Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci. 2005;23:583–92.
Iaia FM, Rampinini E, Bangsbo J. High-intensity training in football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4:291–306.
Coffey VG, Hawley JA. The molecular bases of training adaptation. Sports Med. 2007;37:737–63.
Foster C, Florhaug JA, Franklin J, Gottschall L, Hrovatin LA, Parker S, Doleshal P, Dodge C. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15:109–15.
Soligard T, Schwellnus M, Alonso JM, Bahr R, Clarsen B, Dijkstra HP, Gabbett T, Gleeson M, Hägglund M, Hutchinson MR, Van Rensburg CJ. How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1030–41.
Schwellnus M, Soligard T, Alonso JM, Bahr R, Clarsen B, Dijkstra HP, Gabbett TJ, Gleeson M, Hägglund M, Hutchinson MR, Van Rensburg CJ. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1043–52.
Halson SL. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Med. 2014;44:139–47.
Gabbett TJ. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:273–80.
Drew MK, Finch CF. The relationship between training load and injury, illness and soreness: A systematic and literature review. Sports Med. 2016;46:861–83.
Jones CM, Griffiths PC, Mellalieu SD. Training load and fatigue marker associations with injury and illness: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Sports Med. 2016;108:113.
Jaspers A, Brink MS, Probst SGM, Frencken WGP, Helsen WF. Relationships between training load indicators and training outcomes in professional soccer. Sports Med. 2016;47:533–44.
Gabbett TJ, Whyte DG, Hartwig TB, Wescombe H, Naughton GA. The relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in adolescent male football players. Sports Med. 2014;44:989–1003.
Quarrie KL, Raftery M, Blackie J, Cook CJ, Fuller CW, Gabbett TJ, Gray AJ, Gill N, Hennessy L, Kemp S, Lambert M. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:421–7.
Bourdon PC, Cardinale M, Murray A, Gastin P, Kellmann M, Varley MC, Gabbett TJ, Coutts AJ, Burgess DJ, Gregson W, Cable NT. Monitoring athlete training loads: consensus statement. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S2-161–70.
Robertson S, Bartlett JD, Gastin PB. Red, Amber, or Green? Athlete monitoring in team sport: the need for decision-support systems. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S2-73–9.
Gabbett HT, Windt J, Gabbett TJ. Cost-benefit analysis underlies training decisions in elite sport. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1291–2.
Burgess DJ. The research doesn’t always apply: Practical solutions to evidence-based training-load monitoring in elite team sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S2136–41.
Vanrenterghem J, Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Drust B. Training load monitoring in team sports: A novel framework separating physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways. Sports Med. 2017;110:1495 (3rd ed).
Bartlett JD, O’Connor F, Pitchford N, Torres-Ronda L, Robertson SJ. Relationships between internal and external training load in team sport athletes: evidence for an individualised approach. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(2):230–4.
Taylor KL, Weston M, Batterham AM. Evaluating intervention fidelity: An example from a high-intensity interval training study. PLoS One. 2015;10:125166 (Piacentini MF, editor).
Castillo D, Weston M, McLaren SJ, Cámara J, Yanci J. Relationships between internal and external match load indicators in soccer match officials. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0392.
Lovell TWJ, Sirotic AC, Impellizzeri FM, Coutts AJ. Factors affecting perception of effort (session rating of perceived exertion) during rugby league training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:62–9.
Casamichana D, Castellano J. The relationship between intensity indicators in small-sided soccer games. J Hum Kinet. 2015;46:119–28.
Casamichana D, Castellano J, Calleja-González J, San Román J, Castagna C. Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:369–74.
Gallo T, Cormack S, Gabbett T, Williams M, Lorenzen C. Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers. J Sports Sci. 2015;33:467–75.
Gaudino P, Iaia FM, Strudwick AJ, Hawkins RD, Alberti G, Atkinson G, Gregson W. Factors influencing perception of effort (session rating of perceived exertion) during elite soccer training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10:860–4.
Pustina AA, Sato K, Liu C, Kavanaugh AA, Sams ML, Liu J, Uptmore KD, Stone MH. Establishing a duration standard for the calculation of session rating of perceived exertion in NCAA division I men’s soccer. J Trainol. 2017;6:26–30.
Scanlan AT, Wen N, Tucker PS, Dalbo VJ. The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:2397–405.
Scott BR, Lockie RG, Knight TJ, Clark AC, Janse de Jonge AK. A comparison of methods to quantify the in-season training load of professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:195–202.
Scott TJ, Black CR, Quinn J, Coutts AJ. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training in Australian football: a comparison of the CR10 and CR100 scales. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:270–6.
Weaving D, Marshall P, Earle K, Nevill A, Abt G. Combining internal- and external-training-load measures in professional rugby league. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:905–12.
