The Case for Retiring Flexibility as a Major Component of Physical Fitness

A Related Article is available

A Related Article is available

A Related Article is available

A Related Article is available

Abstract

Flexibility refers to the intrinsic properties of body tissues that determine maximal joint range of motion without causing injury. For many years, flexibility has been classified by the American College of Sports Medicine as a major component of physical fitness. The notion flexibility is important for fitness has also led to the idea static stretching should be prescribed to improve flexibility. The current paper proposes flexibility be retired as a major component of physical fitness, and consequently, stretching be de-emphasized as a standard component of exercise prescriptions for most populations. First, I show flexibility has little predictive or concurrent validity with health and performance outcomes (e.g., mortality, falls, occupational performance) in apparently healthy individuals, particularly when viewed in light of the other major components of fitness (i.e., body composition, cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength). Second, I explain that if flexibility requires improvement, this does not necessitate a prescription of stretching in most populations. Flexibility can be maintained or improved by exercise modalities that cause more robust health benefits than stretching (e.g., resistance training). Retirement of flexibility as a major component of physical fitness will simplify fitness batteries; save time and resources dedicated to flexibility instruction, measurement, and evaluation; and prevent erroneous conclusions about fitness status when interpreting flexibility scores. De-emphasis of stretching in exercise prescriptions will ensure stretching does not negatively impact other exercise and does not take away from time that could be allocated to training activities that have more robust health and performance benefits.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Holt J, Holt LE, Pelham TW. Flexibility redifined. In: Bauer T, editor. Biomechanics in Sports XIII. Thunder Bay: Lakehead University; 1996. p. 170–4.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Knudson DV, Magnusson P, McHugh M. Current issues in flexibility fitness. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. 2000;3(10):1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Gleim GW, McHugh MP. Flexibility and its effects on sports injury and performance. Sports Med. 1997;24(5):289–99.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bozic PR, Pazin NR, Berjan BB, Planic NM, Cuk ID. Evaluation of the field tests of flexibility of the lower extremity: reliability and the concurrent and factorial validity. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(9):2523–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Hayes K, Walton JR, Szomor ZR, Murrell GA. Reliability of five methods for assessing shoulder range of motion. Aust J Physiother. 2001;47(4):289–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gajdosik RL, Bohannon RW. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity. Phys Ther. 1987;67(12):1867–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Leighton JR. The Leighton flexometer and flexibility test. J Assoc Phys Ment Rehabil. 1966;20(3):86–93.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Leighton JR. A simple objective and reliable measure of flexibility. Res Q. 1942;13(2):205–16.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Moore ML. The measurement of joint motion; the technic of goniometry. Phys Ther Rev. 1949;29(6):256–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Moore ML. The measurement of joint motion; introductory review of the literature. Phys Ther Rev. 1949;29(5):195–205.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wiechec FJ, Krusen FH. A new method of joint measurement and a review of the literature. Am J Surg. 1939;43(3):659–68.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Institute of Medicine. Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth. Washington, D.C: The National Academic Press; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Morrow JR Jr, Zhu W, Franks BD, Meredith MD, Spain C. 1958–2008: 50 years of youth fitness tests in the United States. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80(1):1–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Atamaz F, Ozcaldiran B, Ozdedeli S, Capaci K, Durmaz B. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability in lower-limb flexibility measurements. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2011;51(4):689–94.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ayala F, Sainz de Baranda P, De Ste Croix M, Santonja F. Criterion-related validity of four clinical tests used to measure hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12(4):175–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Ayala F, Sainz de Baranda P, De Ste Croix M, Santonja F. Reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test and toe touch test for estimating hamstring flexibility in recreationally active young adults. Phys Ther Sport. 2012;13(4):219–26.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Baltaci G, Un N, Tunay V, Besler A, Gerceker S. Comparison of three different sit and reach tests for measurement of hamstring flexibility in female university students. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(1):59–61.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Castro-Piñero J, Chillón P, Ortega FB, Montesinos JL, Sjöström M, Ruiz JR. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and modified sit-and-reach test for estimating hamstring flexibility in children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30(9):658–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Chillón P, Castro-Piñero J, Ruiz JR, Soto VM, Carbonell-Baeza A, Dafos J, et al. Hip flexibility is the main determinant of the backsaver sit-and-reach test in adolescents. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(6):641–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Chung PK, Yuen CK. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests in university men in Hong Kong. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88(1):304–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Cornbleet SL, Woolsey NB. Assessment of hamstring muscle length in school-aged children using the sit-and-reach test and the inclinometer measure of hip joint angle. Phys Ther. 1996;76(8):850–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Davis DS, Quinn RO, Whiteman CT, Williams JD, Young CR. Concurrent validity of four clinical tests used to measure hamstring flexibility. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):583–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hoeger WWK, Hopkins DR. A comparison of the sit and reach and the modified sit and reach in the measurement of flexibility in women. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1992;63(2):191–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Holt LE, Pelham TW, Burke DG. Modifications to the standard sit-and-reach flexibility protocol. J Athl Train. 1999;34(1):43–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hopkins DR, Hoeger WWK. A comparison of the sit-and-reach test and the modified sit-and-reach test in the measurement of flexibility for males. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1992;6(1):7–10.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Hui SC, Yuen PY, Morrow JR Jr, Jackson AW. Comparison of the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests with and without limb length adjustment in Asian adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1999;70(4):401–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Hui SS, Yuen PY. Validity of the modified back-saver sit-and-reach test: a comparison with other protocols. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(9):1655–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Jackson A, Langford NJ. The criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test: replication and extension of previous findings. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1989;60(4):384–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Jones CJ, Rikli RE, Max J, Noffal G. The reliability and validity of a chair sit-and-reach test as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1998;69(4):338–43.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kawano MM, Ambar G, Oliveira BI, Boer MC, Cardoso AP, Cardoso JR. Influence of the gastrocnemius muscle on the sit-and-reach test assessed by angular kinematic analysis. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010;14(1):10–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lemmink KAPM, Kemper HCG, Greef MHG, Rispens P, Stevens M. The validity of the sit-and-reach test and the modified sit-and-reach test in middle-aged to older men and women. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003;74(3):331–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Liemohn W, Sharpe GL, Wassermann JF. Criterion related validity of the sit-and-reach test. J Strength Cond Res. 1994;8(2):91–4.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Liemohn W, Martin SB, Pariser GL. The effect of ankle posture on sit-and-reach test performance. J Strength Cond Res. 1997;11(4):239–41.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    López-Miñarro PA, Andújar PS, Rodrñguez-Garcña PL. A comparison of the sit-and-reach test and the back-saver sit-and-reach test in university students. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(1):116–22.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Maffiuletti NA, Tringali G, Patrizi A, Agosti F, Sartorio A. Reproducibility of clinician-friendly physical performance measures in individuals with obesity. J Rehabil Med. 2017;49(8):677–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Martin SB, Jackson AW, Morrow JR Jr, Liemohn W. The rationale for the sit and reach test revisited. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 1998;2(2):85–92.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Viciana J. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility: a meta-analysis. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(1):1–14.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Mier CM. Accuracy and feasibility of video analysis for assessing hamstring flexibility and validity of the sit-and-reach test. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82(4):617–23.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mier CM, Shapiro BS. Sex differences in pelvic and hip flexibility in men and women matched for sit-and-reach score. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(4):1031–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Mier CM, Shapiro BS. Reliability of a computer software angle tool for measuring spine and pelvic flexibility during the sit-and-reach test. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):501–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Minkler S, Patterson P. The validity of the modified sit-and-reach test in college-aged students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1994;65(2):189–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Mookerjee S, McMahon MJ. Electromyographic analysis of muscle activation during sit-and-reach flexibility tests. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(12):3496–501.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Muyor JM, Zemková E, Štefániková G, Kotyra M. Concurrent validity of clinical tests for measuring hamstring flexibility in school age children. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(8):664–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Muyor JM, Vaquero-Cristóbal R, Alacid F, López-Miñarro PA. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(2):546–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Patterson P, Wiksten DL, Ray L, Flanders C, Sanphy D. The validity and reliability of the back saver sit-and-reach test in middle school girls and boys. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1996;67(4):448–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Shephard RJ, Berridge M, Montelpare W. On the generality of the “sit and reach” test: an analysis of flexibility data for an aging population. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1990;61(4):326–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Smith JF, Miller CV. The effect of head position on sit and reach performance. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1985;56(1):84–5.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Sporis G, Vucetic V, Jovanovic M, Jukic I, Omrcen D. Reliability and factorial validity of flexibility tests for team sports. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(4):1168–76.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Wells KF, Dillon EK. The sit and reach—a test of back and leg flexibility. Res Q. 1952;23(1):115–8.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Corbin CB, Noble L. Flexibility. J Phys Educ Recreat. 1980;51(6):23–60.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Cureton KJ. Flexibility as an aspect of physical fitness. Res Q. 1941;12(Sup2):381–90.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    De Vries HA. Evaluation of static stretching procedures for improvement of flexibility. Res Q. 1962;33(2):222–9.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Fleishman EA. Factor analyses of physical fitness tests. Educ Psychol Meas. 1963;23(4):647–61.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Harris ML. Flexibility. Phys Ther. 1969;49(6):591–601.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Holland GJ. The physiology of flexibility: a review of the literature. Kinesiol Rev. 1968;1:49–62.

