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Macolin and beyond: legal and regulatory initiatives against match manipulation

Abstract

Match manipulation, as one of the most common types of sports fraud, constitutes a significant threat to the integrity of sport and those involved. This paper aims to provide an image of the legal and regulatory framework currently in place to tackle match manipulation in sport against the background of the topics dealt with by the Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions of 2014 (Macolin Convention). The paper, firstly, observes that, over the course of the past decade, several European states have introduced specific anti-corruption laws to deal with the phenomenon. In addition, multiple initiatives that were taken with the intention of improving national and international cooperation in relation to the topic of match manipulation are considered. At national level, numerous states have created multi-stakeholder platforms, so-called national platforms. At international level, cooperative initiatives exist as well. For example, organisations such as INTERPOL and Europol facilitate cooperation between police authorities and law enforcement agencies. Furthermore, the Group of Copenhagen, created against the backdrop of the Macolin framework, brings together representatives of the various national platforms. Last, the paper discusses multiple actions taken at the level of sports organisations in order to strengthen their regulatory framework with the aim of preventing, detecting and sanctioning match manipulation.

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Notes

  1. Match manipulation, manipulation of sports competitions and competition manipulation will be used interchangeably in this paper, unless specified otherwise.

  2. Spapens and Olfers (2013), p. 16.

  3. Carpenter (2012), p. 24.; Chappelet and Verschuuren (2019), pp. 433–434.

  4. Manoli (2018), p. 22.

  5. Carpenter (2012), pp. 13–16.; Diaconu et al. (2021), pp. 1–13.

  6. Council of Europe Treaty No. 215 Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions, Magglingen/Macolin, 18 September 2014, Explanatory Report (Hereinafter: Explanatory Report), para 1.

  7. Article 3, para 4 Council of Europe Treaty No. 215 Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions, Magglingen/Macolin, 18 September 2014 (hereinafter: Macolin Convention).

  8. Serby (2015), p. 84.; Villeneuve (2015), p. 633.; Carpenter (2018), p. 208.; Diaconu and Kuhn (2019), p. 3.; Collon (2021), p. 106.

  9. Tak et al. (2018), p. 32.

  10. Husting et al. (2012), p. 10.; Van Der Hoeven et al. (2019), p. 2–3.

  11. Husting et al. (2012), p. 10.

  12. Ibid.; Yilmaz et al. (2019), p. 377.

  13. Husting et al. (2012), p. 10.; Yilmaz et al. (2019), p. 377.

  14. Preston and Szymanski (2003), p. 618.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Husting et al. (2012), p. 10

  17. Veuthey (2014), p. 86.

  18. Husting et al. (2012), p. 10.

  19. Brooks et al. (2013), p. 41.

  20. Ibid., p. 42.

  21. Forrest (2018), p. 97–100.

  22. Breuer and Kaiser (2016), p. 65.; Chappelet and Verschuuren (2019), p. 433.

  23. Forrest (2018), p. 101.

  24. Ibid.; Chappelet and Verschuuren (2019), p. 433.

  25. Carpenter (2012), p. 17.; Veuthey (2014), p. 83.; Carpenter (2018), p. 210.

  26. Abbott and Sheehan (2013), p. 265.; Andreff (2017), p. 3.

  27. Europol (2013) Update—Results From The Largest Football Match-Fixing Investigation In Europe. https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/update-results-largest-football-match-fixing-investigation-in-europe. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  28. Ibid.

  29. Abbott and Sheehan (2013), p. 264.; Serby (2015), p. 84–86.; Costa (2018), p. 126.

  30. Article 32, para 4 Macolin Convention.; Council of Europe (2019a, b) The Macolin Convention has entered into force. https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/newsroom/-/asset_publisher/x9nLQ8ukPUk9/content/the-macolin-convention-has-entered-into-force-the-convention-on-the-manipulation-of-sports-competitions-cets-215-has-entered-into-force-on-1-september?inheritRedirect=false. Accessed on 17 November 2021.