Weaving D, Jones B, Till K, Marshall P, Abt G. Multiple measures are needed to quantify training loads in professional rugby league. Int J Sports Med. 2017;38:735–40.
Weston M, Siegler J, Bahnert A, McBrien J, Lovell R. The application of differential ratings of perceived exertion to Australian Football League matches. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:704–8.
Coutts AJ, Sirotic AC, Knowles H, Catterick C. Monitoring training loads in professional rugby league. In: Reilly T, Korkusuz F, editors. Science and football VI: the proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Science and Football. London: Routledge; 2008. p. 272–7.
Silva P, Santos ED, Grishin M, Rocha JM. Validity of heart rate-based indices to measure training load and intensity in elite football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002057.
Sparks M, Coetzee B, Gabbett TJ. Internal and external match loads of university-level soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31:1072–7.
Nassis GP, Gabbett TJ. Is workload associated with injuries and performance in elite football? A call for action. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:486–7.
Lambert MI, Borresen J. Measuring training load in sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5:406–11.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The Prima Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097.
Groslambert A, Mahon AD. Perceived exertion: influence of age and cognitive development. Sports Med. 2006;36:911–28.
Robertson RJ, Noble BJ. Perception of physical exertion: methods, mediators, and applications. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1997;25:407–52.
Borg G, Borg E. A new generation of scaling methods: level-anchored ratio scaling. Psychologica. 2001;28:15–45.
Impellizzeri FM, Borg E, Coutts AJ. Intersubjective comparisons are possible with an accurate use of the Borg CR scales. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6:2–7.
Banister EW. Modeling elite athletic performance. In: MacDougall JD, Wenger HA, Green HJ, editors. Physiological testing of the high performance athlete. 2nd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books; 1991. p. 403–24.
Edwards S. High performance training and racing. In: Edwards S, editor. The heart rate monitor book. Sacramento: Feet Fleet Press; 1993. p. 113–23.
Manzi V, Iellamo F, Impellizzeri F, D’Ottavio S, Castagna C. Relation between individualized training impulses and performance in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:2090–6.
Senn SJ. Overstating the evidence—double counting in meta-analysis and related problems. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009;9:10.
Bland MJ, Altman DG. Statistics notes: calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations: part 1—correlation within subjects. BMJ. 1995;310:446.
Bland MJ, Altman DG. Statistics notes: correlation, regression, and repeated data. BMJ. 1994;308:896.
Pyne DB. Multidisciplinary and collaborative research in sports physiology and performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7:1.
McLaren SJ, Weston M, Smith A, Cramb R, Portas MD. Variability of physical performance and player match loads in professional rugby union. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19:493–7.
Weston M. Difficulties in determining the dose–response nature of competitive soccer matches. J Athl Enhanc. 2013;02:1–2.
Persaud R, Bland MJ, Altman DG. Correlation, regression, and repeated data. BMJ. 1994;308:1510.
Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:3–13.
Knapp G, Hartung J. Improved tests for a random effects meta-regression with a single covariate. Stat Med. 2003;22:2693–710.
Higgins JPT. Commentary: heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be expected and appropriately quantified. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:1158–60.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:177–88.
Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Chichester: Wiley; 2008.
Aloe AM, Becker BJ, Pigott TD. An alternative to R2 for assessing linear models of effect size. Res Synth Methods. 2010;1:272–83.
Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1:50–7.
Hopkins WG. A spreadsheet for deriving a confidence interval, mechanistic inference and clinical inference from a P value. Sportscience. 2007;11:16–21.
Fisher RA. On the probable error of a coefficient of correlation deduced from a small sample. Metron. 1921;1:3–32.
Smith TB, Hopkins WG. Variability and predictability of finals times of elite rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:2155–60.
Marcora S. Perception of effort during exercise is independent of afferent feedback from skeletal muscles, heart, and lungs. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:2060–2.
Gabbett TJ. Relationship between accelerometer load, collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort activity in rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:3424–31.
Rampinini E, Alberti G, Fiorenza M, Riggio M, Sassi R, Borges TO, Coutts AJ. Accuracy of GPS devices for measuring high-intensity running in field-based team sports. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36:49–53.
Johnston RJ, Watsford ML, Kelly SJ, Pine MJ, Spurrs RW. Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:1649–55.
Buchheit M, Laursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part I: cardiopulmonary emphasis. Sports Med. 2013;43:313–38.
Abt G, Lovell R. The use of individualized speed and intensity thresholds for determining the distance run at high-intensity in professional soccer. J Sports Sci. 2009;27:893–8.
Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Med. 2009;39:469–90.
Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey RJ. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:44–51.
Roe G, Halkier M, Beggs C, Till K, Jones B. The use of accelerometers to quantify collisions and running demands of rugby union match-play. Int J Perf Anal Sport. 2016;16:590–601.
