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deng L, Shangguan Z P, Sweeney S. 2013. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following land abandonment of farmland on the Loess Plateau, China. PloS ONE, 8(9): e71923, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071923.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dixon J A, Gibbon D P, Gulliver A. 2001). Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers’ Livelihoods in a Changing World. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 1–412.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dregne H E. 1976). Soils of Arid Regions. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1–231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dregne H E. 2002. Land degradation in the drylands. Arid Land Research and Management, 16: 99–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eid H M, El-Marsafawy S M, Ouda S A. 2007). Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt: A Ricardian approach. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 16. Special Series on Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa. Pretoria: Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Bana A, Ibrahim H A. 2008. Irrigated date palm production in egypt. In: Workshop on “Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops”, 27–30 May. 2007. Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic.

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Juhany L I. 2010. Degradation of date palm trees and date production in Arab countries: causes and potential rehabilitation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4: 3998–4010.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Bastawesy M, Ali R R. 2013. The use of GIS and remote sensing for the assessment of waterlogging in the dryland irrigated catchments of Farafra Oasis, Egypt. Hydrological Processes, 27: 206–216.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Mardi M O, Said F, Bakheit Sakit C, et al. 2006. Effect of pollination method, fertilizer and mulch treatments on the physical and chemical characteristics of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit I: Physical characteristics. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 736: 317–328. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.736.30. http://www.actahort.org/books/736/736_30.htm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Emerson W W, McGarry D. 2003. Organic carbon and soil porosity. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 41: 107–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erskine W, Moustafa A T, Osman A E, et al. 2004. Date palm in the GCC countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Regional Workshop on Date Palm Development in the Arabian Peninsula. Abu Dhabi, UAE. http://www.icarda.org/APRP/ Datepalm/ introduction/intro-body.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esse P C, Buerkert A, Hiernaux P, et al. 2001. Decomposition of and nutrient release from ruminant manure on acid sandy soils in the Sahelian zone of Niger, West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 83(1–3): 55–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2012). FAOSTAT. [2014-04-13]. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx.

    Google Scholar 

  • Furr J R, Cook J A. 1952. Nitrogen content of pinnae, fruit, and seed of Deglet Noor and Khadrawy date palms as related to nitrogen fertilization. In: 29th Annuual Conference Date Grswers Institute Report. Coachella, 29: 13–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gleick P, Cain N. 2004). The world’s water, 2004–2005. Washington, DC: Island Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamdy A, Trisorio-Liuzzi G. 2004. Water scarcity management towards food security in the Middle-East region. In: Hamdy A, Monti R. Food Security Under Water Scarcity in the Middle East: Problems and Solutions. Bari: CIHEAM, Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, 65:15–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamed Y, Ahmadi R, Hadji R, et al. 2014. Groundwater evolution of the Continental Intercalaire aquifer of Southern Tunisia and a part of Southern Algeria: use of geochemical and isotopic indicators. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(10–3): 1990–1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassine H B. 2005. Effects of groundwater table on soil salinization or five irrigated areas in Tunisia. Soil Study and Management, 12(4): 281–300. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hehmeyer I. 1989. Irrigation farming in the ancient oasis of Marib. In: Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. Oxford: Seminar for Arabian Studies, 33–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussein F. 2004. Nutrient requirments of date palm and fertilizer use. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Date Palm Development in the Arabian Peninsula, 29–31 May. Abu Dhabi, UAE, 168–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahim M M, El-Beshbeshy R T, Kamh N R, et al. 2013. Effect of NPK and biofertilizer on date palm trees grown in Siwa Oasis, Egypt. Soil Use and Management, 29(3): 315–321.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaradat A A. 2011. Biodiversity of date palm. In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Land Use, Land Cover and Soil Sciences. Oxford, UK: Eolss Publishers, 31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kassem H A. 2012. The response of date palm to calcareous soil fertilisation. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12(1): 45–58.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan M M, Prathapar S A. 2012. Water management in date palm groves. In: Manickavasagan A, Mohamed-Essa M, Sukumar E. Dates Production, Processing, Food, and Medicinal Values. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 44–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kögel-Knabner I, Amelung W. 2014. Dynamics, chemistry, and preservation of organic matter in soils. In: Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier, 157–215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kösters R, Preger A C, Du Preez C C, et al. 2013. Re-aggregation dynamics of degraded cropland soils with prolonged secondary pasture management in the South African Highveld. Geoderma, 192: 173–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kouki K, Bouhaouach H. 2009. Study of the traditional oasis of Chenini Gabes in the south east of Tunisia. Tropoculture, 27(2): 93–97. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Krull E S, Skjemstad J O, Baldock J A. 2004. Functions of soil organic matter and the effect on soil properties. In: Report for GRDC, Project CSO00029. http://users.datarealm.com/treepower/soils/organicmatter.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal R. 2001. Potential of desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Climatic Change, 51(1): 35–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal R. 2002. Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems of West Asia and North Africa. Land Degradation & Development, 13(1): 45–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal R. 2006. Enhancing crop yields in the developing countries through restoration of the soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands. Land Degradation & Development, 17(2): 197–209.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal R. 2009. Sequestering carbon in soils of arid ecosystems. Land Degradation & Development, 20(4): 441–454.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lelieveld J, Hadjinicolaou P, Kostopoulou E. et al. 2012. Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climatic Change, 114(3–3): 667–687.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu P. 2003. The marketing potential of date palm fruits in the European market. In: FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper (FAO). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

