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Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 1357–1368 | Cite as

Modelling Movement Energetics Using Global Positioning System Devices in Contact Team Sports: Limitations and Solutions

  • Adrian J. Gray
  • Kathleen Shorter
  • Cloe Cummins
  • Aron Murphy
  • Mark Waldron
Review Article

Abstract

Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model’s principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No financial support was received for the conduct of this study or preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Adrian J. Gray, Kathleen Shorter, Aron Murphy and Mark Waldron have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this article. Cloe Cummins has previously held employment with a micro-technology manufacturer. Cloe Cummins is currently an external consultant to a micro-technology manufacturer in which she produces internal reports on micro-technology device validity and reliability.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian J. Gray
    • 1
  • Kathleen Shorter
    • 1
  • Cloe Cummins
    • 1
  • Aron Murphy
    • 1
  • Mark Waldron
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Science and TechnologyUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  2. 2.School of Sport, Health and Applied ScienceSt Mary’s UniversityLondonUK

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