Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in the Mental Health of Preschoolers, Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • María Rodriguez-AyllonEmail author
  • Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez
  • Fernando Estévez-López
  • Nicolas E. Muñoz
  • Jose Mora-Gonzalez
  • Jairo H. Migueles
  • Pablo Molina-García
  • Hanna Henriksson
  • Alejandra Mena-Molina
  • Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
  • Andrés Catena
  • Marie Löf
  • Kirk I. Erickson
  • David R. Lubans
  • Francisco B. Ortega
  • Irene Esteban-Cornejo
Systematic Review



Evidence suggests that participation in physical activity may support young people’s current and future mental health. Although previous reviews have examined the relationship between physical activity and a range of mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, due to the large increase in published studies there is a need for an update and quantitative synthesis of effects.


The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, and to systematically synthesize the observational evidence (both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies) regarding the associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior and mental health in preschoolers (2–5 years of age), children (6–11 years of age) and adolescents (12–18 years of age).


A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases was performed from January 2013 to April 2018, by two independent researchers. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the effect of physical activity on mental health outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (i.e. quasi-experimental studies). A narrative synthesis of observational studies was conducted. Studies were included if they included physical activity or sedentary behavior data and at least one psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, anxiety, stress or negative affect) or psychological well-being (i.e. self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, self-image, positive affect, optimism, happiness and satisfaction with life) outcome in preschoolers, children or adolescents.


A total of 114 original articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review (4 RCTs, 14 non-RCTs, 28 prospective longitudinal studies and 68 cross-sectional studies). Of the 18 intervention studies, 12 (3 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. There was a small but significant overall effect of physical activity on mental health in children and adolescents aged 6–18 years (effect size 0.173, 95% confidence interval 0.106–0.239, p < 0.001, percentage of total variability attributed to between-study heterogeneity [I2] = 11.3%). When the analyses were performed separately for children and adolescents, the results were significant for adolescents but not for children. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations between physical activity and lower levels of psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, stress, negative affect, and total psychological distress) and greater psychological well-being (i.e. self-image, satisfaction with life and happiness, and psychological well-being). Furthermore, significant associations were found between greater amounts of sedentary behavior and both increased psychological ill-being (i.e. depression) and lower psychological well-being (i.e. satisfaction with life and happiness) in children and adolescents. Evidence on preschoolers was nearly non-existent.


Findings from the meta-analysis suggest that physical activity interventions can improve adolescents’ mental health, but additional studies are needed to confirm the effects of physical activity on children’s mental health. Findings from observational studies suggest that promoting physical activity and decreasing sedentary behavior might protect mental health in children and adolescents. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42017060373.



This work was part of María Rodriguez-Ayllon’s Ph.D. thesis (Biomedicine Doctoral Studies of the University of Granada, Spain).

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This review was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (DEP2013-47540 and DEP2016-79512-R), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Commission (no. 667302) and the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation. In addition, this review was conducted with additional funding from the University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigación 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Excellence; Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES), Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades, and the ERDF, (ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR). Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez and Fernando Estévez-López are supported by a Grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (BES-2014-068829 and BES-2014-067612, respectively); Jose Mora-Gonzalez and Jairo H. Migueles are supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (FPU14/06837 and FPU15/02645, respectively); and Irene Esteban-Cornejo is supported by a Grant from the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation. In addition, this work was further supported by the SAMID III network, RETICS, funded by the PN I+D+I 2017-2021 (Spain), ISCIII-Sub-Directorate General for Research Assessment and Promotion and the ERDF (ref. RD16/0022).

Conflict of interest

María Rodriguez-Ayllon, Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez, Fernando Estévez-López, Nicolas Ernesto Muñoz, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Jairo H. Migueles, Pablo Molina-García, Hanna Henriksson, Alejandra Mena-Molina, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Andrés Catena, Marie Löf, Kirk I. Erickson, David Lubans, Francisco B. Ortega and Irene Esteban-Cornejo declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

Supplementary material

40279_2019_1099_MOESM1_ESM.docx (441 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 441 kb)


  1. 1.