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Hupprich FL, Sigerseth PO. The specificity of flexibility in girls. Res Q. 1950;21(1):25–33.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Kraus H, Hirschland RP. Minimum muscular fitness tests in school children. Res Q. 1954;25(2):178–88.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Leighton JR. On the significance of flexibility for physical educators. J Health Phys Educ Rec. 1960;31(8):27–70.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Nicks DC, Fleishman EA. What do physical fitness tests measure? A review of factor analytic studies. Educ Psychol Meas. 1962;22(1):77–95.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    McCue B. Flexibility measurements of college women. Res Q. 1953;24(3):316–24.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Sigerseth PO, Haliski CC. The flexibility of football players. Res Q. 1950;21(4):394–8.

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Mood DP, Jackson AW, Morrow JR Jr. Measurement of physical fitness and physical activity: fifty years of change. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2007;11(4):217–27.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Guilford JP. A system of psychomotor abilities. Am J Psychol. 1958;71(1):164–74.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.; 2018.

  66. 66.

    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand, et al. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Waryasz GR, Daniels AH, Gil JA, Suric V, Eberson CP. Personal trainer demographcis, current practice trends and common trainee injuries. Orthop Rev. 2016;8(3):6600.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Jamtvedt G, Herbert RD, Flottorp S, Odgaard-Jensen J, Håvelsrud K, Barratt A, et al. A pragmatic randomised trial of stretching before and after physical activity to prevent injury and soreness. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(14):1002–9.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Fujita Y, Nakamura Y, Hiraoka J, Kobayashi K, Sakata K, Nagai M, et al. Physical-strength tests and mortality among visitors to health-promotion centers in Japan. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(11):1349–59.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL. Musculoskeletal fitness and risk of mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(5):740–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Katzmarzyk PT, Reeder BA, Elliott S, Joffres MR, Pahwa P, Raine KD, et al. Body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. Can J Public Health. 2012;103(2):147–51.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Prospective Studies Collaboration, Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, et al. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet. 2009;373(9669):1083–96.

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Makin M, Yachi Y, Asumi M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;301(19):2024–34.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Roshanravan B, Patel KV, Fried LF, Robinson-Cohen C, de Boer IH, Harris T, et al. Association of muscle endurance, fatigability, and strength with functional limitation and mortality in the health aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Med Sci. 2017;72(2):284–91.

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Celis-Morales CA, Welsh P, Lyall DM, Steell L, Petermann F, Anderson J, et al. Associations of grip strength with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes and all cause mortality: prospective cohort study of half a million UK Biobank participants. BMJ. 2018;361:k1651.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Cooper R, Kuh D, Hardy R, Mortality Review Group, FALCon and HALCyon Study Teams. Objectively measured physical capability levels and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4467.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Leong DP, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Avezum A Jr, Orlandini A, et al. Prognostic value of grip strength: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Lancet. 2015;386(9990):266–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, Morrow JR, Jackson AW, Sjöström M, et al. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;337:a439.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Metter EJ, Talbot LA, Schrager M, Conwit RA. Arm-cranking muscle power and arm isometric muscle strength are independent predictors of all-cause mortality in men. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(2):814–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Bell RD, Hoshizaki TB. Relationship of age and sex with range of motion of seventeen joint actions in humans. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1981;6(4):202–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Medeiros HB, de Araujo DS, de Araujo CG. Age-related mobility loss is joint-specific: an analysis from 6,000 Flexitest results. Age. 2013;35(6):2399–407.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Moreland JD, Richardson JA, Goldsmith CH, Clase CM. Muscle weakness and falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(7):1121–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Chow H, Chen HL, Lin LL. Association between out-of-home trips and older adults’ functional fitness. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14:596–604.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Dai B, Ware WB, Giuliani CA. A structural equation model relating physical function, pain, impaired mobility (IM), and falls in older adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;55(3):645–52.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Goes SM, Leite N, Shay BL, Homann D, Stefanello JMF, Rodacki ALF. Functional capacity, muscle strength and falls in women with fibromyalgia. Clin Biomech. 2012;27(6):578–83.

