Long Term Home-Based Exercise is Effective to Reduce Blood Pressure in Low Income Brazilian Hypertensive Patients: A Controlled Trial
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Home-based exercise programs may increase adherence to physical activity among groups with poor access to exercise facilities. However, their effectiveness to lower blood pressure of hypertensive patients remains undefined.
This controlled clinical trial investigated the influence of a home-based exercise program upon blood pressure, blood metabolic profile, and physical fitness in a Brazilian cohort of low income patients diagnosed with hypertension.
Twenty-nine patients (22 women, age: 53 ± 11 years) underwent 16 months of home-based exercise, including 30 min of moderate intensity walking and stretching exercises. Fourteen patients (9 women, age: 48 ± 5 years) composed a non-exercise control group. Primary outcomes were assessed each two months.
Body mass (3.6 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.03) and sum of skinfolds (3.0 ± 1.2 cm; P = 0.04) increased in controls vs. baseline. Mean compliance to home-based exercise was 83 ± 7 %, which induced significant improvements from baseline vs. controls in body mass (−5.4 ± 2.0 kg; P = 0.04), body fat (−4.7 ± 0.3 %; P = 0.03), waist circumference (−6.1 ± 1.2 cm; P = 0.03), sum of skinfolds (−14.8 ± 3.7; P = 0.02); aerobic efficiency reflected by slopes of relationships between heart rate and workload (−0.05 ± 0.01; P = 0.05), trunk flexibility (7.8 ± 1.7 cm; P = 0.02), HDL (1.8 ± 0.9 mg/dL; P = 0.04), triglycerides (−12.3 ± 1.0 mg/dL; P = 0.03), and glucose (−6.9 ± 2.9 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Systolic and diastolic BP decreased until the sixth month of intervention vs. baseline and controls, remaining stable at lower levels thereafter (systolic blood pressure: −4.5 ± 0.3 mmHg; P = 0.03; diastolic blood pressure: −2.5 ± 0.6 mmHg; P = 0.05).
Low income hypertensive patients complied with a long-term home-based exercise program, which was effective for improving their functional capacity, blood metabolic profile, and blood pressure.
KeywordsHypertension Walking Stretching Aerobic training Cardiovascular risk Health
This study was partially supported by the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for the Research Support in the Rio de Janeiro State (FAPERJ) (grant no. E-26/010001899/2014) and the Brazilian Council for the Research Development (CNPq) (grant no. 473551/2013-6). In memory of Dr. Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani, outstanding professional and good friend.
Compliances with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to the present research.
The experimental protocol was approved by institutional ethical committee in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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