ACOG Committee Opinion No. 804: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135(4):e178–88.
Mottola MF, Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, Davies GA, Poitras VJ, Gray CE, et al. Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout pregnancy. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:1339–46.
Evenson KR, Barakat R, Brown WJ, et al. Guidelines for Physical Activity during Pregnancy: Comparisons From Around the World. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014;8:102–21.
RANZCOG. Exercise during pregnancy. New York, USA: WebMD, 2020
Hayman M, Ferrar K, Marchese R, Tan J, Brown W. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Sports Medicine Australia (SMA) Position Statement (2016). Available online at www.sma.org [Accessed Jan 2021]
Di Mascio D, Magro-Malosso ER, Saccone G, et al. Exercise during pregnancy in normal weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:561.
Kuhrt K, Hezelgrave NL, Shennan AH. Exercise in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;17:281–7.
Morris SN, Johnson NR. Exercise during pregnancy: a critical appraisal of the literature. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:181–8.
Mudd LM, Owe KM, Mottola MF, et al. Health benefits of physical activity during pregnancy: an international perspective. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:268–77.
https://www.nhs.uk/pregnancy/keeping-well/exercise/. Accessed Jan 2021.
Australian Government Department of Health. Physical Activity and Exercise. Pregnancy. https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/physical-activity-and-exercise/pregnancy. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Chersich MF, Pham MD, Areal A, et al. Associations between high temperatures in pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirths: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;371:m3811.
Ha S, Liu D, Zhu Y, et al. Ambient temperature and early delivery of singleton pregnancies. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:453–9.
Rammah A, Whitworth KW, Han I, Chan W, Hess JW, Symanski E. Temperature, placental abruption and stillbirth. Environ Int. 2019;131:105067.
Wang J, Tong S, Williams G, Pan X. Exposure to heat wave during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: an exploration of susceptible windows. Epidemiology. 2019;30(Suppl 1):S115–21.
Chambers CD, Johnson KA, Dick LM, et al. Maternal fever and birth outcome: a prospective study. Teratology. 1998;58:251–7.
Miller MW, Nyborg WL, Dewey WC, et al. Hyperthermic teratogenicity, thermal dose and diagnostic ultrasound during pregnancy: implications of new standards on tissue heating. Int J Hyperthermia. 2002;18:361–84.
Graham JM, Edwards MJ, Edwards MJ. Teratogen update: gestational effects of maternal hyperthermia due to febrile illnesses and resultant patterns of defects in humans. Teratology. 1998;58:209–21.
Edwards MJ. Congenital defects in guinea pigs: fetal resorptions, abortions, and malformations following induced hyperthermia during early gestation. Teratology. 1969;2:313–28.
Ravanelli N, Casasola W, English T, Edwards KM, Jay O. Heat stress and fetal risk. Environmental limits for exercise and passive heat stress during pregnancy: a systemic review with best evidence synthesis. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(12):799–805.
Cramer MN, Jay O. Selecting the correct exercise intensity for unbiased comparisons of thermoregulatory responses between groups of different mass and surface area. J Appl Physiol. 2014;116(9):1123–32.
Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods. 2007;39:175–219.
Astrand PO, Rodhal K. Textbook of Work Physiology. New York: McGraw Hill; 1977.
Ramanathan NL. A new weighting system for mean surface temperature of the human body. J Appl Physiol. 1964;19:531–3.
Cramer MN, Jay O. Partitional calorimetry. J Appl Physiol. 2019;126(2):267–77.
McMurray RG, Katz VL. Thermoregulation in pregnancy Implications for exercice. Sports Med. 1990;10:146–58.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. Promoting physical activity: a guide for community action. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1999
Kenny GP, Jay O, Journeay WS. Disturbance of thermal homeostasis following dynamic exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32(4):818–31.
Barwood MJ, Davey S, House JR, Tipton MJ. Post-exercise cooling techniques in hot, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:385–96.
Hausswirth C, Duffield R, Pournot H, Bieuzen F, Louis J, et al. Postexercise cooling interventions and the effects on exercise-induced heat stress in a temperate environment. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37(5):965–75.
Milunsky A, Ulcickas M, Rothman KJ, et al. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. JAMA. 1992;268:882.
Havenith G, Coenen JML, Kistemaker L, Kenney WL. Relevance of individual characteristics for human heat stress response is dependent on exercise intensity and climate type. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1998;77(3):231–41.
Ravanelli N, Coombs GB, Imbeault P, Jay O. Maximum skin wettedness after aerobic training with and without heat acclimation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50:299–307.
Mora-Rodriguez R, Del Coso J, Hamouti N, Estevez E, Ortega JF. Aerobically trained individuals have greater increases in rectal temperature than untrained ones during exercise in the heat at similar relative intensities. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:973–81.
Clapp JF, Wesley M, Sleamaker RH. Thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to jogging prior to and during pregnancy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19:124–30.
Cramer MN, Jay O. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress. Auton Neurosci. 2016;196:3–13.
Ravanelli N, Cramer M, Imbeault P, Jay O. The optimal exercise intensity for the unbiased comparison of thermoregulatory responses between groups unmatched for body size during uncompensable heat stress. Physiol Rep. 2017;5(5):1–14.
Dervis S, Coombs GB, Chaseling GK, Filingeri D, Smoljanic J, Jay O. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat. J Appl Physiol. 2016;120:615–23.
Cramer MN, Jay O. Explained variance in the thermoregulatory responses to exercise: the independent roles of biophysical and fitness/fatness-related factors. J Appl Physiol. 2015;119:982–9.
Jay O, Bain AR, Deren TM, Sacheli M, Cramer MN. Large differences in peak oxygen uptake do not independently alter changes in core temperature and sweating during exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:832–41.
Smoljanić J, Morris NB, Dervis S, Jay O. Running economy, not aerobic fitness, independently alters thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running. J Appl Physiol. 2014;117:1451–9.
Coombs GB, Cramer MN, Ravanelli N, Imbeault P, Jay O. Thermoregulatory responses to exercise at a fixed rate of heat production are not altered by acute hypoxia. J Appl Physiol. 2017;122:1198–207.
Filingeri D. Neurophysiology of skin thermal sensations. Comp Physiol. 2016;6(3):1429.
Flouris AD, Schlader ZJ. Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(Suppl 1):52–64.
Baker FC, Siboza F, Fuller A. Temperature regulation in women: Effects of the menstrual cycle. Temperature 2020; 1–37
Frascarolo P, Schutz Y, Jequier E. Influence of the menstrual cycle on the sweating response measured by direct calorimetry in women exposed to warm environmental conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;64:449–54.
Inoue Y, Tanaka Y, Omori K, et al. Sex-and menstrual cycle-related differences in sweating and cutaneous blood flow in response to passive heat exposure. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;94:323–32.