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Toraman A, Yildirim NU. The falling risk and physical fitness in older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010;51(2):222–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Zhao Y, Chung P. Differences in function fitness among older adults with and without risk of falling. Asian Nurs Res. 2016;10(1):51–5.

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Beissner KL, Collins JE, Holmes H. Muscle force and range of motion as predictors of function in older adults. Phys Ther. 2000;80(6):556–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Cunningham DA, Paterson DH, Himann JE, Rechnitzer PA. Determinants of independence in the elderly. Can J Appl Physiol. 1993;18(3):243–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Lin PS, Hsieh CC, Cheng HS, Tseng TJ, Su SC. Association between physical fitness and successful aging in Taiwanese older adults. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0150389.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Brito LB, de Araujo DS, de Araujo CG. Does flexibility influence the ability to sit and rise from the floor? Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92(3):241–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Jung H, Yamasaki M. Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women. J Physiol Anthropol. 2016;35(1):30.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Singh AS, Chin A Paw MJM, Bosscher RJ, van Mechelen W. Cross-sectional relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older persons living in long-term care facilities. BMC Geriatr. 2006;6:4.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Al Snih S, Markides KS, Ottenbacher KJ, Raji MA. Hand grip strength and incident ADL disability in elderly Mexican Americans over a seven-year period. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004;16(6):481–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Bassey EJ, Fiatarone MA, O’Neill EF, Kelly M, Evans WJ, Lipsitz LA. Leg extensor power and functional performance in very old men and women. Clin Sci. 1992;82(3):321–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Foldvari M, Clark M, Laviolette LC, Bernstein MA, Kaliton D, Castaneda C, et al. Association of muscle power with functional status in community-dwelling elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Med Sci. 2000;55(4):M192–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Ishizaki T, Watanabe S, Suzuki T, Shibata H, Haga H. Predictors for functional decline among nondisabled older Japanese living in a community during a 3-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(11):1424–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Foley D, Masaki K, Leveille S, Curb JD, et al. Midlife hand grip strength as a predictor of old age disability. JAMA. 1999;281(6):558–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Rijk JM, Roos PR, Deckx L, van den Akker M, Buntinx F. Prognostic value of handgrip strength in people aged 60 years and older: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2016;16(1):5–20.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Taekema DG, Gussekloo J, Maier AB, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ. Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age Ageing. 2010;39(3):33–337.

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Wearing J, Stokes M, de Bruin ED. Quadriceps muscle strength is a discriminant predictor of dependence in daily activities in nursing home residents. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0223016.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Anderson DE, Madigan ML. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults. J Biomech. 2014;47(5):1104–9.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Kerrigan DC, Todd MK, Della Croce U, Lipsitz LA, Collins JJ. Biomechanical gait alterations independent of speed in the healthy elderly: evidence for specific limiting impairments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(3):317–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Brown M, Sinacore DR, Host HH. The relationship of strength to function in the older adult. J Gerontol A Biol Med Sci. 1995;50:55–9.

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Bendall MJ, Bassey EJ, Pearson MB. Factors affecting walking speed of elderly people. Age Ageing. 1989;18(5):327–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Kwon IS, Oldaker S, Schrager M, Talbot LA, Fozard JL, Metter EJ. Relationship between muscle strength and the time taken to complete a standardized walk-turn-walk test. J Gerontol A Biol Med Sci. 2001;56(9):B398–404.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Muehlbauer T, Granacher U, Borde R, Hortobágyi T. Non-discriminant relationships between leg muscle strength, mass and gait performance in healthy young and old adults. Gerontology. 2018;64(1):11–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Moratalla-Cecilia N, Soriano-Maldonado A, Ruiz-Cabello P, Fernández MM, Gregorio-Arenas E, Aranda P, et al. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in early postmenopause. Qual Life Res. 2016;25(10):2675–81.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Fowles J, Roy J, Clarke J, Dogra S. Are the fittest Canadian adults the healthiest? Health Rep. 2014;25(5):13–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Musalek C, Kirchenegast S. Grip strength as an indicator of health-related quality of life in old age—a pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(12):E1447.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Sayer AA, Syddall HE, Martin HJ, Dennison EM, Roberts HC, Cooper C. Is grip strength associated with health-related quality of life? Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Age Ageing. 2006;35(4):409–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Ozcan A, Donat H, Gelecek N, Ozdirenc M, Karadibak D. The relationship between risk factors for falling and the quality of life in older adults. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:90.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Park S, Han HS, Kim GU, Kang SS, Kim HJ, Lee M, et al. Relationships among disability, quality of life, and physical fitness lumbar spinal stenosis: an investigation of elderly Korean women. Asian Spine J. 2017;11(2):256–63.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Perez-Cruzado D, Cuesta-Vargas AI, Vera-Garcia E, Mayoral-Cleries F. The relationship between quality of life and physical fitness in people with severe mental illness. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018;16(1):82.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Battié MC, Bigos SJ, Fisher LD, Spengler DM, Hansson TH, Nachemson AL, et al. The role of spinal flexibility in back pain complaints within industry. A prospective study. Spine. 1990;15(8):768–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Gonzalez SL, Diaz AM, Plummer HA, Michener LA. Musculoskeletal screening to identify female collegiate rowers at risk for low back pain. J Athl Train. 2018;53(12):1173–80.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Jackson AW, Morrow JR Jr, Brill PA, Kohl HW III, Gordon NF, Blair SN. Relations of sit-up and sit-and-reach tests to low back pain in adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27(1):22–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Mikkelsson LO, Nupponen H, Kaprio J, Kautiainen H, Mikkelsson M, Kujala UM. Adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity as predictors of adult tension neck, low back pain, and knee injury: a 25 year follow up study. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(2):107–13.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    van Doormaal MC, van der Horst N, Backx FJ, Smits DW, Huisstede BM. No relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(1):121–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Orchard J, Marsden J, Lord S, Garlick D. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(1):81–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Shrier I, Ehrmann-Feldman D, Rossignol M, Abenhaim L. Risk factors for development of lower limb pain in adolescents. J Rheumatol. 2001;28(3):604–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Grenier SG, Russell C, McGill SM. Relationships between lumbar flexibility, sit-and-reach test, and a previous history of low back discomfort in industrial workers. Can J Appl Physiol. 2003;28(2):165–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Biernacki J, Stracciolini A, Fraser J, Micheli L, Sugimoto D. Risk factors for lower-extremity injuries in female ballet dancers: a systematic review. Clin J Sports Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000707.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Coplan JA. Ballet dancer’s turnout and its relationship to self-reported injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32(11):579–84.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Kenny SJ, Whittaker JL, Emery CA. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional dancers: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(16):997–1003.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    van Merkensteijn GG, Quin E. Assessment of compensated turnout characteristics and their relationship to injuries in university level modern dancers. J Dance Med Sci. 2015;19(2):57–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Wiesler ER, Hunter DM, Martin DF, Curl WW, Hoen H. Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(6):754–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Pacey V, Nicholson LL, Adams RD, Munn J, Munns CF. Generalized joint hypermobility and risk of lower limb joint injury during sport: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(7):1487–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Beighton P, Solomon L, Soskolne CL. Articular mobility in an African population. Ann Rheum Dis. 1973;32(5):413–8.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Beighton P, Horan F. Orthopaedic aspects of the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1969;51(3):444–53.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Juul-Kristensen B, Schmedling K, Rombaut L, Lund H, Engelbert RH. Measurement properties of clinical assessment methods for classifying generalized joint hypermobility—a systematic review. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2017;175(1):116–47.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Konopinski MD, Graham I, Johnson MI, Jones G. The effect of hypermobility on the incidence of injury in professional football: a multi-site cohort study. Phys Ther Sport. 2016;21:7–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Konopinski MD, Jones GJ, Johnson MI. The effect of hypermobility on the incidence of injuries in elite-level professional soccer players: a cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):763–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Blokland D, Thijs KM, Backx FJ, Goedhart EA, Huisstede BM. No effect of generalized joint hypermobility on injury risk in elite female soccer players: a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(2):286–93.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Nicholson LL, Chang C. No effect of generalized joint hypermobility on injury risk in elite female soccer players: letter to the editor. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(7):NP28.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Uhorchak JM, Scoville CR, Williams GN, Arciero RA, St Pierre P, Taylor DC. Risk factors associated with noncontact injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a prospective four-year evaluation of 859 West Point cadets. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(6):831–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Jones BH, Cowan DN, Tomlinson JP, Robinson JR, Polly DW, Frykman PN. Epidemiology of injuries associated with physical training among young men in the army. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(2):197–203.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Jones BH, Knapik JJ. Physical training and exercise-related injuries. Surveillance, research and injury prevention in military populations. Sports Med. 1999;27(2):111–25.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Knapik JJ, Sharp MA, Canham-Chervak M, Hauret K, Patton JF, Jones BH. Risk factors for training-related injuries among men and women in basic combat training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6):946–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    de la Motte SJ, Lisman P, Gribbin TC, Murphy K, Deuster PA. Systematic review of the association between physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury risk: part 3—flexibility, power, speed, balance, and agility. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(6):1723–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    de la Motte SJ, Gribbin TC, Lisman P, Murphy K, Deuster PA. Systematic review of the association between physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury risk: part 2—muscular endurance and muscular strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(11):3218–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Lisman PJ, de la Motte SJ, Gribbin TC, Jaffin DP, Murphy K, Deuster PA. A systematic review of the association between physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury risk: part 1—cardiorespiratory endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(6):1744–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Amoako AO, Nassim A, Keller C. Body mass index as a predictor of injuries in athletics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017;16(4):256–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Grant JA, Bedi A, Kurz J, Bancroft R, Gagnier JJ, Miller BS. Ability of preseason body composition and physical fitness to predict the risk of injury in male collegiate hockey players. Sports Health. 2015;7(1):45–51.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Nilstad A, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Holme I, Steffen K. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(4):940–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Shimozaki K, Nakase J, Takata Y, Shima Y, Kitaoka K, Tsuchiya H. Greater body mass index and hip abduction muscle strength predict noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female Japanese high school basketball players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26(10):3004–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  147. 147.

