Volume for Muscle Hypertrophy and Health Outcomes: The Most Effective Variable in Resistance Training
- 2.1k Downloads
Resistance training is the most effective method to increase muscle mass. It has also been shown to promote many health benefits. Although it is deemed safe and of clinical relevance for treating and preventing a vast number of diseases, a time-efficient and minimal dose of exercise has been the focus of a great number of research studies. Similarly, an inverted U-shaped relationship between training dose/volume and physiological response has been hypothesized to exist. However, the majority of available evidence supports a clear dose-response relationship between resistance training volume and physiological responses, such as muscle hypertrophy and health outcomes. Additionally, there is a paucity of data to support the inverted U-shaped response. Although it may indeed exist, it appears to be much more plastic than previously thought. The overarching principle argued herein is that volume is the most easily modifiable variable that has the most evidenced-based response with important repercussions, be these muscle hypertrophy or health-related outcomes.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.
Conflict of Interest
Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, Belmiro Freitas de Salles and Gabriel Trajano declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
- 9.Williams MA, Haskell WL, Ades PA, et al. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation. 2007;116:572–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Thompson WR. Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2017. ACSM’s Heal Fit J. 2016;20:8–17.Google Scholar
- 27.Schoenfeld BJ, Ratamess NA, Peterson MD, et al. Effect of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaption in well trained men. J Sports Sci. 2014;28:2909–18.Google Scholar
- 28.Angleri V, Ugrinowitsch C, Libardi CA. Crescent pyramid and drop-set systems do not promote greater strength gains, muscle hypertrophy, and changes on muscle architecture compared with traditional resistance training in well-trained men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:359–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Chestnut JL, Docherty D. The effects of 4 and 10 repetition maximum weight-training protocols on neuromuscular adaptations in untrained men. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13:353–9.Google Scholar
- 60.Ostrowski KJ, Wilson GJ, Weatherby R, et al. The effect of weight training volume on hormonal output and muscular size and function. J Strength Cond Res. 1997;11:148–54.Google Scholar
- 62.Strasser B, Siebert U, Schobersberger W. Resistance training in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of resistance training on metabolic clustering in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism. Sports Med. 2010;40:397–415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 67.Phillips SM, Glover EI, Rennie MJ. Alterations of protein turnover underlying disuse atrophy in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 1985;2009(107):645–54.Google Scholar