Biolo G, Maggi SP, Williams BD, Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:E514–20.
Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:E99–107.
Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle DJ, Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:E628–34.
Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:161–8.
Witard OC, Jackman SR, Breen L, Smith K, Selby A, Tipton KD. Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;99:86–95.
Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2009(107):987–92.
Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Macdonald MJ, Macdonald JR, Armstrong D, Phillips SM. Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1031–40.
Levenhagen DK, Gresham JD, Carlson MG, Maron DJ, Borel MJ, Flakoll PJ. Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;280:E982–93.
Gorissen SHM, Remond D, van Loon LJC. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion. Meat Sci. 2015;109:96–100.
Hector AJ, Marcotte GR, Churchward-Venne TA, Murphy CH, Breen L, Von Allmen M, et al. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr. 2015;145:246–52.
Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia–hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women. Clin Sci (Lond). 2011;121:267–78.
Beals JW, Sukiennik RA, Nallabelli J, Emmons RS, van Vliet S, Young JR, et al. Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:1014–22.
Smith GI, Mittendorfer B. Sexual dimorphism in skeletal muscle protein turnover. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2016(120):674–82.
Moore DR, Camera DM, Areta JL, Hawley JA. Beyond muscle hypertrophy: why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes 1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39:987–97.
Parr EB, Camera DM, Areta JL, Burke LM, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, et al. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training. PLoS One. 2014;9:e88384.
Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, Margolis LM, Murphy NE, Lin GG, Hydren JR, et al. Human muscle protein synthetic responses during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise: a comparative study of exercise modes and recovery nutrition. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0140863.
Macnaughton LS, Wardle SL, Witard OC, McGlory C, Hamilton DL, Jeromson S, et al. The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein. Physiol Rep 2016;4(15). pii:e12893.
van Vliet S, Burd NA, van Loon LJ. The skeletal muscle anabolic response to plant- versus animal-based protein consumption. J Nutr. 2015;145:1981–91.
Gorissen SH, Horstman AM, Franssen R, Crombag JJ, Langer H, Bierau J, et al. Ingestion of wheat protein increases in vivo muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men in a randomized trial. J Nutr. 2016;146:1651–9.
Reidy PT, Walker DK, Dickinson JM, Gundermann DM, Drummond MJ, Timmerman KL, et al. Protein blend ingestion following resistance exercise promotes human muscle protein synthesis. J Nutr. 2013;143:410–6.
Pennings B, Boirie Y, Senden JMG, Gijsen AP, Kuipers H, van Loon LJC. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:997–1005.
Burd NA, Yang Y, Moore DR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:958–62.
Koopman R, Crombach N, Gijsen AP, Walrand S, Fauquant J, Kies AK, et al. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:106–15.
Wall BT, Hamer HM, de Lange A, Kiskini A, Groen BBL, Senden JMG, et al. Leucine co-ingestion improves post-prandial muscle protein accretion in elderly men. Clin Nutr. 2013;32:412–9.
Devries MC, Phillips SM. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. J Food Sci. 2015;80(Suppl 1):A8–15.
West DWD, Burd NA, Coffey VG, Baker SK, Burke LM, Hawley JA, et al. Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:795–803.
Trommelen J, Kouw IWK, Holwerda AM, Snijders T, Halson SL, Rollo I, et al. Pre-sleep dietary protein-derived amino acids are incorporated in myofibrillar protein during post-exercise overnight recovery. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018;314:E457–67.
Res PT, Groen B, Pennings B, Beelen M, Wallis GA, Gijsen AP, et al. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1560–9.
Trommelen J, van Loon LJC. Pre-sleep protein ingestion to improve the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Nutrients. 2016;8(12). pii:E763.
Vliet SV, Beals JW, Martinez IG, Skinner SK, Burd NA. Achieving optimal post-exercise muscle protein remodeling in physically active adults through whole food consumption. Nutrients. 2018;10:224.
Gorissen SHM, Burd NA, Hamer HM, Gijsen AP, Groen BB, van Loon LJC. Carbohydrate coingestion delays dietary protein digestion and absorption but does not modulate postprandial muscle protein accretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:2250–8.
Staples AW, Burd NA, West DWD, Currie KD, Atherton PJ, Moore DR, et al. Carbohydrate does not augment exercise-induced protein accretion versus protein alone. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1154–61.
