Advertisement

The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 69–78 | Cite as

Print Exposure of Taiwanese Fifth Graders: Measurement and Prediction

  • Su-Yen ChenEmail author
  • Sheng-Ping Fang
Regular Article

Abstract

Since Taiwanese readers have international and multicultural reading interests and habits, this study aims to develop a Chinese title recognition test, a translated title recognition test (TTRT), and a Chinese author recognition test as measures of print exposure for fifth graders in Taiwan, and to investigate the relative extent to which print-exposure scores, diary estimates of reading time, reading attitude, and activity preference help predict performance on number of Chinese characters recognized and reading comprehension score. The sample consisted of 318 (153 boys and 165 girls) fifth graders in 11 classes from three elementary schools in Northern Taiwan. Data analysis was performed by Pearson moments correlation and hierarchical regression analysis. We found that, TTRT and TRT composite scores had substantial prediction power for vocabulary size beyond the book-reading time estimates and print-disposition variables, and for reading comprehension beyond vocabulary size, the book-reading time estimates, and print-disposition variables. Our findings corroborate those of previous Western studies on the linkage between print exposure and reading abilities. At the same time, they invite more conversation about evaluating the various instruments used in the area of reading habits, reading disposition, and print exposure, and provide a rationale for developing an instrument of print exposure for children from non-English speaking countries.

Keywords

Print exposure Reading performance Instrument development Primary school Taiwan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China for financially supporting this research under Contract No. NSC 100-2420-H-007-001-MY3.

References

  1. Allen, L., Cipielweski, J., & Stanovich, K. E. (1992). Multiple indicators of children’s reading habits and attitudes: Construct validity and cognitive correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. C., Wilson, P. T., & Fielding, L. G. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, S. Y., & Fang, S. P. (2013). Developing Chinese version of an author recognition test for college students in Taiwan. Journal of Research in Reading,. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12018.Google Scholar
  4. Cipielewski, J., & Stanovich, K. E. (1992). Predicting growth in reading ability from children’s exposure to print. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54, 74–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Assessing print exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of reading experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 733–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(2), 264–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 934–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2008). Relations between print exposure and literacy skills: New evidence from Grade 1-5. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 525–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Echols, L. D., West, R. F., Stanovich, K. E., & Zehr, K. S. (1996). Using children’s literacy activities to predict growth in verbal cognitive skills: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Education Psychology, 88(2), 296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hung, L. Y., Wang, C. C., Chang, Y. W., Chen, H. F., & Chen, Q. S. (2006). Size of Chinese characters test for elementary and junior high school students. Taipei: Ministry of Education in Taiwan.Google Scholar
  11. Ko, H. W., & Zhan, Y. L. (2006). Reading comprehension test for elementary school students. Taipei: Ministry of Education in Taiwan.Google Scholar
  12. McBride-Chang, C., & Chang, L. (1995). Memory, print exposure, and metacognition—Components of reading in Chinese. International Journal of Psychology, 30(5), 607–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43, 626–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mol, S., & Bus, A. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthoods. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Spear-Swerling, L., Brucker, P. O., & Alfano, M. P. (2010). Relationships between sixth-graders’ reading comprehension and two different measures of print exposure. Reading and Writing, 23(1), 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang, C. C., Hung, L. Y., Chang, Y. W., & Chen, H. F. (2008). Number of characters school students know from Grade 1 to G9. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 39(4), 555–568.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© De La Salle University 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Learning SciencesNational Tsing-Hua University in TaiwanHsinchuTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Chinese LiteratureNational Tsing-Hua University in TaiwanHsinchuTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations