Skip to main content

Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways

Abstract

There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Bompa TO, Buzzichelli C. Periodization training for sports. 3rd ed. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Wang T, Lin Z, Day RE, Gardiner B, Landao-Bassonga E, Rubenson J, et al. Programmable mechanical stimulation influences tendon homeostasis in a bioreactor system. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110(5):1495–507.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Cummins C, Orr R, O’Connor H, West C. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review. Sport Med. 2013;43(10):1025–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Duffield R, Reid M, Baker J, Spratford W. Accuracy and reliability of GPS devices for measurement of movement patterns in confined spaces for court-based sports. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13(5):523–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Gray AJ, Jenkins D, Andrews MH, Taaffe DR, Glover ML. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring distance travelled in field-based team sports. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(12):1319–25.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Johnston RJ, Watsford ML, Pine MJ, Spurrs RW, Sporri D. Assessment of 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for measuring athlete movement demands. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2013;13(1):262–74.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Köklü Y, Arslan Y, Alemdaroglu U, Duffield R. The accuracy and reliability of Spi ProX global positioning system devices for measuring movement demands of team sports. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2015;55(5):471–7.

    Google Scholar 

  8. MacLeod H, Morris J, Nevill A, Sunderland C. The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(2):121–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Portas MD, Harley JA, Barnes CA, Rush CJ. The validity and reliability of 1-Hz and 5-Hz global positioning systems for linear, multidirectional, and soccer-specific activities. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(4):448–58.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Varley MC, Fairweather IH, Aughey RJ. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(2):121–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. de Koning JJ, Bobbert MF, Foster C. Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2(3):266–77.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. De Koning JJ, Foster C, Lampen J, Hettinga F, Bobbert MF, Koning D, et al. Experimental evaluation of the power balance model of speed skating. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98:227–33.

    Google Scholar 

  13. di Prampero PE. Sprint running: a new energetic approach. J Exp Biol. 2005;208(14):2809–16.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Osgnach C, Poser S, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, Di Prampero PE. Energy cost and metabolic power in elite soccer: a new match analysis approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(1):170–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Gaudino P, Iaia FM, Alberti G, Strudwick AJ, Atkinson G, Gregson W. Monitoring training in elite soccer players : systematic bias between running speed and metabolic power data. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(11):963–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Sheppard JM, Young WB, Doyle TLA, Sheppard TA, Newton RU. An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(4):342–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Akenhead R, French D, Thompson KG, Hayes PR. The acceleration dependent validity and reliability of 10 Hz GPS. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(5):562–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Stevens TGA, De Ruiter CJ, Van Niel C, Van De Rhee R, Beek PJ, Savelsbergh GJP. Measuring acceleration and deceleration in soccer-specific movements using a local position measurement (l pm) system. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(3):446–56.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Bloomfield J, Polman R, O’Donoghue P. Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer. J Sport Sci Med. 2007;6(1):63–70.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Barrett S, Midgley A, Lovell R. PlayerLoadTM: reliability, convergent validity, and influence of unit position during treadmill running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(6):945–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey RJ. The reliability of MinimaxX accelerometers for measuring physical activity in Australian football. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2011;6:311–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kelly SJ, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, Austin D, Rennie M. Reliability and validity of sports accelerometers during static and dynamic testing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(1):106–11.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Barron D, Atkins S, Edmundson C, Fewtrell D. Accelerometer derived load according to playing position in competitive youth soccer. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2014;14(3):734–43.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cormack SJ, Smith RL, Mooney MM, Young WB, O’Brien BJ. Accelerometer load as a measure of activity profile in different standards of netball match play. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(2):283–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Page R, Marrin K, Brogden C, Greig M. Biomechanical and physiological response to a contemporary soccer match-play simulation. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(10):2860–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Wundersitz DWT, Gastin PB, Richter C, Robertson SJ, Netto KJ. Validity of a trunk-mounted accelerometer to assess peak accelerations during walking, jogging and running. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(5):382–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Wundersitz DWT, Gastin PB, Robertson S, Davey PC, Netto KJ. Validation of a trunk-mounted accelerometer to measure peak impacts during team sport movements. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36(9):742–6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey RJ. Quantifying external load in australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(1):44–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Polglaze T, Dawson B, Hiscock DJ, Peeling P. A comparative analysis of accelerometer and time—motion data in elite men’s hockey training and competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(4):446–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Terje D, Jørgen I, Gertjan E, Geir Håvard H, Ulrik W. Player load, acceleration, and deceleration during 45 competitive matches of elite soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;30(2):1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Gaudino P, Iaia FM, Strudwick AJ, Hawkins RD, Alberti G, Atkinson G, et al. Factors influencing perception of effort (session-RPE) during elite soccer training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(7):860–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Ehrmann FE, Duncan CS, Sindhusake D, Franzsen WN, Greene DA. GPS and injury prevention in professional soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(2):360–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Colby MJ, Dawson B, Heasman J, Rogalski B, Gabbett TJ. Accelerometer and GPS-derived running loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(8):2244–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Kempton T, Sullivan C, Bilsborough JC, Cordy J, Coutts AJ. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(1):109–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Scott BR, Lockie RG, Knight TJ, Clark AC, Janse de Jonge XA. A comparison of methods to quantify the in-season training load of professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(2):195–202.