Pennings B, Groen BBL, van Dijk J-W, de Lange A, Kiskini A, Kuklinski M, et al. Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, resulting in greater postprandial protein retention in older men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:121–8.
Kim I-Y, Schutzler S, Schrader A, Spencer HJ, Azhar G, Ferrando AA, et al. The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E73–80.
Greenhaff PL, Karagounis LG, Peirce N, Simpson EJ, Hazell M, Layfield R, et al. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E595–604.
Trommelen J, Groen BBL, Hamer HM, de Groot LCPGM, van Loon LJC. Mechanisms in endocrinology: exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015;173:R25–34.
Elliot TA, Cree MG, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR, Tipton KD. Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:667–74.
Gorissen SHM, Burd NA, Kramer IF, van Kranenburg J, Gijsen AP, Rooyackers O, et al. Co-ingesting milk fat with micellar casein does not affect postprandial protein handling in healthy older men. Clin Nutr. 2015;36:429–37.
Edelbroek M, Horowitz M, Maddox A, Bellen J. Gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of oil in the presence of a liquid or a solid meal. J Nucl Med. 1992;33:1283–90.
van Vliet S, Shy EL, Abou Sawan S, Beals JW, West DW, Skinner SK, et al. Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:1401–12.
Stephens FB, Chee C, Wall BT, Murton AJ, Shannon CE, van Loon LJC, et al. Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with an impaired skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. Diabetes. 2015;64:1615–20.
Hammond KM, Impey SG, Currell K, Mitchell N, Shepherd SO, Jeromson S, et al. Postexercise high-fat feeding suppresses p70S6K1 activity in human skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2108–17.
Riechman SE, Andrews RD, Maclean DA, Sheather S. Statins and dietary and serum cholesterol are associated with increased lean mass following resistance training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62:1164–71.
Ziegenfuss TN, Lopez HL, Kedia A, Habowski SM, Sandrock JE, Raub B, et al. Effects of an amylopectin and chromium complex on the anabolic response to a suboptimal dose of whey protein. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:6.
Smeuninx B, Nishimura Y, Mckendry J, Limb M, Smith K, Atherton PJ, et al. The effect of acute oral phosphatidic acid ingestion on myofibrillar protein synthesis and intracellular signaling in older males. Clin Nutr. 2018;S0261–5614(18):31182–8.
Bjornsen T, Salvesen S, Berntsen S, Hetlelid KJ, Stea TH, Lohne-Seiler H, et al. Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26:755–63.
World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Management of substance abuse unit. Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
Burke LM, Read RS. A study of dietary patterns of elite Australian football players. Can J Sport Sci. 1988;13:15–9.
Watten RG. Sports, physical exercise and use of alcohol. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995;5:364–8.
Steiner JL, Lang CH. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308:E699–712.
Sundgot-Borgen J, Garthe I. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S101–14.
Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103:738–46.
Weinheimer EM, Sands LP, Campbell WW. A systematic review of the separate and combined effects of energy restriction and exercise on fat-free mass in middle-aged and older adults: implications for sarcopenic obesity. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:375–88.
Backx EMP, Tieland M, van den Borgonjen Berg KJ, Claessen PR, van Loon LJC, de Groot LCPGM. Protein intake and lean body mass preservation during energy intake restriction in overweight older adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:299–304.
Hector AJ, McGlory C, Damas F, Mazara N, Baker SK, Phillips SM. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. FASEB J. 2018;32:265–75.
Areta JL, Burke LM, Camera DM, West DWD, Crawshay S, Moore DR, et al. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E989–97.
Garthe I, Raastad T, Refsnes PE, Koivisto A, Sundgot-Borgen J. Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21:97–104.
Elia M, Stubbs RJ, Henry CJ. Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. Obes Res. 1999;7:597–604.
Pasiakos SM, Cao JJ, Margolis LM, Sauter ER, Whigham LD, McClung JP, et al. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB J. 2013;27:3837–47.
Hursel R, Martens EAP, Gonnissen HKJ, Hamer HM, Senden JMG, van Loon LJC, et al. Prolonged adaptation to a low or high protein diet does not modulate basal muscle protein synthesis rates—a substudy. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0137183.
Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:402–12.