    Ryman Augustsson S, Ageberg E. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2017;3(1):e000222.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Green B, Bourne MN, Pizzari T. Isokinetic strength assessment offers limited predictive validity for detecting risk of future hamstring strain in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(5):329–36.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Bakken A, Targett S, Bere T, Eirale C, Farooq A, Mosler AB, et al. Muscle strength is a poor screening tests for predicting lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players: a 2-year prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(6):1481–91.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  150. 150.

    Nunes HEG, Alves CAS Jr, Gonçalves ECA, Silva DAS. What physical fitness component is most closely associated with adolescents’ blood pressure? Percept Mot Skills. 2017;124(6):1107–20.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Silva DAS, de Lima TR, Tremblay MS. Association between resting heart rate and health-related physical fitness in Brazilian adolescents. Biomed Res Int. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3812197.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  152. 152.

    Chang KV, Hung CY, Li CM, Lin YH, Wang TG, Tsai KS, et al. Reduced flexibility associated with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elders. PLoS One. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117167.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  153. 153.

    Chen CN, Chuang LM, Wu YT. Clinical measures of physical fitness predict insulin resistance in people at risk for diabetes. Phys Ther. 2008;88(11):1355–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  154. 154.

    Mileski KS, Leitão JL, Lofrano-Porto A, Grossi Porto LG. Health-related physical fitness in middle-aged men with and without metabolic syndrome. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2015;55(3):223–30.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  155. 155.

    Yamamoto K, Kawano H, Gando Y, Lemitsu M, Murakami H, Sanada K, et al. Poor trunk flexibility is associated with arterial stiffening. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297(4):H1314–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  156. 156.

    Gando Y, Murakami H, Yamamoto K, Kawakami R, Ohno H, Sawada SS, et al. Greater progression of age-related aortic stiffening in adults with poor trunk flexibility: a 5-year longitudinal study. Front Physiol. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00454.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  157. 157.

    Aijsafe T, Garcia T, Fanchiang H. Musculoskeletal fitness measures are not created equal: an assessment of school children in Corpus Christi, Texas. Front Public Health. 2018;6:14.

    Google Scholar 

  158. 158.

    Ceshia A, Giacomini S, Santarossa S, Rugo M, Salvadego D, Da Ponte A, et al. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(2):271–8.

    Google Scholar 

  159. 159.

    Conway TL, Cronan TA, Peterson KA. Circumference-estimated percent body fat vs. weight-height indices: relationships to physical fitness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1989;60(5):433–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  160. 160.

    Dumith SC, Ramires VV, Souza MA, Moraes DS, Petry FG, Oliveira ES, et al. Overweight/obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(5):641–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  161. 161.

    Garcia-Pastor T, Salinero JJ, Sanz-Frias D, Pertusa G, Del Coso J. Body fat percentage is more associated with low physical fitness than with sedentarism and diet in male and female adolescents. Physiol Behav. 2016;165:166–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  162. 162.

    Kim HJ, Lee KJ, Jeon YJ, Ahn MB, Jung IA, Kim SH, et al. Relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: Chungju city cohort study. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016;21(1):31–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  163. 163.