    Google Scholar 

  • Lobe I, Amelung W, Du Preez C C. 2001. Losses of carbon and nitrogen with prolonged arable cropping from sandy soils of the South African Highveld. European Journal of Soil Science, 52(1): 93–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maia S M F, Ogle S M, Cerri C C, et al. 2010. Changes in soil organic carbon storage under different agricultural management systems in the southwest Amazon region of Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research, 106(2): 177–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mallaki M, Fatehi R. 2014. Design of a biomass power plant for burning date palm waste to cogenerate electricity and distilled water. Renewable Energy, 63: 286–291.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manickavasagan A, Essa M M, Sukumar E. 2012). Dates: Production, Processing, Food, and Medicinal Values. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marzouk H A, Kassem H A. 2011. Improving fruit quality, nutritional value and yield of Zaghloul dates by the application of organic and/or mineral fertilizers. Scientia Horticulturae, 127(3): 249–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meier-Ploeger A, Vogtmann H. 2003. Quality aspects of fertilization with biowaste. In: 64. Briefing of ANS e. V. The Future of Biowaste Collection, 20 years Biotonne Witzenhausenline Positioning, 225–238. (In German)

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller-Sämann K M, Kotschi J. 1994). Sustaining Growth: Soil Fertility Management in Tropical Smallholdings. Weikersheim: Margraf Verlag, 498.

    Google Scholar 

  • Navas A, Machin J, Gaspar L, et al. 2013. The soil of Ziz lands (South east Morroco). AECID, 369–394. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Osman S M. 2010. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield, leaf mineral content and fruit quality of Bartamoda date palm propagated by tissue culture technique under Aswan conditions. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6(2): 184–190.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piéri C. 1989). Fertility of savannah lands: Assessment of 30 years of agricultural research and development of the south sahara. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-IRAT. (In French)

    Google Scholar 

  • Popenoe P. 1973). The Date Palm. Miami: Field Research Projects, Coconut Grove, 1–259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preger A C, Kösters R, Du Preez C C, et al. 2010. Carbon sequestration in secondary pasture soils: a chronosequence study in the South African Highveld. European Journal of Soil Science, 61(4): 551–562.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pretty J, Olsson L, Farage P, et al. 2004. Carbon sequestration in dryland soils. In: World Soil Resources Report. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Probert M E, Okalebo J R, Jones R K. 1995. The use of manure on smallholders’ farms in semi-arid eastern Kenya. Experimental Agriculture, 31(3): 371–382.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reichstein M, Rey A, Freibauer A, et al. 2003. Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(14), doi: 10.1029/2003GB00202035.

