Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
The aims of this work were to systematically review the effects of workplace sedentary behaviour reduction interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers (primary aim) and identify the active behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by which these interventions work (secondary aim).
A systematic search of 11 databases for articles published up to 12 April 2019 yielded a total of 4255 unique titles, with 29 articles being identified for inclusion. Interventions were rated as very promising, quite promising or non-promising based on their effects on cardiometabolic risk markers compared with baseline and/or a comparison arm. Interventions were coded for BCTs used. To assess the relative effectiveness of BCTs, a promise ratio was calculated as the frequency of a BCT appearing in all promising interventions divided by its frequency of appearance in all non-promising interventions.
A narrative synthesis included 29 published studies of varying study design and comprised of 30 interventions. Risk of bias was high for blinding and allocation concealment, moderate for random sequence generation, and low for outcome assessment. Nine interventions were very promising, 11 were quite promising, 10 were non-promising, and 10 active control groups did not experience cardiometabolic changes. Significant sedentary behaviour reductions were present in all but five studies where cardiometabolic risk markers improved. The BCTs of social comparison, problem solving, demonstration of the behaviour, goal setting (behaviour), behaviour substitution, and habit reversal, demonstrated moderate to high promise ratios.
Workplace interventions show promise for improving cardiometabolic risk markers. The BCTs with the greatest promise of cardiometabolic risk marker improvements included social comparison, those related to individual habits, and behaviour goals.
This systematic review was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017072427).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Rodarte RQ, et al. Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity. PLoS One. 2011;6:e19657-7.
Tremblay MS, Aubert S, Barnes JD, Saunders TJ, Carson V, Latimer-Cheung AE, et al. Sedentary behavior research network (SBRN) terminology consensus project process and outcome. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:75.
Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW, Winkler EAH, Owen N. Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003–06. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:590–7.
Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW. Too much sitting. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38:105–13.
Proper KI, Singh AS, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJM. Sedentary behaviors and health outcomes among adults. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40:174–82.
Wilmot EG, Edwardson CL, Achana FA, Davies MJ, Gorely T, Gray LJ, et al. Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2895–905.
Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, et al. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet. 2016;388:1302–10.
Clemes SA, Patel R, Mahon C, Griffiths PL. Sitting time and step counts in office workers. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2014;64:188–92.
Clemes SA, O’Connell SE, Edwardson CL. Office workers’ objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity during and outside working hours. J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56:298–303.
Thorp AA, Healy GN, Winkler E, Clark BK, Gardiner PA, Owen N, et al. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:128.
Parry S, Straker L. The contribution of office work to sedentary behaviour associated risk. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:296.
Buckley JP, Hedge A, Yates T, Copeland RJ, Loosemore M, Hamer M, et al. The sedentary office: an expert statement on the growing case for change towards better health and productivity. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:1357–62.
Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Salmon J, Zimmet PZ, et al. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:369–71.
Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, et al. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:661–6.
Dunstan DW, Kingwell BA, Larsen R, Healy GN, Cerin E, Hamilton MT, et al. Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:976–83.
Peddie MC, Bone JL, Rehrer NJ, Skeaff CM, Gray AR, Perry TL. Breaking prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glycemia in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:358–66.
Bailey DP, Locke CD. Breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking improves postprandial glycemia, but breaking up sitting with standing does not. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:294–8.
Bailey DP, Maylor BD, Orton CJ, Zakrzewski-Fruer JK. Effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following low and high glycaemic index breakfast consumption on glucose and insulin concentrations. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:1299–307.
Bailey DP, Broom DR, Chrismas BCR, Taylor L, Flynn E, Hough J. Breaking up prolonged sitting time with walking does not affect appetite or gut hormone concentrations but does induce an energy deficit and suppresses postprandial glycaemia in sedentary adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41:324–31.
Duvivier BMFM, Schaper NC, Bremers MA, van Crombrugge G, Menheere PPCA, Kars M, et al. Minimal intensity physical activity (standing and walking) of longer duration improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of moderate to vigorous exercise (cycling) in sedentary subjects when energy expenditure is comparable. PLoS One. 2013;8:e55542–8.