  31. Article 1, para 2 Macolin Convention.

  32. Articles 15-18 Macolin Convention.

  33. Articles 12-14 Macolin Convention.

  34. Article 7 Macolin Convention.

  35. Article 10 Macolin Convention.

  36. For a more systematic study on the contents of the Macolin Convention, see e.g. Serby (2015) and Tarasti (2015).

  37. Serby (2015), pp. 84–85.; UNODC (2016), p. 20.

  38. UNODC (2016), p. 20.; Diaconu et al. (2021), p. 3.

  39. Tarasti (2015), p. 21.

  40. Several other treaties dealing with sports were adopted within the framework of the Council of Europe, namely Council of Europe Treaty No. 120, European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in particular at Football Matches, Strasbourg, 19 August 1985.; Council of Europe Treaty No. 135, Anti-Doping Convention, Strasbourg, 16 November 1989.; Council of Europe Treaty No. 188, Additional Protocol to the Anti-Doping Convention, Warsaw, 12 September 2002.; Council of Europe Treaty No. 218, Council of Europe Convention on an Integrated Safety, Security and Service Approach at Football Matches and Other Sports Events, Saint-Denis, 3 July 2016.

  41. Article 8 Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. R(92)13rev.

  42. See Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Resolution CM/Res(2010)11.

  43. Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Recommendation cm/rec(2011)10.

  44. Explanatory Report, para 15.

  45. UN General Assembly resolution 58/4, 31 October 2003 (hereinafter: UNCAC).

  46. UN General Assembly resolution 55/25, 15 November 2000 (hereinafter: UNTOC).

  47. For UNCAC, see United Nations. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/corruption/ratification-status.html. Accessed on 19 November 2021.; For UNTOC, see United Nations. https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVIII-12&chapter=18&clang=_en. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  48. UNODC (2016), p. 20.

  49. Article 21 UNCAC.; UNODC (2016), p. 21.

  50. Art. 12 UNCAC.; UNODC (2016), p. 21.

  51. Article 5 UNTOC.

  52. UNODC (2016), p. 22.

  53. Explanatory Report, para 13.

  54. Council of Europe, Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 215. https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/215/signatures. Accessed on 17 November 2021.

  55. Ibid.

  56. Preamble and art. 32, para 1-2 Macolin Convention.; Explanatory Report, para 227.

  57. Maltese government (2020) Press Release by the Parliamentary Secretariat for Youth, Sport and Voluntary Organisations and the Parliamentary Secretariat for Financial Services and Digital Economy (PR202001en). https://www.gov.mt/en/Government/DOI/Press%20Releases/Pages/2020/October/15/pr202001en.aspx. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  58. Opinion 1/14, Request for an opinion submitted by the Republic of Malta pursuant to Article 218(11) TFEU.

  59. Art. 32, para 1 Macolin Convention.

  60. European Commission (2017) COM(2017) 386 final 2017/0165 (NLE), p. 6.; Büchel (2020), p. 10.

  61. Samoilova (2020), p. 482.

  62. Opinion of Advocate General Hogan in Opinion procedure 1/19 Istanbul Convention, 11 March 2012, para 197.; Chamon (2021).

  63. Maltese government (2020) Press Release by the Parliamentary Secretariat for Youth, Sport and Voluntary Organisations and the Parliamentary Secretariat for Financial Services and Digital Economy (PR202001en). https://www.gov.mt/en/Government/DOI/Press%20Releases/Pages/2020/October/15/pr202001en.aspx. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  64. Büchel (2020), p. 11.; also see Opinion of Advocate General Hogan in Opinion procedure 1/19 Istanbul Convention, 11 March 2012, para 204.

  65. Court of Justice of the European Union, Opinion 1/19, 6 October 2021, § 249- § 250.

  66. Ibid., § 251- § 252.

  67. Ibid., § 253.

  68. Ibid., § 255.

  69. Follow-up Committee on Manipulation of sports competitions (T-MC) (2021), Point 9.

  70. Article 15 Macolin Convention.

  71. Zaksaite (2013), p. 290.

  72. Explanatory Report, para 130.

  73. European Commission (2012) COM(2012) 596 final, p. 15.

  74. UNODC and IOC (2021), p. 6.

  75. Husting et al. (2012), p. 23 and pp. 33–41.; Vidal (2014), pp. 104–105.; Manoli (2018), p. 23.

  76. UNODC and IOC (2021), p. 6.

  77. Art. 445-1-1 and art. 445-2-1 French Criminal Code of 22 July 1992.

  78. Humbert (2011), p. 44.

  79. Soiron and Benichou (2019), p. 88.

  80. Section 265c and Section 265d German Criminal Code of 15 May 1871.

  81. Feltes (2013), pp. 20–21.; Keidel (2017).

  82. Diaconu and Kuhn (2019), p. 1-2 and 4-7.

  83. Art. 25a Swiss Federal Act on the Promotion of Sport and Exercise (Sport Promotion Act, SpoPA) of 17 June 2011.; Diaconu and Kuhn (2019), p. 2.

  84. Diaconu and Kuhn (2019), p. 12.

  85. Ibid., p. 10.

  86. E.g.: Latvia (see Manoli (2018), p. 23.), Republic of Moldova (see Renita (2019), p. 183.) and Ukraine (UNODC and IOC (2018), p. 34)

  87. UNODC and IOC (2021), p. 9.

  88. These include the Commonwealth and state and territory governments (Australia, National Policy on Match-Fixing in Sport: As agreed by Australian Governments on 10 June 2011, p. 1.)

  89. Article 3.4 Australia, National Policy on Match-Fixing in Sport: As agreed by Australian Governments on 10 June 2011.

  90. Wood et al. (2018), p. 76.

  91. UNODC and IOC (2013).; UNODC and IOC (2021), p. 6.

  92. Husting et al. (2012), p. 16 and 43.

  93. European Parliament resolution of 2 February 2017 on an integrated approach to Sport Policy: good governance, accessibility and integrity (2016/2143(INI)).

  94. Greece, Italy, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Switzerland and Ukraine have recently implemented specific provisions or already had these specific provisions before the idea of creating an international convention on competition manipulation was launched. For more details see e.g. Oliverio and Swing (2011), Husting et al. (2012), UNODC and IOC (2018), p. 34, Hallmann et al. (2019), Renita (2019) and Diaconu and Kuhn (2019).

  95. Norway (2012), p. 7.; UNODC and IOC (2016), p. 12.

  96. Vidal (2014), pp. 104–106.

  97. Article 15 Macolin Convention.

  98. Vidal (2014), p. 105.

  99. See Section 4 on international cooperation.

  100. Article 26, para 3 Macolin Convention.; Explanatory Report, para 207.; Vidal (2014), p. 105.

  101. Vidal (2014), pp. 72–73.; UNODC (2016), p. 27.; Carpenter (2018), p. 213.; UNODC, IOC and INTERPOL (2021), p. 6.

  102. Henzelin et al. (2018).; Currently, 33 states are represented in the Group of Copenhagen, also known as the Network of National Platforms (see Council of Europe, Network of National Platforms (Group of Copenhagen). https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/network-of-national-platforms-group-of-copenhagen-. Accessed on 17 November 2021.).; The Group of Copenhagen will be discussed in more detail in Section 4 on international cooperation.

  103. Explanatory Report para 118.; Henzelin et al. (2018).

  104. Ibid.

  105. See Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020b).

  106. Art. 64 Swiss Federal Act on Gambling (Gambling Act) of 29 September 2017.; Boss (2019).

  107. Network of National Platforms (2017b).

  108. Network of National Platforms (2017a).; Network of National Platforms (2016).

  109. Calvez et al. (2021), p. 69.

  110. Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020b).; see Section 4 of this paper on international cooperation for more details on the Group of Copenhagen.