    Kim JW, Seo DI, Swearingin B, So WY. Association between obesity and various parameters of physical fitness in Korean students. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013;7(1):e67–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  164. 164.

    Michaelides MA, Parpa KM, Thompson J, Brown B. Predicting performance on a firefighter’s ability test from fitness parameters. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008;79(4):468–75.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  165. 165.

    Milliken LA, Faigenbaum AD, Rita LaRosa L, Westcott WL. Correlates of upper and lower body muscular strength in children. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1339–46.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  166. 166.

    Sacchetti R, Ceciliani A, Garulli A, Masotti A, Poletti G, Beltrami P, et al. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits. J Sports Sci. 2012;20(7):633–40.

    Google Scholar 

  167. 167.

    So WY, Choi DH. Differences in physical fitness and cardiovascular function depend on BMI in Korean men. J Sports Sci. 2010;9(2):239–44.

    Google Scholar 

  168. 168.

    Smith T, Smith B, Davis M, Howell D, Servedio FJ. Predictors of physical fitness in a college sample. Percept Mot Skills. 2000;91(3):1009–10.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  169. 169.

    Laubach LL, McConville JT. Muscle strength, flexibility, and body size of adult males. Res Q. 1966;37(3):384–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  170. 170.

    Tian Y, Jiang C, Wang M, Cai R, Zhang Y, He Z, et al. BMI, leisure-time physical activity, and physical fitness in adults in China: results from a series of national surveys, 2000–14. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016;4(6):487–97.

    Google Scholar 

  171. 171.

    Davis PO, Dotson CO, Santa Maria DL. Relationship between simulated fire fighting tasks and physical performance measures. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(1):65–71.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  172. 172.

    Williford HN, Duey WJ, Olson MS, Howard N, Wang N. Relationship between fire fighting suppression tasks and physical fitness. Ergonomics. 1999;42(9):1179–86.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  173. 173.

    Huang HC, Nagai T, Lovalekar M, Connaboy C, Nindl BC. Physical fitness predictors of a warrior task simulation test. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(9):2562–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  174. 174.

    Hunt AP, Orr RM, Billing DC. Developing physical capability standards that are predictive of success on Special Forces selection courses. Mil Med. 2013;178(6):619–24.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  175. 175.

    Beck AQ, Clasey JL, Yates JW, Koebke NC, Palmer TG, Abel MG. Relationship of physical fitness measures vs. occupational physical ability in campus law enforcement officers. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(8):2340–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  176. 176.

    Sean R, Maria CL, Carra SS, Stephanie P, Thomas M, Amanda A, et al. Fit for duty? Evaluating the physical fitness requirements of battlefield airmen. Rand Health Q. 2018;7(2):8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  177. 177.

    Hauschild VD, DeGroot DW, Hall SM, Grier TL, Deaver KD, Hauret KG, et al. Fitness tests and occupational tasks of military interest: a systematic review of correlations. Occup Environ Med. 2017;74(2):144–53.

    Google Scholar 

  178. 178.

    Khan K, Roberts P, Nattrass C, Bennell K, Mayes S, Way S, et al. Hip and ankle range of motion in elite classical ballet dancers and controls. Clin J Sports Med. 1997;7(3):174–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  179. 179.

    Steinberg N, Hershkovitz I, Zeev A, Rothschild B, Siev-Ner I. Joint hypermobility and joint range of motion in young dancers. J Clin Rheumatol. 2016;22(4):171–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  180. 180.

    Steinberg N, Hershkovitz I, Peleg S, Dar G, Masharawi Y, Heim M, et al. Range of joint movement in female dancers and nondancers aged 8 to 16 years: anatomical and clinical implications. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(5):814–23.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  181. 181.

    Maffulli N, King JB, Helms P. Training in élite young athletes (the Training of Young Athletes (TOYA) Study): injuries, flexibility and isometric strength. Br J Sports Med. 1994;28(2):123–6.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  182. 182.

    Rivera MA, Rivera-Brown AM, Frontera WR. Health related physical fitness characteristics of elite Peurto Rican athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 1998;12(3):199–203.

    Google Scholar 

  183. 183.

    Chang DE, Buschbacher LP, Edlich RF. Limited joint mobility in power lifters. Am J Sports Med. 1988;16(3):28–284.

    Google Scholar 

  184. 184.

    Beedle B, Jessee C, Stone MH. Flexibility characteristics among athletes who weight train. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1991;5(3):150–4.

    Google Scholar 

  185. 185.

    Wettstone E. Tests for predicting ability in gymnastics and tumbling. Res Q. 1938;9(4):115–27.

    Google Scholar 

  186. 186.

    Bushey SR. Relationship of modern dance performance to agility, balance, flexibiltiy, power, and strength. Res Q. 1966;37(3):313–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  187. 187.

    Meckel Y, Atterbom H, Grodjinovsky A, Ben-Sira D, Rotstein A. Physiological characteristics of female 100 metre sprinters of different performance levels. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1995;35(3):169–75.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  188. 188.

    Maćkala K, Michalski R, Čoh M, Rausavljević N. The relationship between 200 m performance and selected anthropometric variables and motor abilities in male sprinters. Coll Antropol. 2015;39(Suppl 1):69–76.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  189. 189.

    Vieira F, Veiga V, Carita AL, Petroski EL. Morphological and physical fitness characteristics of under-16 Portuguese male handball players with different levels of practice. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2013;53(2):169–76.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  190. 190.

    Grant S, Hynes V, Whittaker A, Aitchison T. Anthropometric, strength, endurance and flexibility characteristics of elite and recreational climbers. J Sports Sci. 1996;14(4):301–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  191. 191.

    Grant S, Hasler T, Davies C, Aitchison TC, Wilson J, Whittaker A. A comparison of the anthropometric, strength, endurance and flexibility characteristics of female elite and recreational climbers and non-climbers. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(7):499–505.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  192. 192.

    Deitrick RW, Holmes DL, Murphy M. Physiological characteristics of elite sport parachutists. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1985;56(4):351–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  193. 193.

    Norjali Wazir MRW, Van Hiel M, Mostaert M, Deconinck FJA, Pion J, Lenoir M. Identification of elite performance characteristics in a small sample of taekwondo athletes. PLoS One. 2019;14(5):e0217358.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  194. 194.

    Shields CL, Whitney FE, Zomar VD. Exercise performance of professional football players. Am J Sports Med. 1984;12(6):455–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  195. 195.

    Stuempfle KJ, Katch FI, Petrie DF. Body composition relates poorly to performance tests in NCAA Division III football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(2):238–44.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  196. 196.

    Keogh J. The use of physical fitness scores and anthropometric data to predict selection in an elite under 18 Australian rules football team. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2(2):125–33.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  197. 197.