    Murray CJL, Lopez AD, World Health Organization, World Bank, Harvard School of Public Health. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020: summary. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996.
  2. 2.
    Antaramian SP, Huebner ES, Hills KJ, Valois RF. A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80:462–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seligman MEP, Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology: an introduction. Am Psychol. 2000;55:5–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmithorst VJ, Yuan W. White matter development during adolescence as shown by diffusion MRI. Brain Cogn. 2010;72:16–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lenroot RK, Giedd JN. Brain development in children and adolescents: insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30:718–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nelson SC, Kling J, Wängqvist M, Frisén A, Syed M. Identity and the body: trajectories of body esteem from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2018;54:1159–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beauchamp MR, Puterman E, Lubans DR. Physical inactivity and mental health in late adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75:543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hofstra MB, van der Ende J, Verhulst FC. Child and adolescent problems predict DSM-IV disorders in adulthood: a 14-year follow-up of a dutch epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41:182–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 1985;100:126–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spruit A, Assink M, van Vugt E, van der Put C, Stams GJ. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2016;45:56–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tremblay MS, Aubert S, Barnes JD, Saunders TJ, Carson V, Latimer-Cheung AE, et al. Sedentary behavior research network (SBRN)—terminology consensus project process and outcome. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dishman RK, O’Connor PJ. Lessons in exercise neurobiology: the case of endorphins. Ment Health Phys Act. 2009;2:4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cotman CW, Berchtold NC, Christie L-A. Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30:464–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kleim JA, Cooper NR, VandenBerg PM. Exercise induces angiogenesis but does not alter movement representations within rat motor cortex. Brain Res. 2002;934:1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lubans D, Richards J, Hillman C, Faulkner G, Beauchamp M, Nilsson M, et al. Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: a systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics. 2016;14:114.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2nd edition. 2018; Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed 15 Nov 2018
  17. 17.
    Biddle SJH, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:886–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biddle SJH, Ciaccioni S, Thomas G, Vergeer I. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: an updated review of reviews and an analysis of causality. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2019;42:146–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown HE, Pearson N, Braithwaite RE, Brown WJ, Biddle SJH. Physical activity interventions and depression in children and adolescents. Sports Med. 2013;43:195–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Babic MJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Lonsdale C, White RL, Lubans DR. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44:1589–601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu M, Wu L, Ming Q. How does physical activity intervention improve self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents? Evidence from a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10:1–17.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruotsalainen H, Kyngäs H, Tammelin T, Kääriäinen M. Systematic review of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass indices, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms in overweight and obese adolescents. J Adv Nurs. 2015;71:2461–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poitras VJ, Gray CE, Borghese MM, Carson V, Chaput J-P, Janssen I, et al. Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41:197–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cairns KE, Yap MBH, Pilkington PD, Jorm AF. Risk and protective factors for depression that adolescents can modify: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;169:61–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bursnall P. The relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a systematic review. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2014;11:376–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferreira-Vorkapic C, Feitoza JM, Marchioro M, Simões J, Kozasa E, Telles S. Are there benefits from teaching yoga at schools? a systematic review of randomized control trials of yoga-based interventions. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015;2015:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tremblay MS, LeBlanc AG, Kho ME, Saunders TJ, Larouche R, Colley RC, et al. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hoare E, Milton K, Foster C, Allender S. The associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health among adolescents: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cliff DP, Hesketh KD, Vella SA, Hinkley T, Tsiros MD, Ridgers ND, et al. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2016;17:330–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Suchert V, Hanewinkel R, Isensee B. Sedentary behavior and indicators of mental health in school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2015;76:48–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    von Klitzing K, Döhnert M, Kroll M, Grube M. Mental disorders in early childhood. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2015;112:375–86.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kho ME, Eva KW, Cook DJ, Brouwers MC. The Completeness of Reporting (CORE) index identifies important deficiencies in observational study conference abstracts. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61:1241–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327:557–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:963–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Cliff DP, Barnett LM, Okely AD. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents. Sports Med. 2010;40:1019–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith JJ, Eather N, Morgan PJ, Lubans DR. The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(9):1209–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Jüni P, Moher D, Oxman AD. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;343:d5928. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLoS Med. 2008;61:344–9.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Armijo-Olivo S, Stiles CR, Hagen NA, Biondo PD, Cummings GG. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):12–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smith S, Madden AM. Body composition and functional assessment of nutritional status in adults: a narrative review of imaging, impedance, strength and functional techniques. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016;29:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hasanpour M, Tabatabaei M, Alavi M, Zolaktaf V. Effect of aerobics exercise on self-esteem in Iranian female adolescents covered by welfare organization. Sci World J. 2014;29(6):714–32.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldfield GS, Alberga AS, Hadjiyannakis S, Phillips P, Malcolm J, Wells GA, et al. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015;83:1123–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Costigan SA, Eather N, Plotnikoff RC, Hillman CH, Lubans DR. High-intensity interval training for cognitive and mental health in adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:1985–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee LYK, Chong YL, Li NY, Li MC, Lin LN, Wong LY, et al. Feasibility and effectiveness of a chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in junior secondary school students. Stress Health. 2013;29:117–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Staiano AE, Abraham AA, Calvert SL. Adolescent exergame play for weight loss and psychosocial improvement: a controlled physical activity intervention. Obesity. 2013;21:598–601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tubić T, Đorđić V. Exercise effects on mental health of preschool children. An Psicol. 2013;29:249–56.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Seabra AC, Seabra AF, Brito J, Krustrup P, Hansen PR, Mota J, et al. Effects of a 5-month football program on perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2014;24:10–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Peng S, Qi A, Yuan F. Experimental study on the effects of exercise prescription on the mental health of left-behind school children in rural areas. Rev Argent Clin Psic. 2015;24(3):267–76.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Das M, Deepeshwar S, Subramanya P, Manjunath NK. Influence of Yoga-based personality development program on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Front Pediatr. 2016;4:62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Eather N, Morgan PJ, Lubans DR. Effects of exercise on mental health outcomes in adolescents: findings from the CrossFitTM teens randomized controlled trial. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;26:14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cox AE, Ullrich-French S, Howe HS, Cole AN. A pilot yoga physical education curriculum to promote positive body image. Body Image. 2017;23:1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yook YS, Kang SJ, Park IK. Effects of physical activity intervention combining a new sport and mindfulness yoga on psychological characteristics in adolescents. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2017;15:109–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bunketorp Käll L, Malmgren H, Olsson E, Lindén T, Nilsson M. Effects of a curricular physical activity intervention on children’s school performance, wellness, and brain development. J Sch Health. 2015;85(10):704–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Romero-Perez M, De Paz-Fernandez A, Camberos-Castaneda A, Tanori-Tapia M, Bernal-Reyes F, Marquez-Rosa S. Assessment of depression and anxiety states of obese children after participating in an exercise program. Biotecnia. 2015;17:11–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kyle TL, Mendo AH, Reigal Garrido RE, Sánchez VM. Effects of physical activity on self-concept and self-efficacy in preadolescents. RETOS. Nuevas Tendencias en Educacion Fisica Deporte y Recreacion. 2016;2041:61–5.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Telles S, Singh N, Bhardwaj A, Kumar A, Balkrishna A. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013;7:37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bao X, Jin K. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents. Int J Psychol. 2015;50:101–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rinaldo N, Zaccagni L, Gualdi-Russo E. Soccer training programme improved the body composition of pre-adolescent boys and increased their satisfaction with their body image. Acta Paediatr. 