Duvivier BMFM, Schaper NC, Koster A, van Kan L, Peters HPF, Adam JJ, et al. Benefits of substituting sitting with standing and walking in free-living conditions for cardiometabolic risk markers, cognition and mood in overweight adults. Front Physiol. 2017;8:353.
Duvivier BMFM, Bolijn JE, Koster A, Schalkwijk CG, Savelberg HHCM, Schaper NC. Reducing sitting time versus adding exercise: differential effects on biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and metabolic risk. Sci Rep. 2018;8:8657.
Shrestha N, Kukkonen-Harjula KT, Verbeek JH, Ijaz S, Hermans V, Bhaumik S. Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;43:136–298.
Chu AHY, Ng SHX, Tan CS, Win AM, Koh D, Muller-Riemenschneider F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time in white-collar workers. Obes Rev. 2016;17:467–81.
Chau JY, van der Ploeg HP, van Uffelen JGZ, Wong J, Riphagen I, Healy GN, et al. Are workplace interventions to reduce sitting effective? A systematic review. Prev Med (Baltim). 2010;51:352–6.
Commissaris DACM, Huysmans MA, Mathiassen SE, Srinivasan D, Koppes LLJ, Hendriksen IJM. Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work: a systematic review. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2015;42:181–91.
Martin A, Fitzsimons C, Jepson R, Saunders DH, van der Ploeg HP, Teixeira PJ, et al. Interventions with potential to reduce sedentary time in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:1056–63.
Martin J, Chater A, Lorencatto F. Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity. Int J Obes. 2013;37:1287–94.
Gardner B, Smith L, Lorencatto F, Hamer M, Biddle SJH. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults. Health Psychol Rev. 2016;10:89–112.
Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, et al. The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2013;46:81–95.
Dombrowski SU, Sniehotta FF, Avenell A, Johnston M, MacLennan G, Araújo-Soares V. Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with obesity-related co-morbidities or additional risk factors for co-morbidities: a systematic review. Health Psychol Rev. 2012;6:7–32.
Michie S, Abraham C, Whittington C, McAteer J, Gupta S. Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: a meta-regression. Health Psychol. 2009;28:690.
Bellg AJ, Resnick B, Minicucci DS, Ogedegbe G, Ernst D, Borrelli B, et al. Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best pracbices and recommendations from the NIH Behavior Change Consortium. Health Psychol. 2004;23:443–51.
Murphy SL, Gutman SA. Intervention fidelity: a necessary aspect of intervention effectiveness studies. Am J Occup Ther. 2012;66:387–8.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Groupf TP. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int J Surg. 2010;8:336–41.
Neuhaus M, Eakin EG, Straker L, Owen N, Dunstan DW, Reid N, et al. Reducing occupational sedentary time: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence on activity-permissive workstations. Obes Rev. 2014;15:822–38.
Torbeyns T, Bailey S, Bos I, Meeusen R. Active workstations to fight sedentary behaviour. Sport Med. 2014;44:1261–73.
Tudor-Locke C, Schuna JM, Frensham LJ, Proenca M. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives. Int J Obes. 2013;38:755–65.
MacEwen BT, MacDonald DJ, Burr JF. A systematic review of standing and treadmill desks in the workplace. Prev Med (Baltim). 2015;70:50–8.
Tew GA, Posso MC, Arundel CE, McDaid CM. Systematic review: height-adjustable workstations to reduce sedentary behaviour in office-based workers. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2015;65:357–66.
Prince SA, Saunders TJ, Gresty K, Reid RD. A comparison of the effectiveness of physical activity and sedentary behaviour interventions in reducing sedentary time in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2014;15:905–19.
Thorndike AN. Workplace interventions to reduce obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2011;5:79–85.
Mateen FJ, Oh J, Tergas AI, Bhayani NH, Kamdar BB. Titles versus titles and abstracts for initial screening of articles for systematic reviews. Clin Epidemiol. 2013;5:89–97.
