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Where Does the Time Go? Displacement of Device-Measured Sedentary Time in Effective Sedentary Behaviour Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background

Research has shown the effectiveness of sedentary behaviour interventions on reducing sedentary time. However, no systematic review has studied where the reduced sedentary time after such interventions is displaced to.

Objective

Our objective was to synthesize the evidence from interventions that have reduced sedentary behaviour and test the displacement of sedentary time into physical activity (light physical activity [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], standing, and stepping).

Methods

Two independent researchers performed a systematic search of the EBSCOhost, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the time reallocated from sedentary behaviour to physical activity during working time and the whole day in intervention trials (randomized/non-randomized controlled/non-controlled).

Results

A total of 36 studies met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review, with 26 studies included in the meta-analysis. Interventions showed a significant overall increase in worksite LPA (effect size [ES] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.43; P < 0.013) and daily LPA (ES 0.62; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91; P = 0.001). A statistically significant increase in daily MVPA was observed (ES 0.47; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.67; P < 0.001). There was a significant overall increase in worksite standing time (ES 0.76; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95; P < 0.001), daily standing time (ES 0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.65; P < 0.001), and worksite stepping time (ES 0.12; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.20; P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Effective interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour result in a consistent displacement of sedentary time to LPA and standing time, both at worksites and across the whole day, whereas changes in stepping time or MVPA are dependent on the intervention setting. Strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour should not be limited to worksite settings, and further efforts may be required to promote daily MVPA.

Trial Registration

PROSPERO registration number CRD42020153958.

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Acknowledgements

The assistance of Dr Tricia Kelly (University of Southern Queensland) with the literature searches is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Víctor Segura-Jiménez.

Ethics declarations

Funding

VS-J was funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III through the fellowship CP20/00178 co-funded by European Social Fund and has received funding from the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities with the José Castillejo grant no. CAS19/00395. BG-C has received funding from the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities with the FPU-fellow Mobility Grant no. EST 18/00486.

Conflicts of interest

Víctor Segura-Jiménez, Stuart Biddle, Katrien De Cocker, Shahjahan Khan, and Blanca Gavilán-Carrera have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

Availability of data and material

Data were obtained from previously published scientific research and can be obtained from research studies referenced in the current meta-analysis.

Ethics approval

This study did not require research ethics approval because it did not involve human participants or animal subjects.

Consent

Not applicable.

Author contributions

VSJ participated in the conceptualization of the study and contributed to data collection, data analysis, draft preparation, interpretations of the results, writing, review, and editing. BGC contributed to the conceptualization of the study, data collection, interpretation of the results, writing, review, and editing. SJHB and KDC contributed to the conceptualization of the study, interpretation of the results, review, and editing. SK contributed to data analysis, interpretation of the results, and review. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript and agree with the order of presentation of the authors.

Supplementary Information

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Table S1. Prisma checklist (PDF 69 kb)

Supplementary file2 (PDF 450 kb)

Supplementary file3 (PDF 125 kb)

Supplementary file4 (PDF 195 kb)

40279_2022_1682_MOESM5_ESM.jpeg

Fig. S1. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) sedentary time measured by accelerometry in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of sedentary time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM6_ESM.jpeg

Fig. S2. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) light physical activity (LPA) measured by accelerometry in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of LPA

40279_2022_1682_MOESM7_ESM.jpg

Fig. S3. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometry in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of MVPA

40279_2022_1682_MOESM8_ESM.jpg

Fig. S4. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) sedentary time measured by activPAL accelerometer in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of sedentary time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM9_ESM.jpg

Fig. S5. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) standing time measured by activPAL accelerometer in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of standing time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM10_ESM.jpg

Fig. S6. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) stepping time measured by activPAL accelerometer in post vs. pre analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of stepping time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM11_ESM.jpg

Fig. S7. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) sedentary time measured by activPAL accelerometer in exercise vs. control analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of sedentary time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM12_ESM.jpg

Fig. S8. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) standing time measured by activPAL accelerometer in exercise vs. control analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of standing time

40279_2022_1682_MOESM13_ESM.jpg

Fig. S9. Funnel plots to assess publication bias in effects of sedentary behaviour intervention on worksite (a) and whole day (b) stepping time measured by activPAL accelerometer in exercise vs. control analysis included in the meta-analysis. Each white point represents a meta-analysed group. Diagonal lines represent pseudo-95% confidence intervals. In reference of Y axis, studies located at the lower part of the graph have a higher standard error (a lower weight in the pooled analysis). The vertical line represents the calculated estimate effect of stepping time

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Segura-Jiménez, V., Biddle, S.J.H., De Cocker, K. et al. Where Does the Time Go? Displacement of Device-Measured Sedentary Time in Effective Sedentary Behaviour Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-022-01682-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-022-01682-3