Skip to main content

Measuring Physical Demands in Basketball: An Explorative Systematic Review of Practices

Abstract

Background

Measuring the physical work and resultant acute psychobiological responses of basketball can help to better understand and inform physical preparation models and improve overall athlete health and performance. Recent advancements in training load monitoring solutions have coincided with increases in the literature describing the physical demands of basketball, but there are currently no reviews that summarize all the available basketball research. Additionally, a thorough appraisal of the load monitoring methodologies and measures used in basketball is lacking in the current literature. This type of critical analysis would allow for consistent comparison between studies to better understand physical demands across the sport.

Objectives

The objective of this systematic review was to assess and critically evaluate the methods and technologies used for monitoring physical demands in competitive basketball athletes. We used the term ‘training load’ to encompass the physical demands of both training and game activities, with the latter assumed to provide a training stimulus as well. This review aimed to critique methodological inconsistencies, establish operational definitions specific to the sport, and make recommendations for basketball training load monitoring practice and reporting within the literature.

Methods

A systematic review of the literature was performed using EBSCO, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science to identify studies through March 2020. Electronic databases were searched using terms related to basketball and training load. Records were included if they used a competitive basketball population and incorporated a measure of training load. This systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO Registration # CRD42019123603), and approved under the National Basketball Association (NBA) Health Related Research Policy.

Results

Electronic and manual searches identified 122 papers that met the inclusion criteria. These studies reported the physical demands of basketball during training (n = 56), competition (n = 36), and both training and competition (n = 30). Physical demands were quantified with a measure of internal training load (n = 52), external training load (n = 29), or both internal and external measures (n = 41). These studies examined males (n = 76), females (n = 34), both male and female (n = 9), and a combination of youth (i.e. under 18 years, n = 37), adults (i.e. 18 years or older, n = 77), and both adults and youth (n = 4). Inconsistencies related to the reporting of competition level, methodology for recording duration, participant inclusion criteria, and validity of measurement systems were identified as key factors relating to the reporting of physical demands in basketball and summarized for each study.

Conclusions

This review comprehensively evaluated the current body of literature related to training load monitoring in basketball. Within this literature, there is a clear lack of alignment in applied practices and methodological framework, and with only small data sets and short study periods available at this time, it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the true physical demands of basketball. A detailed understanding of modern technologies in basketball is also lacking, and we provide specific guidelines for defining and applying duration measurement methodologies, vetting the validity and reliability of measurement tools, and classifying competition level in basketball to address some of the identified knowledge gaps. Creating alignment in best-practice basketball research methodology, terminology and reporting may lead to a more robust understanding of the physical demands associated with the sport, thereby allowing for exploration of other research areas (e.g. injury, performance), and improved understanding and decision making in applying these methods directly with basketball athletes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Schelling X, Torres-Ronda L. Conditioning for basketball: quality and quantity of training. Strength Cond J. 2013;35(6):89–94.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Impellizzeri FM, Marcora SM, Coutts A. Internal and external training load: 15 years on. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(2):270–3.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Messersmith LL, Corey SM. The distance traversed by a basketball player. Res Q Am Phys Educ Assoc. 1931;2(2):57–60.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Clemente FM. Small-sided and conditioned games in basketball training: a review. Strength Cond J. 2016;38(3):49–58. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0000000000000225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. O’ Grady CJ, Fox JL, Dalbo VJ, Scanlan AT. A systematic review of the external and internal workloads experienced during games-based drills in basketball players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020;1(aop):1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Petway AJ, Freitas TT, Calleja-González J, Medina Leal D, Alcaraz PE. Training load and match-play demands in basketball based on competition level: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0229212.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Stojanović E, Stojiljković N, Scanlan AT, Dalbo VJ, Berkelmans DM, Milanović Z. The activity demands and physiological responses encountered during basketball match-play: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2018;48(1):111–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Portes R, Navarro RM, Sosa Marín C, Trapero JJ, Jiménez Saiz SL. Monitoring and interpreting external load in basketball: a narrative review. Rev Psicol Deporte. 2019;28(3):0119–31.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Taylor JB, Wright AA, Dischiavi SL, Townsend MA, Marmon AR. Activity demands during multi-directional team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2017;47(12):2533–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0772-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Fox JL, Scanlan AT, Stanton R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(7):2021–9. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001964.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Scanlan AT, Dascombe BJ, Reaburn P, Dalbo VJ. The physiological and activity demands experienced by Australian female basketball players during competition. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(4):341–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(4):264–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Maron BJ, Zipes DP. Introduction: eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities—general considerations. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45(8):1318–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Pauw KD, Roelands B, Cheung SS, De Geus B, Rietjens G, Meeusen R. Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(2):111–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Decroix L, De Pauw K, Foster C, Meeusen R. Guidelines to classify female subject groups in sport-science research. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(2):204–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Doeven SH, Brink MS, Frencken WGP, Lemmink K. Impaired player-coach perceptions of exertion and recovery during match congestion. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(9):1151–6. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0363.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Ferioli D, Bosio A, Bilsborough JC, La Torre A, Tornaghi M, Rampinini E. The preparation period in basketball: training load and neuromuscular adaptations. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(8):991–9. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0434.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Ferioli D, Bosio A, La Torre A, Carlomagno D, Connolly DR, Rampinini E. Different training loads partially influence physiological responses to the preparation period in basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(3):790–7. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001823.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Sanders GJ, Boos B, Rhodes J, Kollock RO, Peacock CA. Competition-based heart rate, training load, and time played above 85% peak heart rate in NCAA division I women’s basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002876.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Sansone P, Tschan H, Foster C, Tessitore A. Monitoring training load and perceived recovery in female basketball: implications for training design. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002971.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Scanlan AT, Dascombe BJ, Kidcaff AR, Peucker JL, Dalbo VJ. Gender-specific activity demands experienced during semiprofessional basketball game play. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(5):618–25. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0407.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Vazquez-Guerrero J, Suarez-Arrones L, Gomez DC, Rodas G. Comparing external total load, acceleration and deceleration outputs in elite basketball: players across positions during match play. Kinesiology. 2018;50(2):228–34. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.50.2.11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Brunelli DT, Borin JP, Rodrigues A, Bonganha V, Prestes J, Montagner PC, et al. Immune responses, upper respiratory illness symptoms, and load changes in young athletes during the preparatory period of the training periodization. Open Access J Sports Med. 2012;3:43–9. https://doi.org/10.2147/oajsm.s30962.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Miloski B, Aoki MS, de Freitas CG, Schultz de Arruda AF, de Moraes HS, Drago G, et al. Does testosterone modulate mood states and physical performance in young basketball players? J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(9):2474–81. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000883.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Conte D, Kolb N, Scanlan AT, Santolamazza F. Monitoring training load and well-being during the in-season phase in national collegiate athletic association division i men’s basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(8):1067–74. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0689.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Legg J, Pyne DB, Semple S, Ball N. Variability of jump kinetics related to training load in elite female basketball. Sports. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5040085.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Alonso E, Miranda N, Zhang S, Sosa C, Trapero J, Lorenzo J, et al. Peak match demands in young basketball players: approach and applications. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(7):2256.