2016;105:492–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Toseeb U, Brage S, Corder K, Dunn VJ, Jones PB, Owens M, et al. Exercise and depressive symptoms in adolescents. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:1093.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Dijk ML, Savelberg HHCM, Verboon P, Kirschner PA, De Groot RHM. Decline in physical activity during adolescence is not associated with changes in mental health. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:300.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bilinski H, Henry C, Humbert L, Spriggs P. The connection between psychosocial health, health behaviors and the environment in rural children. Child Indic Res. 2013;6:659–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Martikainen S, Pesonen A-K, Lahti J, Heinonen K, Feldt K, Pyhälä R, et al. Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E619–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ahn JV, Sera F, Cummins S, Flouri E. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and later mental health outcomes in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72:94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nihill GFJ, Lubans DR, Plotnikoff RC. Associations between sedentary behavior and self-esteem in adolescent girls from schools in low-income communities. Ment Health Phys Act. 2013;6:30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ishii K, Shibata A, Adachi M, Mano Y, Oka K. Objectively measured sedentary behavior, obesity, and psychological well-being: a cross-sectional study of Japanese schoolchildren. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14:270–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    McVeigh J, Smith A, Howie E, Straker L. Trajectories of television watching from childhood to early adulthood and their association with body composition and mental health outcomes in young adults. PLoS One. 2016;11:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Janssen I. Estimating whether replacing time in active outdoor play and sedentary video games with active video games influences youth’s mental health. J Adolesc Health. 2016;59:517–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Larun L, Nordheim LV, Ekeland E, Hagen KB. Heian F. Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Carter T, Morres ID, Meade O, Callaghan P. The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-Analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;55(7):580–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kipp LE, Weiss MR. Physical activity and self-perceptions among children and adolescents. Routledge handbook of physical activity and mental health. New York: Routledge; 2013. p. 187–99.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lubans DR, Lonsdale C, Cohen K, Eather N, Beauchamp MR, Morgan PJ, et al. Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: Rationale and description of the “SAAFE” teaching principles. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Eisenmann JC. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: an overview. Can J Cardiol. 2004;20:295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schneider S, Weiß M, Thiel A, Werner A, Mayer J, Hoffmann H, et al. Body dissatisfaction in female adolescents: extent and correlates. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172:373–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McPhie ML, Rawana JS. The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: a growth-curve analysis. J Adolesc. 2015;40:83–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Carter JS, Dellucci T, Turek C, Mir S. Predicting depressive symptoms and weight from adolescence to adulthood: stressors and the role of protective factors. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44:2122–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sabiston CM, Jewett R, Ashdown-Franks G, Belanger M, Brunet J, O’Loughlin E, et al. Number of years of team and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms in early adulthood. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2016;38:105–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brunet J, Sabiston CM, Chaiton M, Barnett TA, O’Loughlin E, Low NCP, et al. The association between past and current physical activity and depressive symptoms in young adults: a 10-year prospective study. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23:25–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Patrick Auerbach R, Bigda-Peyton JS, Eberhart NK, Webb CA, Ringo Ho M-H. Conceptualizing the prospective relationship between social support, stress, and depressive symptoms among adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;39:475–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vella SA, Swann C, Allen MS, Schweickle MJ, Magee CA. Bidirectional associations between sport involvement and mental health in adolescence. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2017;49:687–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Adachi PJC, Willoughby T. It’s not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43:137–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wagnsson S, Lindwall M, Gustafsson H. Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: the mediating role of perceived sport competence. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2014;36:584–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reigal R, Videra A, Gil J. Physical exercise, general self-efficacy and life satisfaction in adolescence. Rev Int Med Cienc Ac. 2014;14:561–76.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ho FKW, Louie LHT, Chow CB, Wong WHS, Ip P. Physical activity improves mental health through resilience in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hillman CH, Pontifex MB, Castelli DM, Khan NA, Raine LB, Scudder MR, et al. Effects of the FITKids randomized controlled trial on executive control and brain function. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e1063–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Leibrock J, Lottspeich F, Hohn A, Hofer M, Hengerer B, Masiakowski P, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Nature. 1989;341:149–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Martinowich K, Manji H, Lu B. New insights into BDNF function in depression and anxiety. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1089–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Young SN. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32:394–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lubans DR, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Beauchamp MR, Miller A, Lonsdale C, et al. Mediators of psychological well-being in adolescent boys. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58:230–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hinkley T, Verbestel V, Ahrens W, Lissner L, Molnár D, Moreno LA, et al. Early childhood electronic media use as a predictor of poorer well-being. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Allen MS, Vella SA. Screen-based sedentary behaviour and psychosocial well-being in childhood: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Ment Health Phys Act. 2015;9:41–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Liu M, Wu L, Yao S. Dose-response association of screen time-based sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Br J Sports Med. 2015;50:1252–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gunnell KE, Flament MF, Buchholz A, Henderson KA, Obeid N, Schubert N, et al. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence. Prev Med. 2016;88:147–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hamer M, Coombs N, Stamatakis E. Associations between objectively assessed and self-reported sedentary time with mental health in adults: an analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004580.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Maras D, Flament MF, Murray M, Buchholz A, Henderson KA, Obeid N, et al. Screen time is associated with depression and anxiety in Canadian youth. Prev Med. 2015;73:133–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wu X, Kirk SFL, Ohinmaa A, Veugelers P. Health behaviours, body weight and self-esteem among grade five students in Canada. Springerplus. 2016;5:1099.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hoare E, Milton K, Foster C, Allender S. Depression, psychological distress and Internet use among community-based Australian adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:365.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Benson LP, Williams RJ, Novick MB. Pediatric obesity and depression: a cross-sectional analysis of absolute BMI as it relates to children’s depression index scores in obese 7- to 17-year-old children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013;52:24–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kremer P, Elshaug C, Leslie E, Toumbourou JW, Patton GC, Williams J. Physical activity, leisure-time screen use and depression among children and young adolescents. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17:183–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Grøntved A, Hu FB. Television viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. JAMA. 2011;305:2448–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bickham DS, Hswen Y, Rich M. Media use and depression: exposure, household rules, and symptoms among young adolescents in the USA. Int J Public Health. 2015;60:147–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Grøntved A, Singhammer J, Froberg K, Møller NC, Pan A, Pfeiffer KA, et al. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Prev Med. 2015;81:108–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goldfield GS, Murray M, Maras D, Wilson AL, Phillips P, Kenny GP, et al. Screen time is associated with depressive symptomatology among obese adolescents: a HEARTY study. Eur J Pediatr. 2016;175:909–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Babic MJ, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Eather N, Plotnikoff RC, Lubans DR. Longitudinal associations between changes in screen-time and mental health outcomes in adolescents. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;12:124–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hoare E, Skouteris H, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Millar L, Allender S. Associations between obesogenic risk factors and depression among adolescents: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2014;15:40–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Primack BA, Swanier B, Georgiopoulos AM, Land SR, Fine MJ. Association between media use in adolescence and depression in young adulthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:181.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ohannessian CM. Media Use and adolescent psychological adjustment: an examination of gender differences. J Child Fam Stud. 2009;18:582–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kraut R, Patterson M, Lundmark V, Kiesler S, Mukopadhyay T, Scherlis W. Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? Am Psychol. 1998;53:1017–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Raudsepp L, Neissaar I, Kull M. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and physical self-worth in adolescent females. Eur J Sport Sci. 2013;13:716–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Stavrakakis N, Oldehinkel AJ, Nederhof E, Oude Voshaar RC, Verhulst FC, Ormel J, et al. Plasticity genes do not modify associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Health Psychol. 