Cardinale M, Varley MC. Wearable training-monitoring technology: Applications, challenges, and opportunities. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S255–62.
Robertson S, Kremer P, Aisbett B, Tran J, Cerin E. Consensus on measurement properties and feasibility of performance tests for the exercise and sport sciences: a Delphi study. Sports Med Open. 2017;3:2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-016-0071-y.
White AD, MacFarlane N. Time-on-pitch or full-game GPS analysis procedures for elite field hockey? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:549–55.
Gabbett TJ. Influence of ball-in-play time on the activity profiles of rugby league match-play. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:716–21.
Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, Di Salvo V. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31:237–42.
Kempton T, Sirotic AC, Coutts AJ. Between match variation in professional rugby league competition. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;7:404–7.
Kempton T, Sullivan C, Bilsborough JC, Cordy J, Coutts AJ. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:109–13.
Hutchinson JC, Tenenbaum G. Perceived effort—Can it be considered gestalt? Psychol Sport Exerc. 2006;7:463–76.
McLaren SJ, Smith A, Spears IR, Weston M. A detailed quantification of differential ratings of perceived exertion during team-sport training. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20:290–5.
McLaren SJ, Graham M, Spears IR, Weston M. The sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion as measures of internal load. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(3):404–6.
Gallo TF, Cormack SJ, Gabbett TJ, Lorenzen CH. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players. J Sports Sci. 2015;34:1445–51.
Ritchie D, Hopkins WG, Buchheit M, Cordy J, Bartlett JD. Quantification of training load during return to play following upper and lower body injury in Australian Rules football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:634–41.
Akenhead R, Nassis GP. Training load and player monitoring in high-level football: Current practice and perceptions. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:587–93.
Archie JP. Mathematic coupling of data: a common source of error. Ann Surg. 1981;193:296–303.
Pearson K. On a form of spurious correlation which may arise when indices are used in the measurement of organs. Proc R Soc Lond. 1896;60:489–502.
Atkinson G, Nevill AM. Selected issues in the design and analysis of sport performance research. J Sports Sci. 2001;19:811–27.
Malone S, Hughes B, Collins K. The influence of exercise to rest ratios on physical and physiological performance during hurling specific small-sided games. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001887.
Johnston RD, Gabbett TJ. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2789–95.
Milburn PD. The kinetics of rugby union scrummaging. J Sports Sci. 2008;8:47–60.
Kraemer WJ, Vescovi JD, Dixon P. The physiological basis of wrestling: Implications for conditioning programs. Natl Strength Cond Assoc J. 2004;26:10–5.
Malone JJ, Lovell R, Varley MC, Coutts AJ. Unpacking the black box: applications and considerations for using GPS devices in sport. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S218–26.
Fanchini M, Ferraresi I, Modena R, Schena F, Coutts AJ, Impellizzeri FM. Use of the CR100 scale for session rating of perceived exertion in soccer and its interchangeability with the CR10. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:388–92.
Akubat I, Patel E, Barrett S, Abt G. Methods of monitoring the training and match load and their relationship to changes in fitness in professional youth soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2012;30:1473–80.
Malone S, Doran D, Akubat I, Collins K. The integration of internal and external training load metrics in hurling. J Hum Kinet. 2016;53:1–11.
Torreño N, Munguía-Izquierdo D, Coutts AJ, de Villarreal ES, Asian-Clemente J, Suarez-Arrones L. Relationship between external and internal loads of professional soccer players during full matches in official games using global positioning systems and heart-rate technology. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:940–6.
Suarez-Arrones L, Torreño N, Requena B, Sáez De Villarreal E, Casamichana D, Barbero-Alvarez JC, Munguia-Izquierdo D. Match-play activity profile in professional soccer players during official games and the relationship between external and internal load. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2015;55:1417–22.
Akubat I, Barrett S, Abt G. Integrating the internal and external training loads in soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:457–62.
Atkinson G, Batterham A. The use of ratios and percentage changes in sports medicine: time for a rethink? Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:505–6.
Tanner JM. Fallacy of per-weight and per-surface area standards, and their relation to spurious correlation. J Appl Physiol. 1949;2:1–15.
Williams S, Trewartha G, Cross MJ, Kemp SPT, Stokes KA. Monitoring what matters: a systematic process for selecting training-load measures. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:S2-101–6.
Atkinson G, Batterham AM. True and false interindividual differences in the physiological response to an intervention. Exp Physiol. 2015;100:577–88.
Hopkins WG. Individual responses made easy. J Appl Physiol. 2015;118:1444–6.
Bland MJ, Altman DG. Statistics notes: calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations: part 2—correlation between subjects. BMJ. 1995;310:633.
Vandenbogaerde TJ, Hopkins WG. Monitoring acute effects on athletic performance with mixed linear modeling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1339–44.
Lazic SE. The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis? BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:5.