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Clemente FM, Mendes B, Bredt S, Praca GM, Silverio A, Carrico S, et al. Perceived training load, muscle soreness, stress, fatigue, and sleep quality in professional basketball: a full season study. J Hum Kinet. 2019;67:199–207. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0002.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Fernandez-Leo A, Gomez-Carmona CD, Garcia-Rubio J, Ibanez SJ. Influence of contextual variables on physical and technical performance in male amateur basketball: a case study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041193.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Fox JL, O’Grady CJ, Scanlan AT. Game schedule congestion affects weekly workloads but not individual game demands in semi-professional basketball. Biol Sport. 2020;37(1):59–67. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2020.91499.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Portes R, Jimenez SL, Navarro RM, Scanlan AT, Gomez MA. Comparing the external loads encountered during competition between elite, junior male and female basketball players. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(4):1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041456.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Puente C, Abián-Vicén J, Areces F, López R, Del Coso J. Physical and physiological demands of experienced male basketball players during a competitive game. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(4):956–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Ransdell LB, Murray T, Gao Y, Jones P, Bycura D. A 4-year profile of game demands in elite women’s division I college basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(3):632–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Vazquez-Guerrero J, Fernandez-Valdes B, Jones B, Moras G, Reche X, Sampaio J. Changes in physical demands between game quarters of U18 elite official basketball games. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0221818. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221818.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Abdelkrim N, Castagna C, Jabri I, Battikh T, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. Activity profile and physiological requirements of junior elite basketball players in relation to aerobic-anaerobic fitness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(9):2330–42. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181e381c1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Bishop D, Wright C. A time-motion analysis of professional basketball to determine the relationship between three activity profiles: high, medium and low intensity and the length of the time spent on court. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2006;6(1):130–9.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Delextrat A, Trochym E, Calleja-Gonzalez J. Effect of a typical in-season week on strength jump and sprint performances in national-level female basketball players. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2012;52(2):128–36.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Manzi V, D’Ottavio S, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Castagna C. Profile of weekly training load in elite male professional basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(5):1399–406. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181d7552a.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Moreira A, Crewther B, Freitas CG, Arruda AFS, Costa EC, Aoki MS. Session RPE and salivary immune-endocrine responses to simulated and official basketball matches in elite young male athletes. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2012;52(6):682–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Staunton C, Wundersitz D, Gordon B, Kingsley M. Accelerometry-derived relative exercise intensities in elite women’s basketball. Int J Sports Med. 2018;39(11):822–7. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0637-9484.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Svilar L, Castellano J, Jukic I. Comparison of 5vs5 training games and match-play using microsensor technology in elite basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002826.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Coyne JOC, Nimphius S, Newton RU, Gregory Haff G. Does mathematical coupling matter to the acute to chronic workload ratio? A case study from elite sport. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(10):1447–54. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0874.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Lastella M, Roach GD, Vincent GE, Scanlan AT, Halson SL, Sargent C. The impact of training load on sleep during a 14-day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0157.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Lukonaitiene I, Kamandulis S, Paulauskas H, Domeika A, Pliauga V, Kreivyte R, et al. Investigating the workload, readiness and physical performance changes during intensified 3-week preparation periods in female national Under18 and Under20 basketball teams. J Sports Sci. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1738702.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Otaegi A, Los Arcos A. Quantification of the perceived training load in young female basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(2):559–65. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002370.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Scanlan AT, Stanton R, Sargent C, O’Grady C, Lastella M, Fox JL. Working overtime: the effects of overtime periods on game demands in basketball players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(10):1331–7. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0906.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. McInnes SE, Carlson JS, Jones CJ, McKenna MJ. The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition. J Sports Sci. 1995;13(5):387–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732254.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Narazaki K, Berg K, Stergiou N, Chen B. Physiological demands of competitive basketball. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(3):425–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Arede J, Ferreira AP, Esteves P, Gonzalo-Skok O, Leite N. Train smarter, play more: insights about preparation and game participation in youth national team. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2019.1693012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Scanlan AT, Wen N, Tucker PS, Dalbo VJ. The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2397–405. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000458.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Vaquera A, Refoyo Román I, Villa Vicente JG, Calleja González J, Rodríguez Marroyo JA, García López J, et al. Heart rate response to game-play in professional basketball players. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2008;3:1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Valvassori R, Saldanha Aoki M, Conte D, Drago G, Moreira A. Physical fitness modulates mucosal immunity and acceleration capacity during a short-term training period in elite youth basketball players. Sci Sports. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2019.07.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Abdelkrim N, Castagna B, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. The effect of players’ standard and tactical strategy on game demands in men’s basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(10):2652–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Abdelkrim N, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. Time–motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(2):69–75.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Svilar L, Castellano J, Jukic I, Casamichana D. Positional differences in elite basketball: selecting appropriate training-load measures. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(7):947–52. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0534.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Vázquez-Guerrero J, Fernández-Valdés B, Gonçalves B, Sampaio JE. Changes in locomotor ratio during basketball game quarters from elite under-18 teams. Front Psychol. 2019;10(SEP):2163. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02163.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Rabadán M, Díaz V, Calderón FJ, Benito PJ, Peinado AB, Maffulli N. Physiological determinants of speciality of elite middle-and long-distance runners. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(9):975–82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Ferioli D, Schelling X, Bosio A, La Torre A, Rucco D, Rampinini E. Match activities in basketball games: comparison between different competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(1):172–82. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003039.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Conte D, Favero T, Lupo C, Francioni F, Capranica L, Tessitore A. Time-motion analysis of Italian elite women’s basketball games: individual and team analyses. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(1):144–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Moreira A, McGuigan MR, Arruda AF, Freitas CG, Aoki MS. Monitoring internal load parameters during simulated and official basketball matches. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):861–6. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31822645e9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Paulauskas H, Kreivyte R, Scanlan AT, Moreira A, Siupsinskas L, Conte D. Monitoring workload in elite female basketball players during the in-season phase: weekly fluctuations and effect of playing time. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0741.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Schelling X, Torres L. Accelerometer load profiles for basketball-specific drills in elite players. J Sport Sci Med. 2016;15(4):585–91.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Svilar L, Castellano J, Jukic I. Load monitoring system in top-level basketball team: relationship between external and internal training load. Kinesiology. 2018;50(1):25–33. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.50.1.4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Torres-Ronda L, Ric A, Llabres-Torres I, De Las Heras B, Del Schelling I, Alcazar X. Position-dependent cardiovascular response and time-motion analysis during training drills and friendly matches in elite male basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(1):60–70. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001043.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Vazquez-Guerrero J, Reche X, Cos F, Casamichana D, Sampaio J. Changes in external load when modifying rules of 5-on-5 scrimmage situations in elite basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002761.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Ribeiro RA, Junior AC, Monezi LA, Misuta MS, Mercadante LA, editors. Physical activity demands in elite basketball games. ISBS-conference proceedings archive; 2015.