2013;32:785–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hoare E, Millar L, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Skouteris H, Nichols M, Malakellis M, et al. Depressive symptomatology, weight status and obesogenic risk among Australian adolescents: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e010072.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ishii K, Shibata A, Adachi M, Oka K. Association of physical activity and sedentary behavior with psychological well-being among Japanese children. Percept Mot Skills. 2016;123:445–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Reddon H, Meyre D, Cairney J. Physical activity and global self-worth in a longitudinal study of children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49:1606–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Conn AM, Calais C, Szilagyi M, Baldwin C, Jee SH. Youth in out-of-home care: Relation of engagement in structured group activities with social and mental health measures. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2014;36:201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jewett R, Sabiston CM, Brunet J, O’Loughlin EK, Scarapicchia T, O’Loughlin J. School sport participation during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. J Adolesc Health. 2014;55:640–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vella SA, Cliff DP, Magee CA, Okely AD. Associations between sports participation and psychological difficulties during childhood: a two-year follow up. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:304–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shin K, You S. Leisure type, leisure satisfaction and adolescents’ psychological wellbeing. J Pac Rim Psychol. 2013;7:53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hoegh Poulsen P, Biering K, Andersen JH. The association between leisure time physical activity in adolescence and poor mental health in early adulthood: a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2015;16:3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bulhões C, Ramos E, Lindert J, Dias S, Barros H. Depressive symptoms and its associated factors in 13-year-old urban adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:5026–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shriver LH, Harrist AW, Page M, Hubbs-Tait L, Moulton M, Topham G. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children. Body Image. 2013;10:78–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fararouei M, Brown IJ, Akbartabar Toori M, Estakhrian Haghighi R, Jafari J. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls. J Adolesc. 2013;36:1187–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Haugen T, Ommundsen Y, Seiler S. The relationship between physical activity and physical self-esteem in adolescents: the role of physical fitness indices. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2013;25:138–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Skrove M, Romundstad P, Indredavik MS. Resilience, lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence: the Young-HUNT study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48:407–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Altıntaş A, Aşçı FH, Kin-İşler A, Güven-Karahan B, Kelecek S, Özkan A, et al. The role of physical activity, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. 2014;41:395–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Marques R, Assis M, Maranhao Neto GA, Resende F, Palma A. Body image dissatisfaction among 14-15 year old females in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil. Int J Sport Psychol. 2014;45:39–56.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gomes R, Gonçalves S, Costa J. Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents. Rev Latinoam Psicol. 2015;47:66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kovacs E, Piko BF, Keresztes N. The interacting role of physical activity and diet control in Hungarian adolescents’ substance use and psychological health. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49:1278–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wang H, Fu J, Lu Q, Tao F, Hao J. Physical activity, body mass index and mental health in Chinese adolescents: a population based study. J Phys Fit Sports Med. 2014;54:518–25.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Park S. Associations of physical activity with sleep satisfaction, perceived stress, and problematic internet use in Korean adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1143.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Moljord IEO, Moksnes UK, Espnes GA, Hjemdal O, Eriksen L. Physical activity, resilience, and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Ment Health Phys Act. 2014;7:79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Zach S, Netz Y. Self-presentation concerns and physical activity in three-generation families. Soc Behav Personal. 2014;42:259–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sun Y, An J, Wang X, Zu P, Tao F-B. Gender- and puberty-dependent association between physical activity and depressive symptoms: national survey among Chinese adolescents. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11:1430–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hoare E, Millar L, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Skouteris H, Nichols M, Jacka F, et al. Associations between obesogenic risk and depressive symptomatology in Australian adolescents: a cross-sectional study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68:767–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Trinh L, Wong B, Faulkner GE. The independent and interactive associations of screen time and physical activity on mental health, school connectedness and academic achievement among a population-based sample of youth. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;24:17–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Esmaeilzadeh S. The association between depressive symptoms and physical status including physical activity, aerobic and muscular fitness tests in children. Environ Health Prev Med. 2015;20:434–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Reid M-A, MacCormack J, Cousins S, Freeman JG. Physical Activity, school climate, and the emotional health of adolescents: findings from 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. Sch Ment Health. 2015;7:224–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Asare M, Danquah SA. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2015;9:11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hyakutake A, Kamijo T, Misawa Y, Washizuka S, Inaba Y, Tsukahara T, et al. Cross-sectional observation of the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyles and parents’ status among Japanese junior high school students. Environ Health Prev Med. 2016;21:265–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Alghadir AH, Gabr SA, Al-Eisa E. Effects of physical activity on trace elements and depression related biomarkers in children and adolescents. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;172:299–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mak K-K, Cerin E, McManus AM, Lai C-M, Day JR, Ho S-Y. Mediating effects of body composition between physical activity and body esteem in Hong Kong adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach. Eur J Pediatr. 2016;175:31–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mouissi F. Physical activity and sport and their impact on mental health of Algerian adolescents. J Phys Educ Sport Health Recr. 2015;4:1807–13.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hayward J, Jacka FN, Skouteris H, Millar L, Strugnell C, Swinburn BA, et al. Lifestyle factors and adolescent depressive symptomatology: associations and effect sizes of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50:1064–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Baldursdottir B, Valdimarsdottir HB, Krettek A, Gylfason HF, Sigfusdottir ID. Age-related differences in physical activity and depressive symptoms among 10–19-year-old adolescents: a population based study. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2017;28:91–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Szamreta EA, Qin B, Ohman-Strickland PA, Devine KA, Stapleton JL, Ferrante JM, et al. Associations of anthropometric, behavioral, and social factors on level of body esteem in peripubertal girls. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017;38:58–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Chae SM, Kang HS, Ra JS. Body esteem is a mediator of the association between physical activity and depression in Korean adolescents. Appl Nurs Res. 2017;33:42–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    McDowell CP, MacDonncha C, Herring MP. Brief report: associations of physical activity with anxiety and depression symptoms and status among adolescents. J Adolesc. 2017;55:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Khan A, Burton NW. Is physical inactivity associated with depressive symptoms among adolescents with high screen time? Evidence from a developing country. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;12:94–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Matin N, Kelishadi R, Heshmat R, Motamed-Gorji N, Djalalinia S, Motlagh ME, et al. Joint association of screen time and physical activity on self-rated health and life satisfaction in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. Int Health. 2017;9:58–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Min JH, Lee E-Y, Spence JC, Jeon JY. Physical activity, weight status and psychological well-being among a large national sample of South Korean adolescents. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;12:44–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tajik E, Abd Latiff L, Adznam SN, Awang H, Yit Siew C, Abu Bakar AS. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017;57:1382–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    McMahon EM, Corcoran P, O’Regan G, Keeley H, Cannon M, Carli V, et al. Physical activity in European adolescents and associations with anxiety, depression and well-being. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;26:111–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Noack P, Kauper T, Benbow AEF, Eckstein K. Physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in adolescents participating in organized sports and religious groups [Internet]. Eur J Dev Psychol. 2013;10(6):663–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Karr TM, Davidson D, Bryant FB, Balague G, Bohnert AM. Sport type and interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of body dissatisfaction in high school female sport participants. Body Image. 2013;10:210–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gísladóttir TL, Matthíasdóttir Á, Kristjánsdóttir H. The effect of adolescents’ sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. J Sports Sci. 2013;31:1139–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Booker CL, Skew AJ, Sacker A, Kelly YJ. Well-being in adolescence—an association with health-related behaviors. J Early Adolesc. 2014;34:518–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fatiregun AA, Kumapayi TE. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents in a rural district in southwest Nigeria. J Adolesc. 