  111. Network of National Platforms (2017a).; BOIC (2017).

  112. Sport Australia et al. (2019), pp. 6–7.; Network of National Platforms (2019a)

  113. Network of National Platforms (2017c).; Network of National Platforms (2019b).; Network of National Platforms (2019c).

  114. Deutscher Bundestag (2019), Drucksache 19/14704. https://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/19/147/1914704.pdf. Accessed on 19 November 2021. p. 9.

  115. Italian Government Office for Sport, Italian International Cooperation Against Match-Fixing: National Platform. http://www.icamf.it/index.php/national-platform. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  116. Henzelin et al. (2018); also see Explanatory Report, para 118.

  117. BOIC (2017).

  118. Network of National Platforms (2019c).; Sports Betting Integrity Forum, Who Does What? Protecting Betting Integrity: Who does what in Britain’s strategy in the fight against match fixing? https://www.sbif.uk/who-does-what. Accessed on 19 November 2021..

  119. Explanatory Report, para 113.

  120. Ibid., para 112 and para 120.; The concern about protecting personal data is also articulated in Article 14 Macolin Convention.

  121. Network of National Platforms (2017c).; KCOOS (2017), p. 53.

  122. Assemblée Nationale (2021), Article 9, p. 15.

  123. Network of National Platforms (2019a), p. 2.

  124. Sport Integrity Australia (2021), p 19.

  125. Belgian Court of Arbitration for Sport, case 152/19, 17 July 2019, pp. 51–52.; Article 1380, par. 2 Belgian Judicial Code of 10 October 1967.

  126. KCOOS (2017), p. 48.

  127. Hallmann et al. (2019), p. 53.

  128. Boss (2019).

  129. Explanatory Report, para 118.; Henzelin et al. (2018).

  130. Explanatory Report, para 112 and para 120.

  131. Veuthey (2014), pp. 86–88.; Vidal (2014), p. 64.

  132. Article 2(1) INTERPOL, Constitution of the International Criminal Police Organization-Interpol, I/CONS/GA/1956 (2017).

  133. INTERPOL, Corruption in sport. https://www.interpol.int/Crimes/Corruption/Corruption-in-sport. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  134. See e.g. INTERPOL (2018) INTERPOL and IOC renew partnership to strengthen sports integrity. https://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-Events/News/2018/INTERPOL-and-IOC-renew-partnership-to-strengthen-sports-integrity. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  135. Europol (2020), p. 2 and 22.

  136. Article 3(1) and Annex I European Parliament and European Council Regulation (EU) 2016/794.

  137. Europol (2013) Update—Results From The Largest Football Match-Fixing Investigation In Europe. https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/update-results-largest-football-match-fixing-investigation-in-europe. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  138. Europol and UEFA (2014), point 1.

  139. Ibid., point 3.

  140. Preamble and Article 1, para 2, b Macolin Convention.

  141. Article 26, para 1 Macolin Convention.

  142. Article 26, para 2 Macolin Convention.

  143. Explanatory Report, para 202-204.

  144. Article 26, para 4 Macolin Convention.

  145. Articles 27 and 28 Macolin Convention.

  146. Henzelin et al. (2018).; Collon (2021), p. 101-102.

  147. Council of Europe Directorate General of Democracy: Directorate of Human Dignity and Equality (Sport Division) (2017).; Collon (2021), p. 102.

  148. Council of Europe, Network of National Platforms (Group of Copenhagen). https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/network-of-national-platforms-group-of-copenhagen-. Accessed on 17 November 2021.

  149. Council of Europe Directorate General of Democracy: Directorate of Human Dignity and Equality (Sport Division) (2017).

  150. Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020a), p. 2.

  151. Ibid.

  152. Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2017), p. 1.

  153. Ibid.

  154. Ibid., p. 3.

  155. Ibid., p. 4

  156. Ibid., p. 3-4.

  157. Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020c).

