Electric Solar Wind Sail Kinetic Energy Impactor for Asteroid Deflection Missions

Article

Abstract

An electric solar wind sail uses the natural solar wind stream to produce low but continuous thrust by interacting with a number of long thin charged tethers. It allows a spacecraft to generate a thrust without consuming any reaction mass. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a spacecraft with such a propulsion system to deflect an asteroid with a high relative velocity away from an Earth collision trajectory. To this end, we formulate a simulation model for the electric solar wind sail. By summing thrust vectors exerted on each tether, a dynamic model which gives the relation between the thrust and sail attitude is proposed. Orbital maneuvering by fixing the sail’s attitude and changing tether voltage is considered. A detailed study of the deflection of fictional asteroids, which are assumed to be identified 15 years before Earth impact, is also presented. Assuming a spacecraft characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/s 2, and a projectile mass of 1,000 kg, we show that the trajectory of asteroids with one million tons can be changed enough to avoid a collision with the Earth. Finally, the effectiveness of using this method of propulsion in an asteroid deflection mission is evaluated in comparison with using flat photonic solar sails.

Keywords

Electric solar wind sail Near Earth asteroid’s deflection Propellantless propulsion systems Kinetic energy impactor 

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Copyright information

© American Astronautical Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Creative Research and Development of Humanosphere, Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityGokasho, Uji-cityJapan

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