  67. Daniel JF, Montagner PC, Padovani CR, Borin JP. Techniques and tactics in basketball according to the intensity in official matches. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2017;23(4):300–3.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Svilar L, Castellano J, Jukic I, Bok D. Short-term tapering prior to the match: external and internal load quantification in top-level basketball. Arch Med Deporte. 2019;36(5):288–95.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Hůlka K, Cuberek R, Bělka J. Heart rate and time-motion analyses in top junior players during basketball matches. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Gymn. 2013;43(3):27–35.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Moraes H, Aoki MS, Freitas CG, Arruda A, Drago G, Moreira A. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(1):49–55. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2017.63733.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Moreira A, Aoki MS, Franchini E, Machado DGD, Paludo AC, Okano AH. Mental fatigue impairs technical performance and alters neuroendocrine and autonomic responses in elite young basketball players. Physiol Behav. 2018;196:112–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.08.015.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Vaquera A, Suárez-Iglesias D, Guiu X, Barroso R, Thomas G, Renfree A. Physiological responses to and athlete and coach perceptions of exertion during small-sided basketball games. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(10):2949–53. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Lupo C, Ungureanu AN, Frati R, Panichi M, Grillo S, Brustio PR. Player session rating of perceived exertion: a more valid tool than coaches’ ratings to monitor internal training load in elite youth female basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0248.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Marcelino PR, Aoki MS, Arruda AFS, Freitas CG, Mendez-Villanueva A, Moreira A. Does small-sided-games’ court area influence metabolic, perceptual, and physical performance parameters of young elite basketball players? Biol Sport. 2016;33(1):37–42. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1180174.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Montgomery PG, Pyne DB, Minahan CL. The physical and physiological demands of basketball training and competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(1):75–86.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Moreira A, de Freitas CG, Nakamura FY, Aoki MS. Session RPE and stress tolerance in young volleyball and basketball players. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2010;12(5):345–51. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n5p345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Peterson KD, Quiggle GT. Tensiomyographical responses to accelerometer loads in female collegiate basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(23):2334–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1266378.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Heishman A, Peak K, Miller R, Brown B, Daub B, Freitas E, et al. Associations between two athlete monitoring systems used to quantify external training loads in basketball players. Sports. 2020;8(3):33. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030033.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Pino-Ortega J, Rojas-Valverde D, Gomez-Carmona CD, Bastida-Castillo A, Hernandez-Belmonte A, Garda-Rubio J, et al. Impact of contextual factors on external load during a congested-fixture tournament in elite U18 basketball players. Front Psychol. 2019;10:11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Nunes JA, Moreira A, Crewther BT, Nosaka K, Viveiros L, Aoki MS. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(10):2973–80. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000499.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Montgomery PG, Maloney BD. Three-by-three basketball: inertial movement and physiological demands during elite games. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(9):1169–74. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0031.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Scanlan A, Dascombe B, Reaburn P. A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men’s basketball competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(11):1153–60.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. DiFiori JP, Güllich A, Brenner JS, Côté J, Hainline B, Ryan E, et al. The NBA and youth basketball: recommendations for promoting a healthy and positive experience. Sports Med. 2018;48(9):2053–65.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  84. Conte D, Favero T, Niederhausen M, Capranica L, Tessitore A. Effect of number of players and maturity on ball-drills training load in youth basketball. Sports. 2017;5(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5010003.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey R. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(1):44–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Di Salvo V, Baron R, Tschan H, Montero FC, Bachl N, Pigozzi F. Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(03):222–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Delextrat A, Kraiem S. Heart-rate responses by playing position during ball drills in basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(4):410–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Heishman AD, Daub BD, Miller RM, Freitas EDS, Bemben MG. Monitoring external training loads and neuromuscular performance for division I basketball players over the preseason. J Sport Sci Med. 2020;19(1):204–12.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Reina Román M, García-Rubio J, Pino-Ortega J, Ibáñez S. The acceleration and deceleration profiles of U-18 women’s basketball players during competitive matches. Sports. 2019;7(7):165.