  • Rietz D N, Haynes R J. 2003. Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35(6): 845–854.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robertson G P, Paul E A. 2000. Decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics. In: Sala O E, Jackson R B, Mooney H A, et al. Methods in Ecosystem Science. New York: Springer, 104–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roudi-Fahimi F, Creel L, De Souza R M. 2002. Finding the balance: Population and water scarcity in the Middle East and North Africa. In: Population Reference Bureau Policy Brief. Washington, DC: Population Refrence Bureau.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roy R N, Finck A, Blair G J, et al. 2006. Plant Nutrition for Food Security: A Guide for Integrated Nutrient Management. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadik M W, Al-Ashhab A O, Zahran M K, et al. 2012. Composting mulch of date palm trees through microbial activator in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1(5): 156–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saleh J. 2009. Yield and chemical composition of ‘Piarom’ Date-Palm Phoenix dactylifera as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus levels. International Journal of Plant Production, 3(3): 57–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salgot M, Torrens A, Casanova P, et al. 2014. Management of water resources in the oasis of Figuig, Morocco. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(13–3): 2841–2849.

    Google Scholar 

  • Samia B L, Boualem R. 2014. The releases of wastewater in the Oued Righ Valley: the palm groves in decline. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(10–3): 2187–2192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sardans J, Peñuelas J. 2005. Drought decreases soil enzyme activity in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex L. forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37(3): 455–461.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sardans J, Peñuelas J. 2010. Soil enzyme activity in a Mediterranean forest after six years of drought. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74(3): 838–851.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt M W I, Torn M S, Abiven S, et al. 2011. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property. Nature, 478(7367): 49–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soliman S S, Osman S M. 2003. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on yield, fruit quality and some nutrients content of Samany date palm. Annals of Agricultural Science Cairo, 48(1): 283–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sowers J, Vengosh A, Weinthal E. 2011. Climate change, water resources, and the politics of adaptation in the Middle East and North Africa. Climatic Change, 104(3–3): 599–627.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tengberg M. 2012. Beginnings and early history of date palm garden cultivation in the Middle East. Journal of Arid Environments, 86: 139–147.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas R J. 2008. Opportunities to reduce the vulnerability of dryland farmers in Central and West Asia and North Africa to climate change. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 126(1–3): 36–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trumper K, Ravilious C, Dickson B. 2008. Carbon in drylands: Desertification, climate change and carbon finance. In: A UNEP-UNDPUNCCD Technical Note for Discussions at CRIC 7, 03–14 November. Istanbul, Turkey, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vanlauwe B. 2004. Integrated soil fertility management research at TSBF: the framework, the principles, and their application. In: Bationo A. Managing Nutrient Cycles to Sustain Soil Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Academy Science Publishers, 25–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wander M M. 2004. Soil organic matter fractions and their relevance to soil function. In: Magdoff F, Weil R R. Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 67–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang T. 2009. Review and prospect of research on oasification and desertification in arid regions. Journal of Desert Research, 29(1): 1–9. (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinthal E, Vengosh A, Marei A, et al. 2005. The water crisis in the Gaza strip: Prospects for resolution. Groundwater, 43(5): 653–660.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wichern F, Lobe I, Amelung W, et al. 2004. Changes in amino acid enantiomers and microbial performance in soils from a subtropical mountain oasis in Oman abandoned for different periods. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 39(6): 398–406.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf B, Snyder G H. 2003. Sustainable Soils: The Place of Organic Matter in Sustaining Soils and Their Productivity. New York: Food Products Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zemánek P. 2014. Evaluation of compost influence on soil water retention. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 59(3): 227–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zohary D, Hopf M, Weiss E. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rawan Mlih.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mlih, R., Bol, R., Amelung, W. et al. Soil organic matter amendments in date palm groves of the Middle Eastern and North African region: a mini-review. J. Arid Land 8, 77–92 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-015-0054-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-015-0054-8

Keywords

  • review
  • Middle Eastern and North African (MENA)
  • drylands
  • organic matter amendments
  • oasis agrosystem
  • date palm production