Hoffmann TC, Glasziou PP, Boutron I, Milne R, Perera R, Moher D, et al. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ. 2014;348:1–12.
Tucker S, Farrington M, Lanningham-Foster LM, Clark MK, Dawson C, Quinn GJ, et al. Worksite physical activity intervention for ambulatory clinic nursing staff. Workplace Health Saf. 2016;64:313–25.
Mantzari E, Galloway C, Wijndaele K, Brage S, Griffin SJ, Marteau TM. Impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure, sitting time and cardio-metabolic risk factors: multiphase feasibility study with randomised controlled component. Prev Med Rep. 2019;13:64–72.
Bergman F, Wahlstrom V, Stomby A, Otten J, Lanthen E, Renklint R, et al. Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3:E523–35.
Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Juni P, Moher D, Oxman AD, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;343:d5928.
Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977;33:159–74.
Puig-Ribera A, Bort-Roig J, González-Suárez AM, Martínez-Lemos I, Giné-Garriga M, Fortuño J, et al. Patterns of impact resulting from a ‘sit less, move more’ web-based program in sedentary office employees. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0122474-15.
Healy GNGN, Winkler EAHH, Eakin EG, Owen N, LaMontagne AD, Moodie M, et al. A cluster RCT to reduce workers’ sitting time. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49:2032–9.
Lin Y-P, Lin C-C, Chen M-M, Lee K-C. Short-term efficacy of a ‘sit less, walk more’ workplace intervention on improving cardiometabolic health and work productivity in office workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2017;59:327–34.
Verweij LM, Proper KI, Weel ANH, Hulshof CTJ, Van Mechelen W. The application of an occupational health guideline reduces sedentary behaviour and increases fruit intake at work: results from an RCT. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69:500–7.
Zhu W, Gutierrez M, Toledo MJ, Mullane S, Stella AP, Diemar R, et al. Long-term effects of sit-stand workstations on workplace sitting: a natural experiment. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21:811–6.
Wood CE, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, et al. Applying the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy v1: a study of coder training. Transl Behav Med. 2014;5:134–48.
Howlett N, Trivedi D, Troop NA, Chater AM. Are physical activity interventions for healthy inactive adults effective in promoting behavior change and maintenance, and which behavior change techniques are effective? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Transl Behav Med. 2018;32:911–42.
Pronk NP, Katz AS, Lowry M, Payfer JR. Reducing occupational sitting time and improving worker health: the Take-a-Stand project, 2011. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:e154.
Carr LJ, Leonhard C, Tucker S, Fethke N, Benzo R, Gerr F. Total worker health intervention increases activity of sedentary workers. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:9–17.
Alkhajah TA, Reeves MM, Eakin EG, Winkler EAH, Owen N, Healy GN. Sit–stand workstations: a pilot intervention to reduce office sitting time. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:298–303.
Sallis JF, Bauman A, Pratt M. Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15:379–97.
Gorman E, Ashe MC, Dunstan DW, Hanson HM, Madden K, Winkler EAH, et al. Does an ‘activity-permissive’workplace change office workers’ sitting and activity time? PLoS One. 2013;8:e76723–6.
Mailey EL, Rosenkranz SK, Casey K, Swank A. Comparing the effects of two different break strategies on occupational sedentary behavior in a real world setting: a randomized trial. Prev Med Rep. 2016;4:423–8.
Garland E, Watts A, Doucette J, Foley M, Senerat A, Sanchez S. Stand up to work: assessing the health impact of adjustable workstations. Int J Work Health Manag. 2018;11:85–95.
Maylor BD, Edwardson CL, Zakrzewski-Fruer JK, Champion RB, Bailey DP. Efficacy of a multicomponent intervention to reduce workplace sitting time in office workers: a cluster randomized controlled trial. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60:787–95.
Bouchard DR, Strachan S, Johnson L, Moola F, Chitkara R, McMillan D, et al. Using shared treadmill workstations to promote less time spent in daily low intensity physical activities: a pilot study. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13:111–8.
Carr LJ, Karvinen K, Peavler M, Smith R, Cangelosi K. Multicomponent intervention to reduce daily sedentary time: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2013;3:1–10.
Danquah IH, Kloster S, Holtermann A, Aadahl M, Bauman A, Ersbøll AK, et al. Take a Stand!—a multi-component intervention aimed at reducing sitting time among office workers—a cluster randomized trial. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;46:128–40.
Healy GN, Eakin EG, LaMontagne AD, Owen N, Winkler EAH, Wiesner G, et al. Reducing sitting time in office workers: short-term efficacy of a multicomponent intervention. Prev Med (Baltim). 2013;57:43–8.
Schuna JM Jr, Swift DL, Hendrick CA, Duet MT, Johnson WD, Martin CK, et al. Evaluation of a workplace treadmill desk intervention: a randomized controlled trial. J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56:1266–76.
Chia M, Chen B, Suppiah H. Office sitting made less sedentary: a future-forward approach to reducing physical inactivity at work. Montenegrin J Sport Sci Med. 2016;4:5–10.
Graves L, Murphy RC, Shepherd SO, Cabot J, Hopkins ND. Evaluation of sit-stand workstations in an office setting: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1145.
John D, Thompson DL, Raynor H, Bielak K, Rider B, Bassett DR. Treadmill workstations: a worksite physical activity intervention in overweight and obese office workers. J Phys Act Health. 2011;8:1034–43.
Koepp GA, Manohar CU, McCrady-Spitzer SK, Ben-Ner A, Hamann DJ, Runge CF, et al. Treadmill desks: a 1-year prospective trial. Obesity. 2013;21:705–11.
MacEwen BT, Saunders TJ, MacDonald DJ, Burr JF. Sit-stand desks to reduce workplace sitting time in office workers with abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14:710–5.
Malaeb S, Perez-Leighton CE, Noble EE, Billington C. A ‘NEAT’ approach to obesity prevention in the modern work environment. Workplace Health Saf. 2019;67:102–10.
Miyachi M, Kurita S, Tripette J, Takahara R, Yagi Y, Murakami H. Installation of a stationary high desk in the workplace: effect of a 6-week intervention on physical activity. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:368–75.
Mainsbridge CP, Cooley PD, Fraser SP, Pedersen SJ. The effect of an e-health intervention designed to reduce prolonged occupational sitting on mean arterial pressure. J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56:1189–94.
Dunning JR, McVeigh JA, Goble D, Meiring RM. The effect of interrupting sedentary behavior on the cardiometabolic health of adults with sedentary occupations: a pilot study. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60:760–7.
Mainsbridge C, Ahuja K, Williams A, Bird M-L, Cooley D, Pedersen SJ. Blood pressure response to interrupting workplace sitting time with non-exercise physical activity: results of a 12-month cohort study. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60:769–74.
Carr LJ, Swift M, Ferrer A, Benzo R. Cross-sectional examination of long-term access to sit–stand desks in a professional office setting. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:96–100.
Lin Y-P, Hong O, Lin C-C, Lu S-H, Chen M-M, Lee K-C. A ‘sit less, walk more’ workplace intervention for office workers: long-term efficacy of a quasi-experimental study. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60:E290–9.
Manini TM, Carr LJ, King AC, Marshall S, Robinson TN, et al. Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2015;47:1306–10.
del Pozo-Cruz J, García-Hermoso A, Alfonso-Rosa RM, Alvarez-Barbosa F, Owen N, Chastin S, et al. Replacing sedentary time: meta-analysis of objective-assessment studies. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55:395–402.
Healy GN, Winkler EAH, Owen N, Anuradha S, Dunstan DW. Replacing sitting time with standing or stepping: associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:2643–9.
Chastin SFM, De Craemer M, De Cocker K, Powell L, Van Cauwenberg J, Dall P, et al. How does light-intensity physical activity associate with adult cardiometabolic health and mortality? Systematic review with meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies. Br J Sports Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097563.