2014;37:197–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dalton B, Wilson R, Evans JR, Cochrane S. Australian indigenous youth’s participation in sport and associated health outcomes: empirical analysis and implications. Sport Manag Rev. 2015;18:57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Booker CL, Skew AJ, Kelly YJ, Sacker A. Media use, sports participation, and well-being in adolescence: cross-sectional findings from the UK household longitudinal study. Am J Public Health. 2015;105:173–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sipos E, Jeges S, Tóth Á. Sport, sense of coherence, and self-esteem among 16 and 17-year-olds. Eur J Ment Health. 2015;10:62–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Asfour L, Koussa M, Perrino T, Stoutenberg M, Prado G. The association of organized and unorganized physical activity and sedentary behavior with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in Hispanic adolescents. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2016;21:109–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Reverdito RS, Carvalho HM, Galatti LR, Scaglia AJ, Gonçalves CE, Paes RR. Effects of youth participation in extra-curricular sport programs on perceived self-efficacy: a multilevel analysis. Percept Mot Skills. 2017;124:569–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sun Y, Liu Y, Tao F. Associations between active commuting to school, body fat, and mental well-being : population-based, cross-sectional study in China. J Adolesc Health. 2015;57:679–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Monteiro LA, Novaes JS, Santos ML, Fernandes HM. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9–15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice. J Hum Kinet. 2014;43:25–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Herman KM, Hopman WM, Sabiston CM. Physical activity, screen time and self-rated health and mental health in Canadian adolescents. Prev Med. 2015;73:112–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Badura P, Geckova AM, Sigmundova D, van Dijk JP, Reijneveld SA. When children play, they feel better: organized activity participation and health in adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1090.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hamer M, Yates T, Sherar LB, Clemes SA, Shankar A. Association of after school sedentary behaviour in adolescence with mental wellbeing in adulthood. Prev Med. 2016;87:6–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Raudsepp L. Bidirectional association between sedentary behaviour and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16:1153–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Suchert V, Hanewinkel R, Isensee B, Hansen J, Johannsen M, Krieger C, et al. Sedentary behavior, depressed affect, and indicators of mental well-being in adolescence: does the screen only matter for girls? J Adolesc. 2015;42:50–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Padilla-Moledo C, Castro-Piñero J, Ortega FB, Pulido-Martos M, Sjöström M, Ruiz JR. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2015;55:675–83.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Suchert V, Hanewinkel R, Isensee B. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents. J Adolesc. 2016;48:11–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mundy LK, Canterford L, Olds T, Allen NB, Patton GC. The association between electronic media and emotional and behavioral problems in late childhood. Acad Pediatr. 2017;17:620–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ohannessian CMC. Video game play and anxiety during late adolescence: the moderating effects of gender and social context. J Affect Disord. 2018;226:216–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Webb OJ, Benjamin CC, Gammon C, McKee HC, Biddle SJH. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and physical self-perceptions in adolescent girls: a mediation analysis. Ment Health Phys Act. 2013;6:24–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Rodriguez-Ayllon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez
    • 1
  • Fernando Estévez-López
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicolas E. Muñoz
    • 1
  • Jose Mora-Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Jairo H. Migueles
    • 1
  • Pablo Molina-García
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hanna Henriksson
    • 1
    • 5
  • Alejandra Mena-Molina
    • 1
  • Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
    • 6
    • 7
  • Andrés Catena
    • 8
    • 9
  • Marie Löf
    • 5
    • 10
  • Kirk I. Erickson
    • 11
  • David R. Lubans
    • 12
  • Francisco B. Ortega
    • 1
    • 10
  • Irene Esteban-Cornejo
    • 1
    • 13
  1. 1.PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity” research group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Nursing and Health Research, School of Health SciencesUlster UniversityNorthern IrelandUK
  4. 4.Department of Rehabilitation SciencesKU Leuven–University of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  5. 5.Department of Medical and Health SciencesLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  6. 6.Health and Social Research CenterUniversidad de Castilla-La ManchaCuencaSpain
  7. 7.Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias de la SaludTalcaChile
  8. 8.Mind, Brain, and Behaviour Research Centre-CIMCYCUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  9. 9.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  10. 10.Department of Biosciences and NutritionKarolinska Institutet, Group MLOHuddingeSweden
  11. 11.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  12. 12.Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Education and ArtsUniversity of NewcastleCallaghan CampusAustralia
  13. 13.Center for Cognitive and Brain Health, Department of PsychologyNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations