Skip to main content

Evapotranspiration of an oasis-desert transition zone in the middle stream of Heihe River, Northwest China

Abstract

As a main component in water balance, evapotranspiration is of great importance for water saving and irrigation-measure making, especially in arid or semiarid regions. Although studies of evapotranspiration have been conducted for a long time, studies concentrated on oasis-desert transition zone are very limited. On the basis of the meteorological data and other parameters (e.g. leaf area index (LAI)) of an oasis-desert transition zone in the middle stream of Heihe River from 2005 to 2011, this paper calculated both reference (ET 0) and actual evapotranspiration (ET c) using FAO56 Penman-Monteith and Penman-Monteith models, respectively. In combination with pan evaporation (E p) measured by E601 pan evaporator, four aspects were analyzed: (1) ET 0 was firstly verified by E p; (2) Characteristics of ET 0 and ET c were compared, while the influencing factors were also analyzed; (3) Since meteorological data are often unavailable for estimating ET 0 through FAO56 Penman-Monteith model in this region, pan evaporation coefficient (K p) is very important when using observed E p to predict ET 0. Under this circumstance, an empirical formula of K p was put forward for this region; (4) Crop coefficient (K c), an important index to reflect evapotranspiration, was also analyzed. Results show that mean annual values of ET 0 and ET c were 840 and 221 mm, respectively. On the daily bases, ET 0 and ET c were 2.3 and 0.6 mm/d, respectively. The annual tendency of ET 0 and ET c was very similar, but their amplitude was obviously different. The differences among ET 0 and ET c were mainly attributed to the different meteorological variables and leaf area index. The calculated K c was about 0.25 and showed little variation during the growing season, indicating that available water (e.g. precipitation and irrigation) of about 221 mm/a was required to keep the water balance in this region. The results provide an comprehensive analysis of evapotranspiration for an oasis-desert transition zone in the middle stream of Heihe River, which was seldom reported before.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Allen R G, Smith M, Pereira L S, et al. 1994. An update for the calculation of reference evapotranspiration. ICID Bulletin, 43(2): 35–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen R G, Pereira L S, Raes D, et al. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen R G, Pereira L S, Howell T A, et al. 2011. Evapotranspiration information reporting: I. factors governing measurement accuracy. Agricultural Water Management, 98(6): 899–920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ASCE-EWRI. 2005. The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. In: Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliot RL, et al. Reported by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration. ASCE, Reston, 0-7844-0805-X, 204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brutsaert W, Parlange M B. 1998. Hydrologic cycle explains the evaporation paradox. Nature, 396(6706): 30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiew F H S, Kamaladasa N N, Malano H M, et al. 1995. Penman-Monteith, FAO-24 reference crop evapotranspiration and class-A pan data in Australia. Agricultural Water Management, 28(1): 9–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cuenca R H. 1989. Irrigation System Design: An Engineering Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • De La Fuente A, Bing N, Hoeschele I, et al. 2004. Discovery of meaningful associations in genomic data using partial correlation coefficients. Bioinformatics, 20(18): 3565–3574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doorenbos J, Pruitt W O. 1977. Crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage. Paper 24. Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doorenbos J, Pruitt W O. 1984. Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehlers E, Krafft T. 1996. German global change research. National Committee on Global Change Research, Bonn: 128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher J B, Whittaker R J, Malhi Y. 2011. ET come home: potential evapotranspiration in geographical ecology. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(1): 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fu G, Liu C, Chen S, et al. 2004. Investigating the conversion coefficients for free water surface evaporation of different evaporation pans. Hydrological Processes, 18(2): 2247–2262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gao S, Su P X, Yan Q D, et al. 2010. Canopy and leaf gas exchange of Haloxylon ammodendron under different soil moisture regimes. Science China Life Sciences, 53(6): 718–728.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howell T, Steiner J, Schneider A, et al. 1995. Evapotranspiration of irrigated winter wheat: Southern High Plains. Transactions of the ASAE, 38(3): 745–759.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen D, Hargreaves G, Temesgen B, et al. 1997. Computation of ET0 under nonideal conditions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 123(5): 394–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen M E. 1974. Consumptive Use of Water and Irrigation Water Requirements. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jensen M E, Burman R D, Allen R G. 1990. Evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements. ASCE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jia J H, Zhao W Z, Li S B. 2012. Regional evapotranspiration rate of oasis and surrounding desert. Hydrological Processes, doi: 10.1002/hyp.9447.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li S B, Zhao W Z. 2010. Satellite-based actual evapotranspiration estimation in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin using the SEBAL method. Hydrological Processes, 24(23): 3337–3344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li X M, Lu L, Yang W F, et al. 2011. Estimation of evapotranspiration in an arid region by remote sensing-A case study in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 17: 85–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li Y, Horton R, Ren T, et al. 2010. Prediction of annual reference evapotranspiration using climatic data. Agricultural Water Management, 97(2): 300–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu B, Zhao W Z. 2009. Ecological adaptability of photosynthesis and water metabolism for Tamarix Ramosissima and Nitraria Sphaerocarpa in desert-oasis ecotone. Journal of Desert Research, 29(1): 101–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu B, Zhao W Z, Chang X X, et al. 2010. Water requirements and stability of oasis ecosystem in arid region, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59(6): 1235–1244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Molina H P, Navarro A M, Osorio M R, et al. 2006. Social and irrigation water management issues in some water user’s associations of the Low Segura River Valley (Alicante, Spain). Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies, 96: 205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Monteith J L. 1965. Evaporation and Environment. In: Symposium of the Society of Experimental Biology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 205–234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monteith J L. 1981. Evaporation and surface temperature. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 107(451): 1–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Penman H L. 1948. Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 193(1032): 120–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pereira L S, Perrier A, Allen R G, et al. 1999. Evapotranspiration: concepts and future trends. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 125(2): 45–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Priestley C, Taylor R. 1972. On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Monthly Weather Review, 100(2): 81–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rana G, Katerji N. 2000. Measurement and estimation of actual evapotranspiration in the field under Mediterranean climate: a review. European Journal of Agronomy, 13(2): 125–153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raupach M. 2001. Combination theory and equilibrium evaporation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 127(574): 1149–1181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shuttleworth W J, Wallace J. 1985. Evaporation from sparse crops-an energy combination theory. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 111(469): 839–855.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder R L. 1992. Equation for evaporation pan to evapotranspiration conversions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 118(6): 977–980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder R L, Orang M, Matyac S, et al. 2005. Simplified estimation of reference evapotranspiration from pan evaporation data in California. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 131(3): 249–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stannard D I. 1993. Comparison of Penman-Monteith, Shuttleworth-Wallace, and modified Priestley-Taylor evapo-transpiration models for wildland vegetation in semiarid rangeland. Water Resources Research, 29(5): 1379–1392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steiner J L, Howell T A, Schneider A D. 1991. Lysimetric evaluation of daily potential evapotranspiration models for grain sorghum. Agronomy Journal, 83(1): 240–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Su Y Z, Zhao W Z, Su P X, et al. 2007. Ecological effects of desertification control and desertified land reclamation in an oasis-desert ecotone in an arid region: a case study in Hexi Corridor, northwest China. Ecological Engineering, 29(2): 117–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Szeicz G, Long I. 1969. Surface resistance of crop canopies. Water Resources Research, 5(3): 622–633.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tasumi M, Allen R G, Trezza R, et al. 2005. Satellite-based energy balance to assess within-population variance of crop coefficient curves. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 131(1): 94–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thornthwaite C W. 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review, 38(1): 55–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verstraeten W W, Veroustraete F, Feyen J. 2008. Assessment of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content across different scales of observation. Sensors, 8(1): 70–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu J K, Ding Y J, Wei Z, et al. 2005. Study on the reference evapotranspiration of natural steppes in arid areas—a case study in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River, Gansu Province. Arid Zone Research, 22(4): 514–519.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xing Z, Chow L, Meng F, et al. 2008. Testing reference evapotranspiration estimation methods using evaporation pan and modeling in Maritime region of Canada. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(4): 417–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu C, Gong L, Jiang T, et al. 2006. Analysis of spatial distribution and temporal trend of reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment. Journal of Hydrology, 327(1): 81–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y Q, Liu C M, Tang Y H, et al. 2007. Trends in pan evaporation and reference and actual evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres (1984–2012), 112(D12).

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao L W, Ji X B. 2010. Quantification of transpiration and evaporation over agricultural field using the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach-a case study of the maize field in an oasis in the middlestream of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. China Agriculture Science, 43(19): 4016–4026.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao W Z, Ji X B, Kang E S, et al. 2010a. Evaluation of Penman-Monteith model applied to a maize field in the arid area of northwest China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1): 461–491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao W Z, Liu B, Zhang Z H. 2010b. Water requirements of maize in the middle Heihe River basin, China. Agricultural Water Management, 97(2): 215–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou L H, Yang G J. 2006. Ecological economic problems and development patterns of the Arid Inland River Basin in Northwest China. Ambio: 316–318.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to WenZhi Zhao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zhao, L., Zhao, W. Evapotranspiration of an oasis-desert transition zone in the middle stream of Heihe River, Northwest China. J. Arid Land 6, 529–539 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-014-0061-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-014-0061-1

Keywords

  • evapotranspiration
  • pan evaporation
  • water requirement
  • arid region
  • oasis-desert transition zone