McGlory C, Wardle SL, Macnaughton LS, Witard OC, Scott F, Dick J, et al. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men. Physiol Rep. 2016;4(6). pii:e12715.
Miller BF, Olesen JL, Hansen M, Dossing S, Crameri RM, Welling RJ, et al. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise. J Physiol. 2005;567:1021–33.
Burd NA, West DWD, Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Staples AW, Prior T, et al. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young men. J Nutr. 2011;141:568–73.
Trommelen J, Holwerda AM, Kouw IWK, Langer H, Halson SL, Rollo I, et al. Resistance exercise augments postprandial overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2517–25.
Pennings B, Koopman R, Beelen M, Senden JMG, Saris WHM, van Loon LJC. Exercising before protein intake allows for greater use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for de novo muscle protein synthesis in both young and elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:322–31.
Atherton PJ, Etheridge T, Watt PW, Wilkinson D, Selby A, Rankin D, et al. Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1080–8.
Churchward-Venne TA, Burd NA, Mitchell CJ, West DWD, Philp A, Marcotte GR, et al. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J Physiol. 2012;590:2751–65.
Moore DR, Tang JE, Burd NA, Rerecich T, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise. J Physiol. 2009;587:897–904.
Glover EI, Phillips SM, Oates BR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA, Selby A, et al. Immobilization induces anabolic resistance in human myofibrillar protein synthesis with low and high dose amino acid infusion. J Physiol. 2008;586:6049–61.
Devries MC, Breen L, Allmen Von M, Macdonald MJ, Moore DR, Offord EA, et al. Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men. Physiol Rep. 2015;3(8). pii:e12493.
Breen L, Stokes KA, Churchward-Venne TA, Moore DR, Baker SK, Smith K, et al. Two weeks of reduced activity decreases leg lean mass and induces “anabolic resistance” of myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy elderly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2604–12.
Wall BT, Dirks ML, Snijders T, van Dijk J-W, Fritsch M, Verdijk LB, et al. Short-term muscle disuse lowers myofibrillar protein synthesis rates and induces anabolic resistance to protein ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E137–47.
Wall BT, Morton JP, van Loon LJC. Strategies to maintain skeletal muscle mass in the injured athlete: nutritional considerations and exercise mimetics. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15:53–62.
Tipton KD. Nutritional support for exercise-induced injuries. Sports Med. 2015;45(Suppl 1):S93–104.
Volpi E, Sheffield-Moore M, Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR. Basal muscle amino acid kinetics and protein synthesis in healthy young and older men. JAMA. 2001;286:1206–12.
Wall BT, Gorissen SH, Pennings B, Koopman R, Groen BBL, Verdijk LB, et al. Aging is accompanied by a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion. PLoS One. 2015;10:e140903–0140913.
Churchward-Venne TA, Holwerda AM, Phillips SM, van Loon LJC. What is the optimal amount of protein to support post-exercise skeletal muscle reconditioning in the older adult? Sports Med. 2016;46:1205–12.
Moore DR, Churchward-Venne TA, Witard O, Breen L, Burd NA, Tipton KD, et al. Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70:57–62.
Lee SJ, Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Relation between whole-body and regional measures of human skeletal muscle. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1215–21.
West DWD, Burd NA, Churchward-Venne TA, Camera DM, Mitchell CJ, Baker SK, et al. Sex-based comparisons of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise in the fed state. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2012(112):1805–13.
Dreyer HC, Fujita S, Glynn EL, Drummond MJ, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Resistance exercise increases leg muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling independent of sex. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;199:71–81.
Smith GI, Reeds DN, Hall AM, Chambers KT, Finck BN, Mittendorfer B. Sexually dimorphic effect of aging on skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Biol Sex Differ. 2012;3:11.
Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Greco EA, Gianfrilli D, Bonifacio V, Isidori A, et al. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63:280–93.
Smith GI, Atherton P, Villareal DT, Frimel TN, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, et al. Differences in muscle protein synthesis and anabolic signaling in the postabsorptive state and in response to food in 65–80 year old men and women. PLoS One. 2008;3:e1875.
Guillet C, Delcourt I, Rance M, Giraudet C, Walrand S, Bedu M, et al. Changes in basal and insulin and amino acid response of whole body and skeletal muscle proteins in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3044–50.