  36. Chandler PT, Pinder SJ, Curran JD, Gabbett TJ. Physical demands of training and competition in collegiate netball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(10):2732–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Polley CS, Cormack SJ, Gabbett TJ, Polglaze T. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(1):126–36.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Scanlan AT, Wen N, Tucker PS, Dalbo VJ. The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2397–405.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Sullivan C, Bilsborough JC, Cianciosi M, Hocking J, Cordy JT, Coutts AJ. Factors affecting match performance in professional Australian football. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2014;9:561–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Chen KY, Bassett DR. The technology of accelerometry-based activity monitors: current and future. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11 Suppl.):S490–500.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Yang CC, Hsu YL. A review of accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring. Sensors. 2010;10(8):7772–88.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Casamichana D, Castellano J, Calleja-Gonzalez J, San Roman J, Castagna C. Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):369–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Gallo T, Cormack S, Gabbett T, Williams M, Lorenzen C. Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(5):467–75.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Weston M. Difficulties in determining the dose-response nature of competitive soccer matches. J Athl Enhanc. 2013;2(1):1–2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Walker EJ, McAinch AJ, Sweeting A, Aughey RJ. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(2):177–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Eusterwiemann E, Drust B, Lisboa PJ, Vanrenterghem J. The relationship between whole-body external loading and body-worn accelerometry during team sports movements. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(1):18–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Di Prampero PE, Atchou G, Brückner J-C, Moia C. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1986;55(3):259–66.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Wallace LK, Slattery KM, Coutts AJ. A comparison of methods for quantifying training load: relationships between modelled and actual training responses. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(1):11–20.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Cardinale M, Varley MC. Wearable training monitoring technology: applications, challenges and opportunities. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0423.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):583–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Borresen J, Lambert MI. The quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sport Med. 2009;39(9):779–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Sport Med. 2008;38(1):37–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Ekblom B. Applied physiology of soccer. Sport Med. 1986;3(1):50–60.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Gabbett TJ. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:273–80.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Mclaren SJ, Weston M, Smith A, Cramb R, Portas MD. Variability of physical performance and player match loads in professional rugby union. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;19(6):493–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Sassi A, Marcora SM. Use of RPE-based training load in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(6):1042–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Saxby DJ, Bryant AL, Modenese L, Gerus P, Killen B, Konrath J, et al. Tibiofemoral contact forces in the anterior cruciate ligament–reconstructed knee. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(11):2195–206.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Weston M, Siegler J, Bahnert A, McBrien J, Lovell R. The application of differential ratings of perceived exertion to Australian Football League matches. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(6):704–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. McNamara DJ, Gabbett TJ, Naughton G, Farhart P, Chapman P. Training and competition workloads and fatigue responses of elite junior cricket players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(5):517–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. McLellan CP, Lovell DI, Gass GC. Biochemical and endocrine responses to impact and collision during elite rugby league match play. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(6):1553–62.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Bresciani G, Cuevas MJ, Garatachea N, Molinero O, Almar M, De Paz JA, et al. Monitoring biological and psychological measures throughout an entire season in male handball players. Eur J Sport Sci. 2010;10(6):377–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. McHugh MP, Connolly DA, Eston RG, Gleim GW. Exercise-induced muscle damage and potential mechanisms for the repeated bout effect. Sports Med. 1999;27(3):157–70.