    Google Scholar 

  90. ReinaRomán M, García-Rubio J, Feu S, Ibáñez SJ. Training and competition load monitoring and analysis of women’s amateur basketball by playing position: approach study. Front Psychol. 2019;9(JAN):2689. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02689.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Vencúrik T. Differences in intensity of game load between senior and U19 female basketball players. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2014;9:422–8. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2014.9.proc1.28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Fox JL, Conte D, Stanton R, McLean B, Scanlan AT. The application of accelerometer-derived moving averages to quantify peak demands in basketball: A comparison of sample duration, playing role, and session type. J Strength Cond Res. 2020.

  93. Caparrós T, Casals M, Solana Á, Peña J. Low external workloads are related to higher injury risk in professional male basketball games. J Sport Sci Med. 2018;17(2):289–97.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, Ben Abdelkrim N, Manzi V. Physiological responses to ball-drills in regional level male basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(12):1329–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.597418.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Klusemann MJ, Pyne DB, Foster C, Drinkwater EJ. Optimising technical skills and physical loading in small-sided basketball games. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(14):1463–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.712714.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. Kozina ZL, Iermakov SS, Kadutskaya LA, Sobyanin FI, Krzeminski M, Sobko IN, et al. Comparative characteristics of correlation between pulse subjective indicators of girl students’ and school girls’ reaction to physical load. Phys Educ Stud. 2016;20(4):24–34. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2016.0403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Mi SH. The optimal analysis of skills and strengths in college basketball training. In: Li H, Zhang L, editors. Proceedings of 2016 5th international conference on social science, education and humanities research. Advances in social science education and humanities research. Paris: Atlantis Press; 2016. p. 1181–7.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Sansone P, Tessitore A, Paulauskas H, Lukonaitiene I, Tschan H, Pliauga V, et al. Physical and physiological demands and hormonal responses in basketball small-sided games with different tactical tasks and training regimes. J Sci Med Sport. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.017.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Vencúrik T, Nykodým J, Struhár I. Heart rate response to game load of U19 female basketball players. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2015;10(Proc1):S410–7. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2015.10.proc1.33..

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Abad CCC, Pereira LA, Kobal R, Kitamura K, Cruz IF, Loturco I, et al. Heart rate and heart rate variability of Yo-Yo IR1 and simulated match in young female basketball athletes: a comparative study. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2016;16(3):776–91.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Sanchez-Sanchez J, Carretero M, Valiente J, Gonzalo-Skok O, Sampaio J, Casamichana D. Heart rate response and technical demands of different small-sided game formats in young female basketballers. RICYDE-Rev Int Cienc Deport. 2018;14(51):55–70. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2018.05105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Ballesta AS, Abruñedo J, Caparrós T. Accelerometry in basketball. Study of external load during training. Apunts Educ Fís Esports. 2019;135:100–17.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Benson LC, Tait TJ, Befus K, Choi J, Hillson C, Stilling C, et al. Validation of a commercially available inertial measurement unit for recording jump load in youth basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1737360.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. Clemente FM, Conte D, Sanches R, Moleiro CF, Gomes M, Lima R. Anthropometry and fitness profile, and their relationships with technical performance and perceived effort during small-sided basketball games. Res Sports Med. 2019;27(4):452–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2018.1546704.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Sampaio J, Abrantes C, Leite N. Power, heart rate and perceived exertion responses to 3x3 and 4x4 basketball small-sided games. Rev Psicol Deporte. 2009;18(3):463–7.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Vencúrik T. Can the intensity of game load affect the shooting performance in basketball? J Hum Sport Exerc. 2016;11(Special issue 1):S201–6. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2016.11.proc1.10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Foster C. Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:1164–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Foster C, Daines E, Hector L, Snyder A, Welsh R. Athletic performance in relation to training load. Wis Med J. 1996;95(6):370–4.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  109. Foster C, Florhaug J, Franklin J, Gottschall L, Hrovatin L, Parker S, et al. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):109–15.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. Foster C, Hector LL, Welsh R, Schrager M, Green MA, Snyder AC. Effects of specific versus cross-training on running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1995;70(4):367–72.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Borg G. Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Borg G, Hassmén P, Lagerström M. Perceived exertion related to heart rate and blood lactate during arm and leg exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1987;56(6):679–85.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Aaron DJ, Tessmer KA, Gairola A, Ghigiarelli JJ, et al. Observation of perceived exertion in children using the OMNI pictorial scale. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(1):158–66.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  114. Cruz ID, Pereira LA, Kobal R, Kitamura K, Cedra C, Loturco I, et al. Perceived training load and jumping responses following nine weeks of a competitive period in young female basketball players. PeerJ. 2018;6:13. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Conte D, Favero TG, Niederhausen M, Capranica L, Tessitore A. Physiological and technical demands of no dribble game drill in young basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(12):3375–9. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000997.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  116. Anderson L, Triplett-McBride T, Foster C, Doberstein S, Brice G. Impact of training patterns on incidence of illness and injury during a women’s collegiate basketball season. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(4):734–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. Fox JL, Stanton R, Scanlan AT. A comparison of training and competition demands in semiprofessional male basketball players. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2018;89(1):103–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2017.1410693.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. Sprung S. NBA games are longer this year and the league is ok with that, stressing game flow as more important. In: SportsMoney. Forbes, forbes.com. 2018. Accessed 15 Feb 2020.