    Young WB, Pryor L. Relationship between pre-season anthropometric and fitness measures and indicators of playing performance in elite junior Australian Rules football. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10(2):110–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  198. 198.

    Jukic I, Prnjak K, Zoellner A, Tufano JJ, Sekulic D, Salaj S. The importance of fundamental motor skills in identifying differences in performance levels of U10 soccer players. Sports. 2019;7(7):E178.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  199. 199.

    Fry AC, Kraemer WJ, Weseman CA, Conroy BP, Gordon SE, Hoffman JR, et al. The effects of an off-season strength and conditioning program on starters and non-starters in women’s intercollegiate volleyball. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1991;5(4):174–81.

    Google Scholar 

  200. 200.

    McKean MR, Burkett B. The relationship between joint range of motion, muscular strength, and race time for sub-elite flat water kayakers. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(5):537–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  201. 201.

    Bracko MR, George JD. Prediction of ice skating performance with off-ice testing in women’s ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):116–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  202. 202.

    Agre JC, Casal DC, Leon AS, McNally C, Baxter TL, Serfass RC. Professional ice hockey players: physiologic, anthropometric, and musculoskeletal characteristics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1988;69(3):188–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  203. 203.

    Quinney HA, Dewart R, Game A, Snydmiller G, Warburton D, Bell G. A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33(4):753–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  204. 204.

    Nikolaidis PT, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Force–velocity characteristics, muscle strength, and flexibility in female recreational marathon runners. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1563.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  205. 205.

    Craib MW, Mitchell VA, Fields KB, Cooper TR, Hopewell R, Morgan DW. The association between flexibility and running economy in sub-elite male distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(6):737–43.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  206. 206.

    Gleim GW, Stachenfeld NS, Nicholas JA. The influence of flexibility on the economy of walking and jogging. J Orthop Res. 1990;8(6):814–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  207. 207.

    Hunter GR, Katsoulis K, McCarthy JP, Ogard WK, Bamman MM, Wood DS, et al. Tendon length and joint flexibility are related to running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1492–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  208. 208.

    Jones AM. Running economy is negatively related to sit-and-reach test performance in international-standard distance runners. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23:40–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  209. 209.

    Trehearn TL, Buresh RJ. Sit-and-reach flexibility and running economy of men and women collegiate distance runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):158–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  210. 210.

    Beaudoin CM, Blum JW. Flexibility and running economy in female collegiate track athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2005;45(3):295–300.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  211. 211.

    Pate RR, Macera CA, Bailey SP, Bartoli WP, Powell KE. Physiological, anthropometric, and training correlates of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(10):1128–33.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  212. 212.

    Sundby QH, Gorelick MLS. Relationship between functional hamstring:quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;22(8):2214–27.

    Google Scholar 

  213. 213.

    Bae YH, Yu JH, Lee SM. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(3):891–5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  214. 214.

    Miyashita M, Kanehisa H. Dynamic peak torque related to age, sex, and performance. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1979;50(2):249–55.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  215. 215.

    Mookerjee S, Bibi K, Kenney GA, Cohen L. Relationship between isokinetic strength, flexibility, and flutter kicking speed in collegiate swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 1995;9(2):71–4.

    Google Scholar 

  216. 216.

    Willems TM, Cornelis JA, De Deurwaerder LE, Roelandt F, De Mits S. The effect of ankle muscle strength and flexibility on dolphin kick performance in competitive. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;36:167–76.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  217. 217.

    Hadjicharalambous M. The effects of regular supplementary flexibility training on physical fitness performance of young high-level soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2016;56(6):699–708.

    Google Scholar 

  218. 218.

    Kamandulis S, Emeljanovas A, Skurvydas A. Stretching exercise volume for flexibility enhancement in secondary school children. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2013;53(6):687–92.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  219. 219.

    Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, Eldredge C, Winchester JB. Chronic static stretching improves exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1825–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  220. 220.

    Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Real J, Viciana J. A physical education-based stretching program performed once a week also improves hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(4):1715–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  221. 221.

    Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Manzano-Lagunas J, Blanco H, Viciana J. Effects of a stretching development and maintenance program on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. J Sports Sci Med. 2016;15(1):65–74.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  222. 222.

    Nishiwaki M, Yonemura H, Kurobe K, Matsumoto N. Four weeks of regular static stretching reduces arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. Springerplus. 2015;4:555.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  223. 223.

    Rodriguez Fernandez A, Sanchez J, Rodriguez-Marroyo JA, Villa JG. Effects of seven weeks of static hamstring stretching on flexibility and sprint performance in young soccer players according to their playing position. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2016;56(4):345–51.

    Google Scholar 

  224. 224.

    Simao R, Lemos A, Salles B, Leite T, Oliviera E, Rhea M, et al. The influence of strength, flexibility, and simultaneous training on flexibility and strength gains. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1333–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  225. 225.

    Wong A, Figueroa A. Eight weeks of stretching training reduces aortic wave reflection magnitude and blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women. J Hum Hypertens. 2014;28(4):246–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  226. 226.

    Bandy WD, Irion JM, Briggler M. The effect of time and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles. Phys Ther. 1997;77(10):1090–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  227. 227.

    Chang SP, Hong Y, Robinson PD. Flexibility and passive resistance of the hamstrings of young adults using two different static stretching protocols. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11(2):81–6.

    Google Scholar 

  228. 228.

    Cipriani DJ, Abel B, Pirrwitz D. A comparison of two stretching protocols on hip range of motion: implications for total daily stretch duration. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(2):274–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  229. 229.

    Cipriani DJ, Terry ME, Haines MA, Tabibnia AP, Lyssanova O. Effect of stretch frequency and sex on the rate of gain and rate of loss in muscle flexibility during a hamstring-stretching program: a randomized single-blind longitudinal study. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(8):2119–29.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  230. 230.

    de Baranda PS, Ayala F. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31:389–96.

    Google Scholar 

  231. 231.

    Donti Ο, Papia K, Toubekis A, Donti A, Sands WA, Bogdanis GC. Flexibility training in preadolescent female athletes: acute and long-term effects of intermittent and continuous static stretching. J Sports Sci. 2018;36(13):1453–60.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  232. 232.

    Feland JB, Myrer JW, Schulthies SS, Fellingham GW, Measom GW. The effect of duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group for increasing range of motion in people aged 65 years or older. Phys Ther. 2001;81(5):1110–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  233. 233.

    Ferreira GN, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Guimarães CQ. Gains in flexibility related to measures of muscular performance: impact of flexibility on muscular performance. Clin J Sports Med. 2007;17(4):276–81.

    Google Scholar 

  234. 234.

    Godges JJ, MacRae PG, Engelke KA. Effects of exercise on hip range of motion, trunk muscle performance, and gait economy. Phys Ther. 1993;73(7):468–77.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  235. 235.

