Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 297–314 | Cite as

Drug-Induced Skin Adverse Reactions: The Role of Pharmacogenomics in Their Prevention

  • Kalliopi Gerogianni
  • Aspasia Tsezou
  • Konstantinos Dimas
Review Article


Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) affect many patients and remain a major public health problem, as they are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that ADRs are responsible for about 6% of hospital admissions and about 9% of hospitalization costs. Skin is the organ that is most frequently involved in ADRs. Drug-induced skin injuries vary from mild maculopapular eruptions (MPE) to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that are potentially life threatening. Genetic factors have been suggested to contribute to these SCARs, and most significant genetic associations have been identified in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Common drugs associated with SCARs connected with strong genetic risk factors include antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), allopurinol, abacavir, nevirapine, sulfonamides, dapsone, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and analgesic drugs. However, genetic associations vary between different ethnic populations. Differences may in part be explained by the different prevalence of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) alleles among ethnic groups. In this review, we present and discuss the recent advances in genetic associations with ADRs in the skin. Many of these ADRs are now preventable with pharmacogenetic screening.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Kalliopi Gerogianni, Aspasia Tsezou, and Konstantinos Dimas have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this work.


No sources of funding were used to conduct this study or prepare this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ThessalyLarissaGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ThessalyLarissaGreece
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ThessalyLarissaGreece

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