  119. Weiss KJ, Allen SV, McGuigan MR, Whatman CS. The relationship between training load and injury in men’s professional basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(9):1238–42. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0726.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  120. Coutts A, Wallace L, Slattery K. Monitoring changes in performance, physiology, biochemistry, and psychology during overreaching and recovery in triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(02):125–34.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. Impellizzeri F, Rampinini E, Marcora S. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):583–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. Achten J, Jeukendrup A. Heart rate monitoring. Sports Med. 2003;33(7):517–38.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  123. Halson S. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Med. 2014;44(2):139–47.

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  124. Kerr F. An investigation of the relationship between the cardiac cost during a basketball game and the performance of selected basketball skills. Greensboro: University of North Carolina at Greensboro; 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Banister E. Modeling elite athletic performance. Physiological testing of the high-performance athlete. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1991. p. 403–24.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Aoki MS, Ronda LT, Marcelino PR, Drago G, Carling C, Bradley PS, et al. Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(2):348–58. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001507.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  127. Scanlan AT, Wen N, Tucker PS, Borges NR, Dalbo VJ. Training mode’s influences on the relationships between training-load models during basketball conditioning. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(5):851–6. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0410.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  128. Heishman AD, Curtis MA, Saliba E, Hornett RJ, Malin SK, Weltman AL. Noninvasive assessment of internal and external player load: implications for optimizing athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(5):1280–7. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002413.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. Edwards S. High performance training and racing. In: Edwards S, editor. The heart rate monitor book. Sacramento: Feet Fleet Press; 1993. p. 113–23.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Lucia A, Hoyos J, Perez M, Chicharro J. Heart rate and performance parameters in elite cyclists: a longitudinal study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(10):1777–82.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  131. Lucia A, Hoyos J, Santalla A, Earnest C, Chicharro J. Tour de France versus Vuelta a Espana: which is harder? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(5):872–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  132. Stagno K, Thatcher R, Van Someren K. A modified TRIMP to quantify the in-season training load of team sport players. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(6):629–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. Conte D, Favero TG, Niederhausen M, Capranica L, Tessitore A. Effect of different number of players and training regimes on physiological and technical demands of ball-drills in basketball. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(8):780–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1069384.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. Kraft JA, Laurent ML, Green JM, Helm J, Roberts C, Holt S. Examination of coach and player perceptions of recovery and exertion. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Lupo C, Tessitore A, Gasperi L, Gomez M. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions. Biol Sport. 2017;34(1):11–7. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2017.63381.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  136. Scanlan AT, Fox JL, Poole JL, Conte D, Milanović Z, Lastella M, et al. A comparison of traditional and modified Summated-Heart-Rate-Zones models to measure internal training load in basketball players. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2018;22(4):303–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367x.2018.1445089.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Berkelmans DM, Dalbo VJ, Fox JL, Stanton R, Kean CO, Giamarelos KE, et al. Influence of different methods to determine maximum heart rate on training load outcomes in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(11):3177–85. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  138. Brandão FM, Junior DBR, da Cunha VF, Meireles GB, Filho MGB. Differences between training and game loads in young basketball players. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-0037.2019v21e59840.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Akubat I, Patel E, Barrett S, Abt G. Methods of monitoring the training and match load and their relationship to changes in fitness in professional youth soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(14):1473–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  140. Tumilty D. Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players. Sports Med. 1993;16(2):80–96.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Busso T. Variable dose-response relationship between exercise training and performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(7):1188–95.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  142. Medicine ACOS. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Matthew D, Delextrat A. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and time-motion analysis of female basketball players during competition. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(8):813–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410902926420.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  144. Gavalda AB, Rodenas AMB, Colas RM, Soler FC. Relationship between heart rate and the scoreboard during a relegation playoff. Apunts Educ Fis Deportes. 2018;132:110–22. https://doi.org/10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2018/2).132.08.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  145. McCormick BT, Hannon JC, Newton M, Shultz B, Miller N, Young W. Comparison of physical activity in small-sided basketball games versus full-sided games. Int J Sports Sci Sci Coach. 2012;7(4):689–97.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Klusemann M, Pyne D, Hopkins W, Drinkwater E. Activity profiles and demands of seasonal and tournament basketball competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(6):623–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  147. Dobson BP, Keogh JW. Methodological issues for the application of time-motion analysis research. Strength Cond J. 2007;29(2):48.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Leser R, Baca A, Ogris G. Local positioning systems in (game) sports. Sensors. 2011;11(10):9778–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  149. Barris S, Button C. A review of vision-based motion analysis in sport. Sports Med. 2008;38(12):1025–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  150. Hulka K, Lehnert M, Belka J. Reliability and validity of a basketball-specific fatigue protocol simulating match load. Acta Gymn. 2017;47(2):92–8. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2017.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Scanlan AT, Tucker PS, Dascombe BJ, Berkelmans DM, Hiskens MI, Dalbo VJ. Fluctuations in activity demands across game quarters in professional and semiprofessional male basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(11):3006–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  152. Boyd L, Ball K, Aughey R. The reliability of MinimaxX accelerometers for measuring physical activity in Australian football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(3):311–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  153. Staunton C, Wundersitz D, Gordon B, Custovic E, Stanger J, Kingsley M. The effect of match schedule on accelerometry-derived exercise dose during training sessions throughout a competitive basketball season. Sports. 2018;6(3):69. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030069.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  154. Heishman AD, Curtis MA, Saliba EN, Hornett RJ, Malin SK, Weltman AL. Comparing performance during morning vs. afternoon training sessions in intercollegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(6):1557–62. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001882.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  155. Herrán A, Usabiaga O, Castellano J. A comparison between the physical profile of 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 tasks in formative basketball. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fis Deporte. 2017;17(67):435–47. https://doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2017.67.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  156. Support C. Player Load. https://support.catapultsports.com/hc/en-us/articles/360000677835-Player-Load2020.

  157. Kelly S, Murphy A, Watsford M, Austin D, Rennie M. Reliability and validity of sports accelerometers during static and dynamic testing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(1):106–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  158. Nicolella D, Torres-Ronda L, Saylor K, Schelling X. Validity and reliability of an accelerometer-based player tracking device. PloS One. 2018;13(2):e0191823.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  159. Barrett S, Midgley A, Lovell R. PlayerLoad™: reliability, convergent validity, and influence of unit position during treadmill running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(6):945–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  160. Barrett S, Midgley AW, Towlson C, Garrett A, Portas M, Lovell R. Within-match PlayerLoad™ patterns during a simulated soccer match: potential implications for unit positioning and fatigue management. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(1):135–40.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  161. McLean B, Cummins C, Conlan G, Duthie G, Coutts A. The fit matters: influence of accelerometer fitting and training drill demands on load measures in rugby league players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(8):1083–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  162. Coe D, Pivarnik J. Validation of the CSA accelerometer in adolescent boys during basketball practice. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2001;13(4):373–9.

    Google Scholar 

  163. McLean BD, Strack D, Russell J, Coutts AJ. Quantifying physical demands in the National Basketball Association (NBA): challenges in developing best-practice models for athlete care and performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0384.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  164. Burgess D. The research doesn’t always apply: practical solutions to evidence-based training-load monitoring in elite team sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(s2):S2–136.

    Google Scholar 

  165. Bastida Castillo A, Gómez Carmona CD, De la cruz sánchez E, Pino Ortega J. Accuracy, intra-and inter-unit reliability, and comparison between GPS and UWB-based position-tracking systems used for time–motion analyses in soccer. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(4):450–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  166. Bastida-Castillo A, Gómez-Carmona CD, la Cruz-Sánchez D, Reche-Royo X, Ibáñez SJ, Pino Ortega J. Accuracy and inter-unit reliability of ultra-wide-band tracking system in indoor exercise. Appl Sci. 2019;9(5):939.

    Google Scholar 

  167. Gómez-Carmona CD, Bastida-Castillo A, García-Rubio J, Ibáñez SJ, Pino-Ortega J. Static and dynamic reliability of WIMU PRO™ accelerometers according to anatomical placement. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part P J Sports Eng Technol. 2019;233(2):238–48.

    Google Scholar 

  168. Ogris G, Leser R, Horsak B, Kornfeind P, Heller M, Baca A. Accuracy of the LPM tracking system considering dynamic position changes. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(14):1503–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  169. Oba W, Okuda T. A cross-sectional comparative study of movement distances and speed of the players and a ball in basketball game. Int J Sport Health Sci. 2009;6:203–12.

    Google Scholar 

  170. Sampaio J, Gonçalves B, Rentero L, Abrantes C, Leite N. Exploring how basketball players’ tactical performances can be affected by activity workload. Sci Sports. 2014;29(4):e23–30.

    Google Scholar 

  171. Leite GS, Prestes J, Urtado CB, Marchetti PH, Padovani CR, Padovani CRP, et al. Objective and subjective variables for monitoring of different season cycles in basketball players. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2012;18(4):229–33. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-86922012000400002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  172. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Amstrup T, Rysgaard T, Johansen J, Steensberg A, et al. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability, and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(4):697–705.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  173. Akenhead R, Hayes PR, Thompson KG, French D. Diminutions of acceleration and deceleration output during professional football match play. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(6):556–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.12.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  174. Meylan C, Trewin J, McKean K. Quantifying explosive actions in international women’s soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(3):310–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  175. Varley MC, Fairweather IH, Aughey RJ. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(2):121–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.627941.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  176. Singh F, Foster C, Tod D, McGuigan MR. Monitoring different types of resistance training using session rating of perceived exertion. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2007;2(1):34–45.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  177. Wallace L, Slattery K, Coutts A. A comparison of methods for quantifying training load: relationships between modelled and actual training responses. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(1):11–20.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  178. Williams S, Trewartha G, Cross MJ, Kemp SPT, Stokes KA. Monitoring what matters: a systematic process for selecting training-load measures. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(s2):S2-101-S2-6.

  179. Gesbert V, Carrel J, Philippe RA, Hauw D. Elite volleyball coaches’ experience using a statistical information system. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2016;16(2):612–32.

    Google Scholar 

  180. Maheswaran R, Chang Y-H, Henehan A, Danesis S, editors. Deconstructing the rebound with optical tracking data. In: Proceedings of the 6th annual MIT SLOAN sports analytics conference; 2012.

  181. Yonggangniu HH, Zhao H. Application of the Sport VU motion capture system in the technical statistics and analysis in basketball games. Asian Sports Sci. 2014;3(7):45–52.

    Google Scholar 

  182. Bonaventura JM, Sharpe K, Knight E, Fuller KL, Tanner RK, Gore CJ. Reliability and accuracy of six hand-held blood lactate analysers. J Sport Sci Med. 2015;14(1):203.

    Google Scholar 

  183. Barros RM, Misuta MS, Menezes RP, Figueroa PJ, Moura FA, Cunha SA, et al. Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. J Sport Sci Med. 2007;6(2):233.

    Google Scholar 

  184. Arruda AF, Carling C, Zanetti V, Aoki MS, Coutts AJ, Moreira A. Effects of a very congested match schedule on body-load impacts, accelerations, and running measures in youth soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(2):248–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  185. Moreira A, Bilsborough JC, Sullivan CJ, Cianciosi M, Aoki MS, Coutts AJ. Training periodization of professional Australian football players during an entire Australian Football League season. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(5):566–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  186. Johnstone JA, Ford PA, Hughes G, Watson T, Garrett AT. BioHarness™ multivariable monitoring device: part. I: validity. J Sport Sci Med. 2012;11(3):400.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Johnstone JA, Ford PA, Hughes G, Watson T, Garrett AT. Bioharness™ multivariable monitoring device: part. II: reliability. J Sport Sci Med. 2012;11(3):409.

    Google Scholar 

  188. Johnstone JA, Ford PA, Hughes G, Watson T, Mitchell AC, Garrett AT. Field based reliability and validity of the bioharness™ multivariable monitoring device. J Sport Sci Med. 2012;11(4):643.

    Google Scholar 

  189. Cleland I, Kikhia B, Nugent C, Boytsov A, Hallberg J, Synnes K, et al. Optimal placement of accelerometers for the detection of everyday activities. Sensors. 2013;13(7):9183–200.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  190. Aadland E, Ylvisåker E. Reliability of the Actigraph GT3X + accelerometer in adults under free-living conditions. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0134606.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  191. McClain JJ, Sisson SB, Tudor-Locke C. Actigraph accelerometer interinstrument reliability during free-living in adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(9):1509.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  192. Santos-Lozano A, Torres-Luque G, Marín PJ, Ruiz JR, Lucia A, Garatachea N. Intermonitor variability of GT3X accelerometer. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(12):994–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  193. Stevens T, de Ruiter CJ, van Niel C, van de Rhee R, Beek PJ, Savelsbergh GJ. Measuring acceleration and deceleration in soccer-specific movements using a local position measurement (LPM) system. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(3):446–56.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  194. Scanlan AT, Fox JL, Borges NR, Dascombe BJ, Dalbo VJ. Cumulative training dose’s effects on interrelationships between common training-load models during basketball activity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(2):168–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  195. Fanchini M, Ghielmetti R, Coutts AJ, Schena F, Impellizzeri FM. Effect of training-session intensity distribution on session rating of perceived exertion in soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(4):426–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  196. Fox JL, Stanton R, Sargent C, Wintour SA, Scanlan AT. The association between training load and performance in team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2018;48(12):2743–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0982-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  197. Barbero-Álvarez JC, Coutts A, Granda J, Barbero-Álvarez V, Castagna C. The validity and reliability of a global positioning satellite system device to assess speed and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(2):232–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  198. Coutts AJ, Duffield R. Validity and reliability of GPS devices for measuring movement demands of team sports. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(1):133–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  199. Barbero-Alvarez J, Soto V, Barbero-Alvarez V, Granda-Vera J. Match analysis and heart rate of futsal players during competition. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(1):63–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  200. Luteberget LS, Holme BR, Spencer M. Reliability of wearable inertial measurement units to measure physical activity in team handball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(4):467–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  201. Thompson WR, Gordon NF, Pescatello LS. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  202. Freitas CG, Aoki MS, Arruda AFS, Nakamura FY, Moreira A. Training load, stress tolerance and upper respiratory tract infection in basketball players. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2013;15(1):49–59. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  203. Nakamura FY, Moreira A, Aoki MS. Monitoring the training load: Is the subjective perception of the session effort a reliable method? J Phys Educ. 2010;21(1):1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  204. Messias LHD, Camargo BF, Ferrari HG, Cardoso JPP, Manchado-Gobatto FB. Effect of mathematical modelling on determining lactate minimum test parameters before and after seven weeks of monitored training. Sci Sports. 2017;32(4):e127–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2017.03.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Sassi A, Marcora SM. Use of RPE-based training load in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(6):1042–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  206. Jeong T-S, Reilly T, Morton J, Bae S-W, Drust B. Quantification of the physiological loading of one week of “pre-season” and one week of “in-season” training in professional soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(11):1161–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  207. Rodriguez-Alonso M, Fernandez-Garcia B, Perez-Landaluce J, Terrados N. Blood lactate and heart rate during national and international women’s basketball. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2003;43(4):432.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  208. Holme BR. Wearable microsensor technology to measure physical activity demands in handball: a reliability study of inertial movement analysis and player load. Oslo: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  209. Makivić B, Nikić Djordjević M, Willis MS. Heart rate variability (HRV) as a tool for diagnostic and monitoring performance in sport and physical activities. J Exerc Physiol. 2013;16(3):103–131