    Guissard N, Duchateau J. Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar-flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve. 2004;29(2):248–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  236. 236.

    Harvey LA, Herbert R, Crosbie J. Does stretching induce lasting increases in joint ROM? A systematic review. Physiother Res Int. 2002;7(1):1–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  237. 237.

    Medeiros DM, Martini TF. Chronic effect of different types of stretching on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: systematic review and meta-analysis. Foot. 2018;34:28–35.

    Google Scholar 

  238. 238.

    Nelson RT. Eccentric training and static stretching improve hamstring flexibility of high school males. J Athl Train. 2004;39(3):254–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  239. 239.

    Radford JA, Burns J, Buchinder R, Landorf KB, Cooks C. Does stretching increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(10):870–5.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  240. 240.

    Wallin D, Ekblom B, Grahn R, Nordenborg T. Improvement of muscle flexibility. A comparison between two techniques. Am J Sports Med. 1985;13(4):263–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  241. 241.

    Ylinen J, Kankainen T, Kautiainen H, Rezasoltani A, Kuukkanen T, Häkkinen A. Effect of stretching on hamstring muscle compliance. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41(1):80–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  242. 242.

    Young R, Nix S, Wholohan A, Bradhurst R, Reed L. Interventions for increasing ankle joint dorsiflexion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Foot Ankle Res. 2013;6(1):46.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  243. 243.

    Ben M, Harvey LA. Regular stretch does not increase muscle extensibility: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(1):136–44.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  244. 244.

    Halbertsma JP, Goeken LN. Stretching exercises: effect on passive extensibility and stiffness in short hamstrings of healthy subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994;75(9):976–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  245. 245.

    Kubo K, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Effect of stretching training on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(2):595–601.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  246. 246.

    Shrier I. Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury: a critical review of the clinical and basic science literature. Clin J Sports Med. 1999;9(4):221–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  247. 247.

    Weppler CH, Magnusson SP. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation? Phys Ther. 2010;90(3):438–49.

    Google Scholar 

  248. 248.

    Adams KJ, Swank AM, Berning JM, Sevene-Adams PG, Barnard KL, Shimp-Bowerman J. Progressive strength training in sedentary, older African American women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(9):1567–76.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  249. 249.

    Barbosa AR, Santarém JM, Filho WJ, Marucci Mde F. Effects of resistance training on the sit-and-reach test in elderly women. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):14–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  250. 250.

    Fatouros IG, Taxildaris K, Tokmakidis SP, Kalapotharakos V, Aggelousis N, Athanasopoulos S, et al. The effects of strength training, cardiovascular training and their combination on flexibility of inactive older adults. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23(2):112–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  251. 251.

    Fatouros IG, Kambas A, Katrabasas I, Leontsini D, Chatzinikolaou A, Jamurtas AZ, et al. Resistance training and detraining effects on flexibility performance in the elderly are intensity-dependent. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(3):634–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  252. 252.

    Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Johnson L, Kang J, Bloom J, Ratamess NA, et al. Preliminary evaluation of an after-school resistance training program for improving physical fitness in middle school-age boys. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;104(2):407–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  253. 253.

    Junior RS, Leite T, Reis VM. Influence of the number of sets at a strength training in the flexibility gains. J Hum Kinet. 2011;29A:47–52.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  254. 254.

    Leite TB, Costa PB, Leite RD, Novaes JS, Fleck SJ, Simao R. Effects of different number of sets of resistance training on flexibility. Int J Exerc Sci. 2017;10(3):354–64.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  255. 255.

    Moraes E, Fleck SJ, Ricardo Dias M, Simao R. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(12):3310–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  256. 256.

    Carneiro NH, Ribeiro AS, Nascimento MA, Gobbo LA, Schoenfeld BJ, Achour Júnior A, et al. Effects of different resistance training frequencies on flexibility in older women. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:531–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  257. 257.

    Nobrega ACL, Puala KC, Carvalho ACG. Interaction between resistance training and flexibility training in healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):842–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  258. 258.

    Monteiro WD, Simão R, Polito MD, Santana CA, Chaves RB, Bezerra E, et al. Influence of strength training on adult women’s flexibility. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):672–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  259. 259.

    Morton SK, Whitehead JR, Brinkert RH, Caine DJ. Resistance training vs static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3391–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  260. 260.

    Ribeiro AS, Campos-Filho MGA, Ademar A, dos Santos L, Junior AA, Aguiar AF, et al. Effect of resistance training on flexibility in young adult men and women. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2017;25(2):149–55.

    Google Scholar 

  261. 261.

    Santos E, Rhea MR, Simão R, Dias I, de Salles BF, Novaes J, et al. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(11):3144–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  262. 262.

    Ades PA, Savage P, Cress ME, Brochu M, Lee NM, Poehlman ET. Resistance training on physical performance in disabled older female cardiac patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1265–70.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  263. 263.

    Bates A, Donaldson A, Lloyd B, Castell S, Krolik P, Coleman R. Staying active, staying strong: pilot evaluation of a once-weekly, community-based strength training program for older adults. Health Promot J Aust. 2009;20(1):42–7.

    Google Scholar 

  264. 264.

    Kim E, Dear A, Ferguson SL, Seo D, Bemben MG. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(11):3006–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  265. 265.

    Magnani Branco BH, Carvalho IZ, Garcia de Oliveira H, Fanhani AP, Machado Dos Santos MC, Pestillo de Oliveira L, et al. Effects of 2 types of resistance training models on obese adolescents’ body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and physical fitness. J Strength Cond Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002877.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  266. 266.

    Norris MK, Bell GJ, North S, Courneya KS. Effects of resistance training frequency on physical functioning and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015;18(3):281–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  267. 267.

    Thrash K, Kelly B. Flexibility and strength training. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1987;1(4):74–5.

    Google Scholar 

  268. 268.

    Zavanela PM, Crewther BT, Lodo L, Florindo AA, Miyabara EH, Aoki MS. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):811–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  269. 269.

    DeLorme TL. Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercises. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1945;27(4):645–67.

    Google Scholar 

  270. 270.

    Burnham TR, Wilcox A. Effects of exercise on physiological and psychological variables in cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(12):1863–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  271. 271.

    Chien MY, Wu YT, Hsu AT, Yang RS, Lai JS. Efficacy of a 24-week aerobic exercise program for osteopenic postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000;67(6):443–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  272. 272.

    Shigematsu R, Okura T. A novel exercise for improving lower-extremity functional fitness in the elderly. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006;18(3):242–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  273. 273.

    Shigematsu R, Okura T, Sakai T, Rantanen T. Square-stepping exercise versus strength and balance training for fall risk factors. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20(1):19–24.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  274. 274.

    Whitehurst MA, Johnson BL, Parker CM, Brown LE, Ford AM. The benefits of a functional exercise circuit for older adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):647–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  275. 275.

    Takeshima N, Rogers NL, Rogers ME, Islam MM, Koizumi D, Lee S. Functional fitness gain varies in older adults depending on exercise mode. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(11):2036–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  276. 276.

    Christiansen CL. The effects of hip and ankle stretching on gait function of older people. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(8):1421–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  277. 277.

    Cortez-Cooper MY, Anton MM, Devan AE, Neidre DB, Cook JN, Tanaka H. The effects of strength training on central arterial compliance in middle-aged and older adults. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008;15(2):149–55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  278. 278.

    Kruse NT, Scheuermann BW. Cardiovascular responses to skeletal muscle stretching: “stretching” the truth or a new exercise paradigm for cardiovascular medicine? Sports Med. 2017;47(12):2507–20.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  279. 279.

    de Resende-Neto AG, Oliveira Andrade BC, Cyrino ES, Behm DG, De-Santana JM, Da Silva-Grigoletto ME. Effects of functional and traditional training in body composition and muscle strength components in older women: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.103902.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  280. 280.

    Harvey LA, Katalinic OM, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Lannin NA, Schurr K. Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contractures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;1:CD007455.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  281. 281.

    Stathokostas L, Little RM, Vandervoort AA, Paterson DH. Flexibility training and functional ability in older adults: a systematic review. J Aging Res. 2012;2012:306818.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  282. 282.

    Fisher JP, Steele J, Gentil P, Giessing J, Westcott WL. A minimal dose approach to resistance training for the older adult; the prophylactic for aging. Exp Gerontol. 2017;99:80–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  283. 283.

    Liu CJ, Latham N. Can progressive resistance strength training reduce physical disability in older adults? A meta-analysis study. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(2):87–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  284. 284.

    Papa EV, Dong X, Hassan M. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review. Clin Interv Aging. 2017;12:955–61.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  285. 285.

    Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Exercise as medicine—evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(Suppl 3):1–72.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  286. 286.

    Reid KF, Fielding RA. Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2012;40(1):4–12.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  287. 287.

    Westcott WL. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(4):209–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  288. 288.

    Herbert RD, de Noronha M, Kamper SJ. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;7:CD004577.

    Google Scholar 

  289. 289.

    Herbert RD, Gabriel M. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. BMJ. 2002;325(7362):451–2.

    Google Scholar 

  290. 290.

    Pope R, Herbert R, Kirwan J. Effects of ankle dorsiflexion range and pre-exercise calf muscle stretching on injury risk in Army recruits. Aust J Physiother. 1998;44(3):165–72.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  291. 291.

    Pope RP, Herbert RD, Kirwan JD, Graham BJ. A randomized trial of preexercise stretching for prevention of lower-limb injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(2):271–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  292. 292.

    Yeung SS, Yeung EW, Gillespie LD. Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;7:CD001256.

    Google Scholar 

  293. 293.

    Lauersen JB, Bertelsen DM, Andersen LB. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(11):871–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  294. 294.

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD Jr. The impact of stretching on sports injury risk: a systematic review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(3):371–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  295. 295.

    McHugh MP, Cosgrave CH. To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(2):169–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  296. 296.

    Gross A, Kay TM, Paquin JP, Blanchette S, Lalonde P, Christie T, et al. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD004250.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  297. 297.

    Lin CW, Donkers NA, Refshauge KM, Beckenkamp PR, Khera K, Moseley AM. Rehabilitation for ankle fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD005595.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  298. 298.

    Kim SY, Busch AJ, Overend TJ, Schachter CL, van der Spuy I, Boden C, et al. Flexibility exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;9:CD013419.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  299. 299.

    Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, Bidonde J, Schachter CL, Schafer LA, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD010884.

    Google Scholar 

  300. 300.

    Morrow JR, Ede A. Statewide physical fitness testing: a big waist or a big waste? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80(4):696–701.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  301. 301.

    Bobo M, Yarbrough M. The effects of long-term aerobic dance on agility and flexibility. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1999;39(2):165–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  302. 302.

    Scott PA. Morphological characteristics of elite male field hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1991;31(1):57–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  303. 303.

    Kay AD, Blazevich AJ. Effect of acute static stretch on maximal muscle performance: a systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(1):154–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  304. 304.

    Barroso R, Tricoli V, Santos Gil SD, Ugrinowitsch C, Roschel H. Maximal strength, number of repetitions, and total volume are differently affected by static-, ballistic-, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(9):2432–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  305. 305.

    Nelson AG, Kokkonen J, Arnall DA. Acute muscle stretching inhibits muscle strength endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):338–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  306. 306.

    Junior RM, Berton R, de Souza TM, Chacon-Mikahil MP, Cavaglieri CR. Effect of the flexibility training performed immediately before resistance training on muscle hypertrophy, maximum strength and flexibility. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117(4):767–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  307. 307.

    Ferreira-Júnior JB, Benine RPC, Chaves SFN, Borba DA, Martins-Costa HC, Freitas EDS, et al. Effects of static and dynamic stretching performed before resistance training on muscle adaptations in untrained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003283.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  308. 308.

    Silva-Batista C, Urso RP, Lima Silva AE, Bertuzzi R. Associations between fitness tests and the international physical activity questionnaire-short form in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(12):3481–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  309. 309.

    Voorrips LE, Lemmink KA, van Heuvelen MJ, Bult P, van Staveren WA. The physical condition of elderly women differing in habitual physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(10):1152–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  310. 310.

    Hoare E, Stavreski B, Jennings GL, Kingwell BA. Exploring motivation and barriers to physical activity among active and inactive Australian adults. Sports. 2017;5(3):E47.

    Google Scholar 

  311. 311.

    Reuben DB, Magasi S, McCreath HE, Bohannon RW, Wang YC, Bubela DJ, et al. Motor assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology. 2013;80:S65–75.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  312. 312.

    Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Sanchez-Rivas E, Viciana J. Effect of a short-term static stretching training program followed by five weeks of detraining on hamstring extensibility in children aged 9–10 years. J Phys Educ Sport. 2014;14(3):355–9.

    Google Scholar 

  313. 313.

    Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Vera-Estrada F, Viciana J. Effect of a short-term physical education-based flexibility program on hamstring and lumbar extensibility and its posterior reduction in primary schoolchildren. Kinesiology. 2014;46:227–33.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to James L. Nuzzo.

Ethics declarations

Funding

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflict of Interest

James Nuzzo declares he has no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nuzzo, J.L. The Case for Retiring Flexibility as a Major Component of Physical Fitness. Sports Med 50, 853–870 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01248-w

Download citation