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Ionospheric perturbations observed due to Indonesian Earthquake (Mw = 7.4) using GPS and VLF measurements at multi-stations

Abstract

In the present paper Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Very Low Frequency (VLF) measurements at multi-stations have been used to analyze ionospheric anomalies related with major earthquake (Mw = 7.4) of South West Banten (Lampung Area), Indonesia. The earthquake occurred on 02 August 2019 at 19:03:21 LT (epicenter at geog. lat = 07.22° S, long. 104.83º E, depth 10 km). Tremors due to the earthquakes were felt in Jakarta, Bandung, and several parts of Java and Sumatra and more than 160,000 people were exposed and estimated release of energy to this earthquake (EQ) was 278 GWh. In this paper statistical analysis of the GPS-TEC data clearly supports the presence of earthquake signature in the form of anomalous perturbations in total electron content (TEC). Analysis found the presence of ionospheric perturbations 0–5 days before and after the main shock of the earthquake. The anomalous perturbations in the TEC were observed from few days to few hours prior to the main shock of the earthquake. Perturbations in TEC have been found to depend on the distance as well as direction of observation point from the epicentre. In general ionospheric perturbations after the EQ at all the stations are found larger than that before the EQ. VLF signal analysis using night-time fluctuation method indicates a significant increase in VLF amplitude before couple of days of EQ. Probable mechanisms behind these perturbations associated with EQ have also been discussed.

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Data availability

The GPS data used in the present study are freely available at webpage: ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov hosted by IGS and geomagnetic data are freely available at webpage: http://swdcwww.kugi.kyto-u.ac.jp hosted by World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at Kyoto University, Japan.

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Acknowledgements

The work is partially supported by CSIR, New Delhi under POOL Scientist Scheme (9049-A/2019) and partially supported by SERB, New Delhi for CRG project (File No: CRG/2019/000573). Pradeep Kumar acknowledge to SERB, New Delhi, India, to provide financial support for project (PDF/2017/001898). The International GNSS Service (IGS) is thankful for providing GPS data which have been downloaded from website: ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov. We are also thankful to the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at Kyoto University, Japan for providing geomagnetic data (http://swdcwww.kugi.kyto-u.ac.jp). Authors are thankful to both the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of manuscript.

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SK: Writing—Original draft preparation, Methodology, Software. GT: Data curation and Editing. PK: Visualization, Conceptualization, Plotting. AKS: Formal analysis, Plotting graphs. AKS: Writing- Reviewing, Supervision and Editing.

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Correspondence to Abhay K. Singh.

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The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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Kumar, S., Tripathi, G., Kumar, P. et al. Ionospheric perturbations observed due to Indonesian Earthquake (Mw = 7.4) using GPS and VLF measurements at multi-stations. Acta Geod Geophys 56, 559–577 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40328-021-00345-5

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Keywords

  • GPS
  • VLF
  • Ionosphere
  • Earthquake
  • Seismo-electromagnetic