  210. Barreira P, Robinson MA, Drust B, Nedergaard N, Raja Azidin RMF, Vanrenterghem J. Mechanical Player Load™ using trunk-mounted accelerometry in football: is it a reliable, task-and player-specific observation? J Sports Sci. 2017;35(17):1674–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  211. Sanders GJ, Boos B, Rhodes J, Kollock RO, Peacock CA, Scheadler CM. Factors associated with minimal changes in countermovement jump performance throughout a competitive division I collegiate basketball season. J Sports Sci. 2019;37(19):2236–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1626559.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  212. Ben Abdelkrim N, Castagna C, El Fazaa S, Tabka Z, El Ati J. Blood metabolites during basketball competitions. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(3):765–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  213. Aughey RJ. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(3):295–310.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  214. Casamichana D, Castellano J, Calleja-Gonzalez J, San Román J, Castagna C. Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):369–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  215. Castagna C, Belardinelli R, Impellizzeri FM, Abt GA, Coutts AJ, D’Ottavio S. Cardiovascular responses during recreational 5-a-side indoor-soccer. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10(2):89–95.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  216. Castagna C, Chaouachi A, Rampinini E, Chamari K, Impellizzeri F. Aerobic and explosive power performance of elite Italian regional-level basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):1982–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  217. Foster C, Lehmann M. Overtraining syndrome. In: Guten G, editor. Running Injuries. Orlando: W.B. Saunders, Co.; 1997. p. 173–88.

    Google Scholar 

  218. Edwards S. The heart rate monitor book. LWW; 1994.

  219. Chambers R, Gabbett TJ, Cole MH, Beard A. The use of wearable microsensors to quantify sport-specific movements. Sports Med. 2015;45(7):1065–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  220. Dalen T, Jørgen I, Gertjan E, Havard HG, Ulrik W. Player load, acceleration, and deceleration during forty-five competitive matches of elite soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(2):351–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  221. Azpiroz MF, Feu S, Jiménez C, Calleja-González J. Perceived exertion effort in mini basketball players and its relationship with training volume. Rev Psicol Deporte. 2013;22(1):205–8.

    Google Scholar 

  222. Eston RG, Parfitt G. Perceived exertion. In: Armstong EN, editor. Paediatric exercise physiology. London: Elsevier; 2007. p. 275–98.

    Google Scholar 

  223. Bastida Castillo A, Gómez Carmona CD, Pino Ortega J, de la Cruz Sánchez E. Validity of an inertial system to measure sprint time and sport task time: a proposal for the integration of photocells in an inertial system. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2017;17(4):600–8.

    Google Scholar 

  224. Atli H, Köklü Y, Alemdaroglu U, Koçak FÜ. A comparison of heart rate response and frequencies of technical actions between half-court and full-court 3-a-side games in high school female basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):352–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  225. Cortis C, Tessitore A, Lupo C, Pesce C, Fossile E, Figura F, et al. Inter-limb coordination, strength, jump, and sprint performances following a youth men’s basketball game. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):135–42. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181bde2ec.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  226. Hodgson C, Akenhead R, Thomas K. Time-motion analysis of acceleration demands of 4v4 small-sided soccer games played on different pitch sizes. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;33:25–32.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  227. Castellano J, Casamichana D, Calleja-González J, San Román J, Ostojic SM. Reliability and accuracy of 10 Hz GPS devices for short-distance exercise. J Sport Sci Med. 2011;10(1):233.

    Google Scholar 

  228. Godsen R, Carroll T, Stone S. How well does the Polar Vantage XL heart rate monitor estimate actual heart rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(Suppl 4):14.

    Google Scholar 

  229. Wajciechowski J, Gayle R, Andrews R, Dintiman G. The accuracy of radio telemetry heart rate monitor during exercise. Clin Kinesiol. 1991;45(1):9–12.

    Google Scholar 

  230. Gomes R, Moreira A, Lodo L, Nosaka K, Coutts A, Aoki M. Monitoring training loads, stress, immune-endocrine responses and performance in tennis players. Biol Sport. 2013;30(3):173.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  231. Gray AJ, Jenkins D, Andrews MH, Taaffe DR, Glover ML. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring distance travelled in field-based team sports. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(12):1319–25.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  232. Coutts AJ, Rampinini E, Marcora SM, Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM. Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):79–84.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jennifer L. Russell.

Ethics declarations

Funding

No sources of funding were used for the preparation of this study.

Conflicts of interest

Jennifer Russell, Blake McLean and Donnie Strack are NBA affiliated practitioners/researchers. As such, all methods in this work are required to comply with the NBA Health Related Research Policy and have been reviewed by the NBA, NBA Physicians Association, NBA Players Association. As part of this process, this work was made available for comment from the NBA and NBA research Committee prior to publication (these contributors are not listed as authors). Jennifer Russell, Blake McLean, Franco Impellizzeri, Donnie Strack and Aaron Coutts declare that they have no other conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

Authorship contributions

JR, BM, AC and FI created the search strategy and refined the scope of the review. JR, BM, and AC screened the search results. JR extracted and interpreted the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. BM, AC, FI and DS revised the original manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval

Not applicable.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and material

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Russell, J.L., McLean, B.D., Impellizzeri, F.M. et al. Measuring Physical Demands in Basketball: An Explorative Systematic Review of Practices. Sports Med 51, 81–112 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01375-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01375-9