Murton AJ, Marimuthu K, Mallinson JE, Selby AL, Smith K, Rennie MJ, et al. Obesity appears to be associated with altered muscle protein synthetic and breakdown responses to increased nutrient delivery in older men, but not reduced muscle mass or contractile function. Diabetes. 2015;64:3160–71.
Tran L, Kras KA, Hoffman N, Ravichandran J, Dickinson JM, D’Lugos A, et al. Lower fasted-state but greater increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to elevated plasma amino acids in obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018;26:1179–87.
Smeuninx B, Mckendry J, Wilson D, Martin U, Breen L. Age-related anabolic resistance of myofibrillar protein synthesis is exacerbated in obese inactive individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:3535–45.
Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RR. An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:E122–9.
Masiero E, Agatea L, Mammucari C, Blaauw B, Loro E, Komatsu M, et al. Autophagy is required to maintain muscle mass. Cell Metab. 2009;10:507–15.
Castets P, Lin S, Rion N, Di Fulvio S, Romanino K, Guridi M, et al. Sustained activation of mTORC1 in skeletal muscle inhibits constitutive and starvation-induced autophagy and causes a severe, late-onset myopathy. Cell Metab. 2013;17:731–44.
Kitajima Y, Tashiro Y, Suzuki N, Warita H, Kato M, Tateyama M, et al. Proteasome dysfunction induces muscle growth defects and protein aggregation. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:5204–17.
Bell RAV, Al-Khalaf M, Megeney LA. The beneficial role of proteolysis in skeletal muscle growth and stress adaptation. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:16.
Wagenmakers AJ. Tracers to investigate protein and amino acid metabolism in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:987–1000.
Burd NA, Hamer HM, Pennings B, Pellikaan WF, Senden JMG, Gijsen AP, et al. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow. PLoS One. 2013;8:e68109.
Smeets JSJ, Horstman AMH, Schijns OEMG, Dings JTA, Hoogland G, Gijsen AP, et al. Brain tissue plasticity: protein synthesis rates of the human brain. Brain. 2018;141:1122–9.
Nair KS, Halliday D, Griggs RC. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans. Am J Physiol. 1988;254:E208–13.
Holwerda AM, Kouw IWK, Trommelen J, Halson SL, Wodzig WK, Verdijk LB, et al. Physical activity performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to presleep protein ingestion in older men. J Nutr. 2016;146:1307–14.
Nair KS, Ford GC, Ekberg K, Fernqvist-Forbes E, Wahren J. Protein dynamics in whole body and in splanchnic and leg tissues in type I diabetic patients. J Clin Investig. 1995;95:2926–37.
Adey D, Kumar R, McCarthy JT, Nair KS. Reduced synthesis of muscle proteins in chronic renal failure. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;278:E219–25.
Kim I-Y, Shin Y-A, Schutzler SE, Azhar G, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA. Quality of meal protein determines anabolic response in older adults. Clin Nutr. 2017;37:2076–83.
Kim I-Y, Schutzler S, Schrader A, Spencer H, Kortebein P, Deutz NEP, et al. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308:E21–8.
Pennings B, Pellikaan WF, Senden JMG, van Vuuren AM, Sikkema J, van Loon LJC. The production of intrinsically labeled milk and meat protein is feasible and provides functional tools for human nutrition research. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:4366–73.
Elango R, Ball RO, Pencharz PB. Recent advances in determining protein and amino acid requirements in humans. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(Suppl 2):S22–30.
Mazzulla M, Volterman KA, Packer JE, Wooding DJ, Brooks JC, Kato H, et al. Whole-body net protein balance plateaus in response to increasing protein intakes during post-exercise recovery in adults and adolescents. Nutr Metab. 2018;15:62.
Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Parise G, Bellamy L, Baker SK, Smith K, et al. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men. PLoS One. 2014;9:e89431.
Damas F, Phillips SM, Libardi CA, Vechin FC, Lixandrao ME, Jannig PR, et al. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage. J Physiol. 2016;594:5209–22.
Brook MS, Wilkinson DJ, Mitchell WK, Lund JN, Szewczyk NJ, Greenhaff PL, et al. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. FASEB J. 2015;29:4485–96.