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Sports Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 11, pp 2245–2267 | Cite as

Compression Garments and Recovery from Exercise: A Meta-Analysis

  • Freddy Brown
  • Conor Gissane
  • Glyn Howatson
  • Ken van Someren
  • Charles Pedlar
  • Jessica Hill
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Adequate recovery from exercise is essential to maintain performance throughout training and competition. While compression garments (CG) have been demonstrated to accelerate recovery, the literature is clouded by conflicting results and uncertainty over the optimal conditions of use.

Objectives

A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of CG on the recovery of strength, power and endurance performance following an initial bout of resistance, running, or non-load-bearing endurance (metabolic) exercise.

Methods

Change-score data were extracted from 23 peer-reviewed studies on healthy participants. Recovery was quantified by converting into standardized mean effect sizes (ES) [±95% confidence interval (CI)]. The effects of time (0–2, 2–8, 24, >24 h), pressure (<15 vs. ≥15 mmHg) and training status (trained vs. untrained) were also assessed.

Results

CG demonstrated small, very likely benefits [p < 0.001, ES = 0.38 (95% CI 0.25, 0.51)], which were not influenced by pressure (p = 0.06) or training status (p = 0.64). Strength recovery was subject to greater benefits than other outcomes [p < 0.001, ES = 0.62 (95% CI 0.39, 0.84)], displaying large, very likely benefits at 2–8 h [p < 0.001, ES = 1.14 (95% CI 0.72, 1.56)] and >24 h [p < 0.001, ES = 1.03 (95% CI 0.48, 1.57)]. Recovery from using CG was greatest following resistance exercise [p < 0.001, ES = 0.49 (95% CI 0.37, 0.61)], demonstrating the largest, very likely benefits at >24 h [p < 0.001, ES = 1.33 (95% CI 0.80, 1.85)]. Recovery from metabolic exercise (p = 0.01) was significant, although large, very likely benefits emerged only for cycling performance at 24 h post-exercise [p = 0.01, ES = 1.05 (95% CI 0.25, 1.85)].

Conclusion

The largest benefits resulting from CG were for strength recovery from 2 to 8 h and >24 h. Considering exercise modality, compression most effectively enhanced recovery from resistance exercise, particularly at time points >24 h. The use of CG would also be recommended to enhance next-day cycling performance. The benefits of CG in relation to applied pressures and participant training status are unclear and limited by the paucity of reported data.

Keywords

Resistance Training Resistance Exercise Muscle Damage Eccentric Exercise Exercise Modality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflicts of interest

Freddy Brown, Conor Gissane, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, Charles Pedlar and Jessica Hill declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sport, Health and Applied ScienceSt Mary’s University CollegeTwickenhamUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Health and Life of SciencesNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.GSK Human Performance LabGlaxoSmithKline Consumer HealthcareLondonUK
  4. 4.Water Research GroupNorthwest UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

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