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Howatson G, Milak A. Exercise-induced muscle damage following a bout of sport specific repeated sprints. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(8):2419–24.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Young WB, Hepner J, Robbins DW. Movement demands in Australian rules football as indicators of muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(2):492–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Gamble P. Strength and conditioning for team sports: sport-specific physical preparation for high performance. 2nd ed. London: Routledge; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Bahr R. Demise of the fittest: are we destroying our biggest talents? Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(17):1265–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Wisdom KM, Delp SL, Kuhl E. Use it or lose it: multiscale skeletal muscle adaptation to mechanical stimuli. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2015;14(2):195–215.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Eggli PS, Hunzinker EB, Schenk RK. Quantitation of structural features characterizing weight- and less-weight-bearing regions in articular cartilage: a stereological analysis of medical femoral condyles in young adult rabbits. Anat Rec. 1988;222(3):217–27.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Kiviranta I, Jurvelin J, Tammi M, Säämänen AM, Helminen HJ. Weight bearing controls glycosaminoglycan concentration and articular cartilage thickness in the knee joints of young beagle dogs. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30(7):801–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Slowman SD, Brandt KD. Composition and glycosaminoglycan metabolism of articular cartilage from habitually loaded and habitually unloaded sites. Arthritis Rheum. 1986;29(1):88–94.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Swann AC, Seedhom BB. The stiffness of normal articular cartilage and the predominant acting stress levels: implications for the aetiology of osteoarthrosis. Rheumatology. 1993;32(1):16–25.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Kubo K, Yata H, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Effects of isometric squat training on the tendon stiffness and jump performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96(3):305–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Couppé C, Kongsgaard M, Aagaard P, Hansen P, Bojsen-Moller J, Kjær M, et al. Habitual loading results in tendon hypertrophy and increased stiffness of the human patellar tendon. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105:805–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Prins J, Cutner D. Aquatic therapy in the rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1999;18(2):447–61.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Haupenthal A, Ruschel C, Hubert M, De Brito Fontana H, Roesler H. Loading forces in shallow water running at two levels of immersion. J Rehabil Med. 2010;42(7):664–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Raffalt PC, Hovgaard-Hansen L, Jensen BR. Running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill: VO2max, respiratory response, and vertical ground reaction force. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84(2):213–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Kato T, Onishi S, Kitagawa K. Kinematical analysis of underwater walking and running. Sport Med Train Rehabil. 2001;10(3):165–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Hill-haas SV, Dawson B, Impellizzeri FM, Coutts AJ. Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review. Sport Med. 2011;41(3):199–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Gaudino P, Alberti G, Iaia FM. Estimated metabolic and mechanical demands during different small-sided games in elite soccer players. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;36:123–33.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Hodgson C, Akenhead R, Thomas K. Time-motion analysis of acceleration demands of 4v4 small-sided soccer games played on different pitch sizes. Hum Mov Sci. 2014;33(1):25–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Buchheit M, Laursen P. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: anaerobic energy, neuromuscular load and practical applications. Sport Med. 2013;43:927–54.

  82. Gaudino P, Gaudino C, Alberti G, Minetti AE. Biomechanics and predicted energetics of sprinting on sand: hints for soccer training. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(3):271–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jos Vanrenterghem.

Ethics declarations

Funding

No financial support was received for the conduct of this study or preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Jos Vanrenterghem, Niels Nedergaard, Mark Robinson, and Barry Drust declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the views shared in this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vanrenterghem, J., Nedergaard, N.J., Robinson, M.A. et al. Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways. Sports Med 47, 2135–2142 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0714-2

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0714-2

Keywords

  • Global Position System
  • Team Sport
  • Muscle Soreness
  • Training Load
  • Physiological Load