  158. Collon (2021), p. 102.

  159. FIFA (2019) Integrity Task Force concludes monitoring of FIFA Women’s World Cup France 2019. https://www.fifa.com/womensworldcup/news/integrity-task-force-concludes-monitoring-of-fifa-women-s-world-cup-france-2019t. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  160. Articles 2.3 and 2.6 Council of Europe and FIFA (2018).; Council of Europe (2019a, b) FIFA Women's World Cup. https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/newsroom/-/asset_publisher/x9nLQ8ukPUk9/content/fifa-women-s-world-cup?inheritRedirect=false. Accessed on 17 November 2021.

  161. Büchel (2020), p. 16.;

  162. FIFA (2019) Integrity Task Force concludes monitoring of FIFA Women’s World Cup France 2019. https://www.fifa.com/womensworldcup/news/integrity-task-force-concludes-monitoring-of-fifa-women-s-world-cup-france-2019t. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  163. Collon (2021), p. 102.

  164. Ibid.; also see UEFA Euro 2016 Integrity Action Plan (2016) by which public-private cooperation was foreseen during the 2016 UEFA European Football Championship.

  165. Veuthey (2014), pp. 88–89.; Serby (2015), p. 93.; Chappelet (2015), p. 1.

  166. Serby (2015), p. 94.

  167. Explanatory Report, para 73.

  168. Article 7, para 1 Macolin Convention.

  169. Article 7, para 1, b Macolin Convention.

  170. Article 7, para 1, c Macolin Convention.

  171. Article 7, para 2, c Macolin Convention.

  172. Article 7, para 2, a Macolin Convention.

  173. Article 7, para 2, b Macolin Convention.

  174. Article 7, para 2, d Macolin Convention.

  175. Article 7, para 3 Macolin Convention.

  176. Serby (2015), p. 94.

  177. Veuthey (2014), pp. 88–89.

  178. Serby (2015), pp. 93–94.

  179. Veuthey (2014), p. 89.; Serby (2015), p 94.; ICC, ICC ACU - Overview. https://www.icc-cricket.com/about/integrity/anti-corruption/about-us. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  180. Valiño (2019), p. 30.

  181. ITIA, About. https://itia.tennis/about/. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  182. Veuthey (2014), p. 94.

  183. Chappelet and Verschuuren (2019), p. 433.

  184. FIFA (2017) FIFA strengthens global football integrity programme with Sportradar agreement. https://www.fifa.com/who-we-are/news/fifa-strengthens-global-football-integrity-programme-with-sportradar-a-2866086. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  185. Diaconu et al. (2021), p. 3.

  186. Explanatory Report, para 76.; Anderson et al. (2014), p. 141.; p. Serby (2015), p. 95.; Hallmann et al. (2019), p. 100.

  187. Regulation 6.3.1 World Rugby Regulations Relating to the Game (2016).

  188. Ibid., Regulation 6.3.3.

  189. Ibid., Regulation 6.2.

  190. Ibid., Regulation 6.10.2.

  191. Ibid.

  192. Article 2, para 1 Article 26, para 1 FIFA Code of Ethics (2020 Edition).

  193. FIFA, Betting in Football. https://www.fifa.com/who-we-are/legal/integrity/betting-in-football/. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  194. Anderson et al. (2014), pp. 12–13.; Carpenter (2014).; Serby (2015), p. 95.; UNODC (2016), p. 66.

  195. Explanatory Report, p. 13.

  196. Articles 2, 4.5, 6.1.6 and 9.4. EuroLeague Club Licensing Rules (2020–21).

  197. Article 3, a) EuroLeague Financial Stability and Fair Play Regulations and their Schedules (2020-21).

  198. Article 50 UEFA Club Licensing and Financial Fair Play Regulations (Edition 2018).

  199. Article P7.18, 6° Royal Belgian Football Association Regulations, Book P: Pro League (Edition 2020).

  200. RBFA Licensing Commission, Royal Excelsior Virton, 8 April 2020.

  201. Article 18 Article 10 IOC Code of Ethics (Edition 2020).

  202. Section D.2.a.i. Tennis Anti-Corruption Programme (2021).

  203. Regulation 6.3.5 (a) World Rugby Regulations Relating to the Game (2016).

  204. E.g. Section F.6.a. Tennis Anti-Corruption Programme (2021) and Regulation 6.3.5 (b) World Rugby Regulations Relating to the Game (2016).

