Nutrients and Nutraceuticals for the Management of High Normal Blood Pressure: An Evidence-Based Consensus Document

  • Arrigo F. G. CiceroEmail author
  • Davide Grassi
  • Giuliano Tocci
  • Ferruccio Galletti
  • Claudio Borghi
  • Claudio Ferri
Position Paper


Essential hypertension still represents the most common cardiovascular risk factor, which is responsible for the vast majority of global burden of disease, worldwide. Antihypertensive treatment aimed at lowering blood pressure (BP) levels to the recommended therapeutic targets has demonstrated to reduce risk of developing major cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. Despite these evidence, overall rates of BP control are dramatically low in most European and Western countries, as well as in the so called developing countries, thus contributing to the increasingly amount of hypertension-related costs and disabilities. For these reasons, preventive strategies aimed at improving BP control rates in treated hypertensive patients and reducing high-normal BP levels in asymptomatic otherwise healthy individuals may contribute to reduce the burden of disease related to hypertension. In this view, an extensive use of nutrients and nutraceuticals has demonstrated to provide favorable effects in hypertension management and control, beyond the adoption of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions can effectively and safely reduce BP levels to targets and prevent disease progression form high-normal BP levels towards stage 1 hypertension. The present consensus document will systematically describe and critically analyze the currently available evidence in favor of the use of nutrients and nutraceuticals in those individuals with high-normal BP levels at different cardiovascular risk profile.


Hypertension High blood pressure Nutraceuticals Nutrients Cardiovascular prevention 



On behalf of the Italian Arterial Hypertension Society (SIIA), Italian Society of Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC) and Italian Society of Nutraceuticals (SINut).

Compliance to Ethical Standard

Conflict of interest

No one author has direct nor indirect conflict of interest in the publication of this paper.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Hypertension 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arrigo F. G. Cicero
    • 1
    Email author
  • Davide Grassi
    • 2
  • Giuliano Tocci
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ferruccio Galletti
    • 5
  • Claudio Borghi
    • 1
  • Claudio Ferri
    • 2
  1. 1.Medical and Surgical Sciences Dept, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi University HospitalU.O. Medicina Interna BorghiBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Life, Health and Environmental SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  3. 3.Division of Cardiology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sant’Andrea HospitalUniversity of Rome SapienzaRomeItaly
  4. 4.IRCCS NeuromedPozzilliItaly
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, ESH Excellence Center of Hypertension, “Federico II”University of Naples Medical SchoolNaplesItaly

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