Nooijen C, Kallings L, Blom V, Ekblom Ö, Forsell Y, Ekblom M. Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office workers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:792.
MacDonald B, Fitzsimons C, Niven A. Using the COM-B model of behaviour to understand sitting behaviour in UK office workers. Sport Exerc Psychol Rev. 2018;14:23–32.
Such E, Mutrie N. Using organisational cultural theory to understand workplace interventions to reduce sedentary time. Int J Health Promot Educ. 2017;55:18–29.
Waters CN, Ling EP, Chu AHY, Ng SHX, Chia A, Lim YW, et al. Assessing and understanding sedentary behaviour in office-based working adults: a mixed-method approach. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:360.
Cole JA, Tully MA, Cupples ME. ‘They should stay at their desk until the work’s done’: a qualitative study examining perceptions of sedentary behaviour in a desk-based occupational setting. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:683.
Michie S, Atkins L, West R. The behaviour change wheel: a guide to designing interventions. 1st ed. Sutton: Silverback Publishing; 2014.
Voigt L, Baumann S, Ullrich A, Weymar F, John U, Ulbricht S. The effect of mere measurement from a cardiovascular examination program on physical activity and sedentary time in an adult population. BMC Sport Sci. 2018;10:1–7.
Dunstan DW, Wiesner G, Eakin EG, Neuhaus M, Owen N, LaMontagne AD, et al. Reducing office workers’ sitting time: rationale and study design for the Stand Up Victoria cluster randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1057–71.
Verweij LM, Proper KI, Weel ANH, Hulshof CTJ, van Mechelen W. Long-term effects of an occupational health guideline on employees body weight-related outcomes, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and quality of life: results from a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013;39:284–94.
Honda T, Chen S, Kishimoto H, Narazaki K, Kumagai S. Identifying associations between sedentary time and cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults using objective and subjective measures: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1307.
Dempsey PC, Owen N, Yates TE, Kingwell BA, Dunstan DW. Sitting less and moving more: improved glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Curr Diab Rep. 2016;16:114.
UNESCO. Open science movement: global open access portal 2017. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/open-science-movement/. Accessed 27 May 2019.
Lorencatto F, West R, Stavri Z, Michie S. How well is intervention content described in published reports of smoking cessation interventions? Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15:1273–82.
Hoffmann TC, Oxman AD, Ioannidis JPA, Moher D, Lasserson TJ, Tovey DI, et al. Enhancing the usability of systematic reviews by improving the consideration and description of interventions. BMJ. 2017;358:j2998.
World Health Organization. Global action plan on physical activity 2018–2030: more active people for a healthier world. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
Chau JY, Der Ploeg Van HP, Dunn S, Kurko J, Bauman AE. Validity of the occupational sitting and physical activity questionnaire. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2012;44:118–25.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This work was approved by the University of Bedfordshire Institute for Sport and Physical Activity Research Ethics Committee (approval no. 2018ISPAR006).
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Marsha Brierley, Angel Chater, Lindsey Smith and Daniel Bailey declare that they have no conflicts of interest in regard to the content of this article.
MB, LS, DB and AC conceived and designed this review. MB performed the searches, analysed the data, interpreted the data, and wrote the initial manuscript draft. LS, DB and AC critically revised the manuscript. MB and LS independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. MB and LS conducted the quality assessment. MB and AC double coded the behaviour change techniques. All authors approved the final version of the paper.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) chart for all interventions (XLSX 49 kb)
Behaviour change techniques unique to non-promising interventions (XLSX 13 kb)
Behaviour change techniques in very promising, quite promising and non-promising interventions, with a frequency ratio of < 2.0 (XLSX 14 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Brierley, M.L., Chater, A.M., Smith, L.R. et al. The Effectiveness of Sedentary Behaviour Reduction Workplace Interventions on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers: A Systematic Review. Sports Med 49, 1739–1767 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01168-9