  205. See e.g. Explanatory Report, para 82.

  206. Capenter (2018), p. 215.

  207. FIFA, Legal Integrity—Confidential Reporting. https://www.fifa.com/who-we-are/legal/integrity/confidential-reporting/. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  208. Articles 38 and 39 FIFA Disciplinary Code (Edition 2019).

  209. IOC (2015) New IOC Integrity and Compliance Hotline Fully Operational. https://www.olympic.org/news/new-ioc-integrity-and-compliance-hotline-fully-operational. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  210. Tarasti (2015), p. 21.

  211. Council of Europe (2019a, b) The Macolin Convention has entered into force. https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/newsroom/-/asset_publisher/x9nLQ8ukPUk9/content/the-macolin-convention-has-entered-into-force-the-convention-on-the-manipulation-of-sports-competitions-cets-215-has-entered-into-force-on-1-september?inheritRedirect=false. Accessed on 17 November 2021.

  212. European Commission (2017) COM(2017) 386 final 2017/0165 (NLE), p. 6.; Büchel (2020), p. 10.

  213. Husting et al. (2012), p. 23 and pp. 33–41.; Vidal (2014), pp 104–105.; UNODC and IOC (2016), p. 12.; Manoli (2018), p. 23.

  214. Explanatory Report, para 118.; Henzelin et al. (2018).

  215. See e.g..Explanatory Report, para 112 and para 120.; The concern about protecting personal data is also articulated in Article 14 Macolin Convention.

  216. Veuthey (2014), pp. 86–88.; Vidal (2014), p. 64.

  217. Article 2(1) INTERPOL, Constitution of the International Criminal Police Organization-Interpol, I/CONS/GA/1956 (2017).; Article 3(1) and Annex I European Parliament and European Council Regulation (EU) 2016/794.

  218. See e.g.: INTERPOL, Corruption in sport. https://www.interpol.int/Crimes/Corruption/Corruption-in-sport. Accessed on 19 November 2021..; Europol (2013) Update - Results From The Largest Football Match-Fixing Investigation In Europe. https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/update-results-largest-football-match-fixing-investigation-in-europe. Accessed on 19 November 2021.

  219. INTERPOL (2018) INTERPOL and IOC renew partnership to strengthen sports integrity. https://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-Events/News/2018/INTERPOL-and-IOC-renew-partnership-to-strengthen-sports-integrity. Accessed on 19 November 2021..; Europol and UEFA (2014).

  220. Henzelin et al. (2018).; Collon (2021), pp. 101–102.

  221. Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2017).; Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020a).; Council of Europe: Group of Copenhagen (2020c).; Collon (2021), p. 102.

  222. Collon (2021), p. 102.

  223. Veuthey (2014), pp. 88–89.

  224. Serby (2015), pp 93–94.

  225. Vidal (2014), pp. 72–73.; UNODC (2016), p. 27.; Carpenter (2018), p. 213.; UNODC, IOC and INTERPOL (2021), p. 6.

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  • Network of National Platforms (2019b) Data base—country fact sheet: Switzerland

  • Network of National Platforms (2019c) Data base—country fact sheet: United Kingdom

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Funding

The research is part of the Prevention of Fraud in Sports (PrOFS) project. Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO) granted funding for this project within their SBO (Strategic Basic Research) funding scheme.

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Vandercruysse, L., Vermeersch, A. & Vander Beken, T. Macolin and beyond: legal and regulatory initiatives against match manipulation. Int Sports Law J (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40318-021-00205-y

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Keywords

  • Match manipulation
  • Macolin convention
  • Criminal law
  • Stakeholder cooperation
  • Sports regulations